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Full text of "Byte Magazine Volume 05 Number 11 - High-Resolution Graphics"

NOVEMBER 1980 Volume 5. Number 11 $2.50 in USA/$2.95 in Canada t 



Hieutush* 




A MCGRAW-HILL PUBLICATION 



the small systems journal 









K^^ 





S. 



H^^^B! 



HIGH-RE 



WHAT ARE YOU LOOKING FOR IN A SYSTEM? 

VERSATILITY — Data bus— motherboard design allows you to configure a system to the end users exact needs. 

EXPANDABLE — Minimum RAM capacity 56K Expandable to 768K. Two I/O ports — Expandable to seventeen. 

MASS STORAGE- 3.0 M/bytes on 5%" flexible disks. (4 drives) 5.0 M/bytes on 8 inch flexible disks-(4 drives) 

40 M/bytes on "Winchester" fixed disk. 

SOFTWARE — Operating System — Multitasking, multiuser with memory management. 

Languages - FORTRAN, Pascal, BASIC, PILOT 
Utilities — Debug, Sort-Merge, Diagnostics — over 40 others. 
I Data Processing — General Ledger, Receivables, Payables, Payroll, Jobcost, Mail List, 

Inventory, Record Management System. 
Word Processing — Text Editor and Processor — device independent with proportional spacing 
bidirectional printing. 

COST EFFECTIVE— System consisting of 128K processor, terminal, and 2.4 M/byte dual eight-inch disk drives — 

less than $6,000.00 (O.E.M. 100 quantity) 

SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

219 W. Rhapsody 

San Antonio, Texas 78216 (512) 344-0241 






o 





Management Information Display 



Ultrasonic heart sector scan 



High-resolution display with alphanumeric* 



Get the professional color 

display that has 
BASIC/FORTRAN simplicity 



LOW-PRICED, TOO 

Here's a color display that has 
everything: professional-level resolution, 
enormous color range, easy software, 
NTSC conformance, and low price. 

Basically, this new Cromemco Model 
SDI* is a two-board interface that plugs 
into any Cromemco computer. 

The SDI then maps computer display 
memory content onto a convenient color 
monitor to give high-quality, high- 
resolution displays (756 H x 482 V pixels). 

When we say the SDI results in a high- 
quality professional display, we mean you 
can't get higher resolution than this 
system offers in an NTSC-conforming 
display. 

The resolution surpasses that of a color 
TV picture. 

BASIC/FORTRAN programming 

Besides its high resolution and low 
price, the new SDI lets you control with 
optional Cromemco software packages 
that use simple BASIC- and FORTRAN- 
like commands. 

Pick any of 16 colors (from a 
4096-color palette) with instructions like 
DEFCLR (c, R, G, B). Or obtain a circle of 
specified size, location, and color with 
XCIRC (x, y, r, c). 



Pat. No. 4121283 




Model SDI High-Resolution Color 
Craphics Interface 



HIGH RESOLUTION 

The SDI's high resolution gives a 
professional-quality display that strictly 
meets NTSC requirements. You get 756 
pixels on every visible line of the NTSC 
standard display of 482 image lines. Ver- 
tical line spacing is 1 pixel. 

To achieve the high-quality display, a 
separate output signal is produced for 
each of the three component colors (red, 
green, blue). This yields a sharper image 
than is possible using an NTSC-composite 
video signal and color TV set. Full image 
quality is readily realized with our high- 
quality RGB Monitor or any conventional 
red/green/blue monitor common in TV 
work. 




Model SDI plugs into Z-2H 11-ntegabyte 

hard disk computer or any Cromemco 

computer 

DISPLAY MEMORY 

Along with the SDI we also offer an 
optional fast and novel two-port memory 
that gives independent high-speed access 
to the computer memory. The two-port 
memory stores one full display, permit- 
ting fast computer operation even during 
display. 

CONTACT YOUR REP NOW 

The Model SDI has been used in scien- 
tific work, engineering, business, TV, 
color graphics, and other areas. It's a 
good example of how Cromemco keeps 
computers in the field up to date, since it 
turns any Cromemco computer into an 
up-to-date color display computer. 

The SDI has still more features that 
you should be informed about. So contact 
your Cromemco representative now and 
see all that the SDI will do for you. 



Circle 1 on Inquiry card. 



rjj Cromemco 



incorporated 

280 BERNARDO AVE, MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 • (415)964-7400 



Tomorrow's computers today 



BYTE November 1980 




Here's the state of the art 
in low-cost hard-disk computers 



11 MEGABYTES 

OF 

FAST HARD-DISK STORAGE 

Yes, the Cromemco Model Z-2H 
is in a class by itself in the computer 
field. 

These Z-2H features tell you why: 

• 1 1 megabytes of hard-disk 
storage 

64 kilobytes of fast RAM 
Two dual-sided floppy disk 
drives 

Z-80A type processor 
Fast 4 MHz operation — 150 
nanosecond access time 

• Fast hard-disk transfer rate of 
5.6 megabits/second 

• Low cost 

And that's not all you get. Not 
nearly. 

BROAD 

SOFTWARE SUPPORT 

You also get Cromemco software 
support — the broadest software sup- 









port in the microcomputer field. Soft- 
ware that Cromemco is known for. 
Like this: 

• Structured BASIC 

• FORTRAN IV 

• RATFOR (RATional FORtran) 

• COBOL 

• Z-80 Macro Assembler 

• Word Processing System 

• Data Base Management 
And more all the time. 

FIELD PROVEN 

The Z-2H is clearly in a class by it- 
self. We introduced it last summer. 
It's field proven. It's reliable. 

And it's rugged. Housed in a sturdy, 
all-metal cabinet. 

EASILY EXPANDABLE 

As always with Cromemco, you get 
expandability. The fast 64K RAM in 
this Model Z-2H can be expanded to 
512 kilobytes. That amount of RAM 
combined with 11 megabytes of hard- 
disk storage gives you enormous 



computer power — the equal or even 
beyond what much larger computers 
sometimes offer. 

What's more, this computer gives 
you a 12-slot card cage. That's to plug 
in your special circuits as well as 
additional RAM and interface cards. 

This expandability is supported by 
still more Cromemco value — the 
Z-2H's heavy-duty power supply that 
gives you 30A at 8V and 15A at ±18V 
to support plug-ins. 

LOW COST — SEE IT NOW 

The Z-2H is real. It's been in the 
field for many months. It's proven 
itself. 

You should see the Z-2H now. Con- 
tact a Cromemco representative and 
arrange for a demo. Learn that Cro- 
memco is a survey-winner for reli- 
ability. 

And learn that the Z-2H is under 
$10K. 

In the long run it always pays to 
get the best. 



ra 



Cromemco 



W^^^M 280 BERNARDO AVE., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 • (415)964-7400 

^^^^ Tomorrow's computers today 



Circle 1 on Inquiry card. 





Page 22 



I 



FDR SIDEWAYS 
BflLLYDID VIDEO 




Page 90 






Page 158 




Page 172 



In The Queue 



BIT! November 1980 
Volume 5, Number 11 



Foreground 



32 HOME IN ON THE RANGE! AN ULTRASONIC RANGING SYSTEM 

by Steve Garcia 

Combine automatic sonar ranging and infrared-light detection in a computer-controlled scanner. 

64 MICROGRAPH, PART 1: DEVELOPING AN INSTRUCTION SET FOR A 
RASTER-SCAN DISPLAY by E Grady Booch 

Micrograph is an intelligent, low-cost, color-graphics terminal that interfaces to any microcomputer 
and standard, unmodified color television receiver. 

126 GRAPHIC COLOR SLIDES, PART 1 by Alan W Grogono 

The first of this two-part article gives a series of useful subroutines for generating color images on a 

Compucolor II. 

148 THREE-DIMENSIONAL GRAPHICS FOR THE APPLE II by Dan Sokol and John 

Shepard 

With this popular computer, use a two-color scheme to generate three-dimensional figures. 

296 A GENERAL INTERPOLATING GRAPHICS PACKAGE FOR THE TRS-80 by D K 

Cohen and Devon Crowe 

Interpolate between points of a graphed function and three-dimensional figures. 

340 AN 8088 PROCESSOR FOR THE S-100 BUS, PART 3 

by Thomas Woodward Cantrell 

This monitor program takes advantage of some powerful software and architectural aspects of the 

8088 processor. 



Background 



22 THE FUTURE OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS by Bruce Eric Brown and Stephen 
Levine 
Take a look at the future of graphics hardware and applications. 

90 LANGUAGE CONTROL STRUCTURES FOR EASY ELECTRONIC VISUALIZA- 
TION by Dr Thomas DeFanti 
Zgrass, a hybrid of language and hardware, can be used to solve graphic-display problems. 

180 A SIMPLIFIED THEORY OF VIDEO GRAPHICS, PART 1 

by Allen Watson III 

Part 1 covers the principles of television and computer-generated graphics. 

206 GETTING TO KNOW YOUR MONITOR by Ron Dalpiaz 

Meet the most frequently used human /computer interface — the video terminal. 

220 DIGITAL STORAGE OF IMAGES by Thomas Williams 

Theory and practice of digital-image capture and storage are explained in detail. 

244 MACHINE PROBLEM SOLVING, PART 3: THE ALPHA-BETA 
PROCEDURE by Peter Frey 

In the conclusion of this series, we discover how searching for information stored in tree structures 
can be made more efficient. 

361 ADD MACRO EXPANSION TO YOUR MICROCOMPUTER, PART 2 

by David C Brown 

Notes on implementation and options are presented in this final part. 



Nucleus 



6 Editorial 


172 SIGGRAPH Convention Report 


16 Letters 


240 BYTELINES 


62, 86 Technical Forum 


266 Ask BYTE 


108 Book Reviews 


314 Event Queue 


112, 114, 292, 322 BYTE's Bugs 


343 Tom Sloan Cartoon 


114 Books Received 


372 What's New? 


116, 145 Programming Quickies 


430 Unclassified Ads 


119 BYTE's Bits 


431 BOMB Results 


147 Clubs and Newsletters 


431 BOMB 


158, 190, 196 Product Reviews 


432 Reader Service 



November 1980 © BYTE Publications lnc 



Publishers 
Virginia Londoner, 
Gordon R Williamson 
Associate Publisher 
John E Hayes 
Assistant 
Cheryl A Hurd 

Founding Editor 

Carl T Helmers Jr 

Edltor-ln-Chlef 

Christopher P Morgan 

Editors 

Richard S Shuford, Gregg Williams, 

Curtis P Feigel, Harold Nelson 

Stan Miastkowski 

Consulting Editor 

Mark Dahmke 

Book Editor 

Bruce A Roberts 

Chief Copy Editor 

David W Hayward 

Copy Editors 

Faith Hanson, Warren Williamson, 

Robin M Moss, Anthony J Lockwood 

Assistant to the Editors 

Faith Ferry 

Assistants 

Debe Wheeler, Karen A Cilley 

New Products Editor 

Clubs, Newsletters 

Charles Freiberg 

Drafting 

Jon Swanson 

Production Director 

Nancy Estle 

Assistant Production Director 

Christine Dixon 

Production/Advertising Coordinator 

Wai Chiu Li 

Production Art 

Holly Carmen LaBossiere, 

Deborah Porter 

Chief Typographer 

Sherry McCarthy 

Typographers 

Debi Fredericks, Donna Sweeney 

Advertising Director 

Thomas Harvey 
Assistants 

Ruth M Walsh, Ms. Marion Gagnon 
Barbara J Greene, Rob Hannings 

Special Projects Coordinator 

Jill ECallihan 
Marketing Coordinator 
Laura A Hanson 

Circulation Manager 

Gregory Spitzfaden 

Assistants 

Agnes E Perry, Melanie Bertoni, 

Barbara Varnum, Louise Menegus, 

Andrew Jackson 

Dealer Sales 

Thomas Yanni 

Controller 

Daniel Rodrigues 

Assistant 

Mary E Fluhr 

Accounts Receivable Specialist 

Karen Burgess 

Accounts Receivable Assistant 

Jeanne Cilley 

Receptionist 

Jacqueline Earnshaw 
Traffic Department 
Mark Sandagata 




In This Issue 



The cover for this issue of BYTE is a still from j 
90-minute computer-animated cartoon called The 
Works. The photo was provided by Dick Lundin 
and Lance Williams and is constructed from quadrtc 
surfaces and polygons, using texture-mapping and 
normal-perturbation techniques. The background 
was painted by Paul Xanter- programming credit 
also goes to Tom Duff and Duane Palyka. A trailer 
of The Works was shown at SICCRAPH '80 (page 
172), although the film itself may not be finished for 
another two years. 

A number of the articles for this month's theme 
were solicited with the help of Jay Nickson and Ken 
Lodding; their editorial begins on page 6. Both are 
employed by DEC (Digital Equipment 
Corporation): Jay is the manager of the human in- 
terface program for simplifying man /machine com- 
munications. Ken is a senior software engineer 
whose long-term interests intermix art and computer 
graphics. 



Publisher's Note 

As most readers will have observed, the September Filth anniversary issue marked the beginning of a 
new phase for BYTE. The jump from a 300-page to a 400-page issue means a 33% increase in the material 
presented to our readers each month. 

Because advertisements tend to be more visible than editorial content (especially in a technical 
journal), some readers may suspect that the larger issues mean merely more ads. But, in fact, the larger 
issues have approximately one third more editorial content. The new size does create design and 
manufacturing problems, however. The solution to these problems includes a redesign of the editorial 
pages of BYTE to make the editorial content easier to find and use. We expect the new format to be im- 
plemented early in 1981. 

We are confident that the increased editorial content and new format will make BYTE even more of a 
bargain as well as a more useful tool for our readers. And that, after all, is what it's all about. 

Virginia Londoner 
Publisher 



Officers of McGraw-Hill Publications Company: Paul F McPherson, President; Executive Vice Presidents: James E Boddorf, 
Gene W Simpson; Group Vice President: Daniel A McMillan; Senior Vice President-Editorial: Ralph R Schulz; Vice Presidents: 
Kemp Anderson, Business Systems Development; Stephen C Croft, Manufacturing; Robert B Doll, Circulation; James E 
Hackett, Controller; William M Hammond, Communications; Eric B Herr, Planning and Development; John W Patten, Sales; 
Edward E Schirmer, International. 

Officers of the Corporation: Harold W McGraw Jr, President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board; Robert F 
Landes, Senior Vice President and Secretary; Ralph J Webb, Treasurer. 

BYTE is published monthly by BYTE Publications Inc, 70 Main St, Peterborough NH 03458, a wholly-owned subsidiary of McGraw- 
Hill, Inc. Address all mail except subscriptions to above address: phone (603) 924-9281- Address subscriptions, change of address, 
USPS Form 3579, and fulfillment questions to BYTE Subscriptions. PO Box 590, Martinsville NJ 08836. Controlled circulation postage 
paid at Waseca, Minnesota 56093 - USPS Publication No. 528890 (ISSN 0360-5280). Canadian second class registration number 9321. 
Subscriptions are $18 for one year, $32 for two years, and $46 for three years in the USA and its possessions. In Canada and Mexico, 
$20 for one year, $36 for two years, $52 for three years. $32 for one year air delivery to Europe. $32 surface delivery elsewhere. Air 
delivery to selected areas at additional rates upon request. Single copy price is $2.50 in the USA and its possessions. $2.95 in Canada 
and Mexico, $4.00 in Europe, and $4.50 elsewhere. Foreign subscriptions and sales should be remitted in United States funds drawn on 
a US bank. Printed in United States of America. 

Address all editorial correspondence to the editor at the above address. Unacceptable manuscripts will be returned if accompanied 
by sufficient first class postage. Not responsible for lost manuscripts or photos. Opinions expressed by the authors are not necessarily 
those of BYTE. Entire contents copyright • 1980 by BYTE Publications Inc. All rights reserved. Where necessary, permission is granted 
by the copyright owner for libraries and others registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) to photocopy any article herein for 
the base fee of $1 .00 per copy of the article or item plus 25 cents per page. Payment should be sent directly to the CCC. 21 Congress 
St.. Salem, MA 01970. Copying done for other than personal or internal reference use without the permission of McGraw-Hill is pro- 
hibited. Requests for special permission or bulk orders should be addressed to the publisher. Member 

BYTE® is available in microform from University Microfilms International. 300 N Zeeb Rd. Dept PR, Ann Arbor Ml 
48106 USA or 18 Bedford Row. Dept PR. London WC1R 4EJ England. 

Subscription WATS Line: (800) 258-5485 




Audit Bureau 
of Circulations 



Office hours: Mon-Thur 8:30 AM - 4:30 PM, Friday 8:30 AM - Noon, Eastern Time 



NATIONAL ADVERTISING SALES REPRESENTATIVES: 



NORTHEAST (617) 444-3946 

Hajar Associates 
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EAST & SOUTH (212) 682-5844 

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New York NY 10017 



SOUTHWEST (714) 540-3554 
NORTHWEST (415) 964-0706 
Hajar Associates 
1000 Elwell Ct., Suite 227 
Palo Alto CA 94303 



November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 2 on inquiry card. 




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8 level 
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IEEE S100 bus 
compatible 

Screenware™ Pak I 

A 4K byte operating system resident in PROM 
on MicroAngelo™ Pak I emulates an 85 char- 
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over 40 graphics commands. Provisions exist 
for user-defined character sets and directly 
callable user extensions to Screenware Pak I. 

SCION Corporation 

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(703) 827-0888 




Light pen 
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High speed 
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Host Resident Terminal Software 

An interface software package that coordi- 
nates input/output from the MicroAngelo™ 
graphics board, the MicroAngelo™ keyboard, 
and your computer. The result is a flexible, 
yet sophisticated graphics terminal. 

European Distributor: 
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17/19 Mesnes Street 

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09-423 4311 



Circle 3 on Inquiry card. 



Have some 

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16K PROM boards. 

■ PROM card has 2708-type memory 

■ Quality board construction ■ 0-4 wait states 

■ Address any 4K group to any 4K boundary 

■ Control up to 8 banks of memory ■ Fully 
assembled and tested ■ PRICE— $300 

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Expandable 5 MHz RAM boards. 

8— 32K expandable RAM board uses TI 4044 
memory runs at 5MHz ■ Fast 250 ns access 
time ■ Bank select ■ Address any 4K block to 
any 4K boundary ■ Quality board construction 

PRICE— 8K— $175-, 16K— $315; 24K— $475; 
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(California residents add 6% sales tax) 

Call or write Artec for details 




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605 Old County Rd., San Carlos, CA 94070 
Telephone (415) 592-2740 



Editorial 



The World of 
Computer Graphics 



Guest Editorial by Ken Lodding and Jay Nickson 

Man is a visual animal. He surrounds himself with graphic images. Images 
are employed to convey information, to explain concepts, and to com- 
municate feelings. The ability to draw is instinctive. It materializes in infants 
soon after the start of verbal development, perhaps to complement the slowly 
developing verbal skills. Although the ability to draw tends not to become as 
fully developed as verbal skills, images continue to provide much of the adult 
human communications ability. Pictures are a primary information-carrying 
channel: the histogram accompanying a financial article, the plot of a 
mathematical function, and the illustrations in BYTE are but a few examples. 

The importance of graphics for conveying information arises from the 
nature of man's visual system. The eye provides an extremely high-bandwidth 
information channel for transferring the data to be processed by the brain's op- 
tic center. The importance of this channel can be seen from the redundancy 
built into the system and from the distribution of optic nerve fibers in the 
brain. It is believed that no less than six different brain sites are directly ser- 
viced by connecting optic nerve fibers. (See reference 4.) The fundamental im- 
portance of visual information is reflected in the old adage, "seeing is believ- 
ing," and in the observation that understand is one of the synonyms of the 
word see. Text fails to use our native abilities to comprehend information fully 
because it presents data in a linear, sequential fashion. Contrast this with 
graphical images, which can be processed in a single viewing — a phenomenon 
called preattentive perception. (See reference 6.) 

The computer has become a primary source or conveyor of information, yet 
the main interface between man and machine has remained the serially 
oriented text display. The net result is that, as the volume of data available to 
be presented increases, the user's communication channel becomes swamped 
with an avalanche of text output. The volume of this avalanche far too often 
restricts the comprehension of the information. The information is obscured as 
effectively as if it had been encrypted. The spectacle of the computer user 
literally buried under reams of printed output has ceased to be an amusing car- 
toon and has become a nightmare for too many. To cope with the flood of in- 
formation, the computer user is turning to graphics. 

The information-transfer rate of a graph can be many orders of magnitude 
greater than an equivalent text presentation. Conceptually, a graph has greater 
information density than a table. Compare the plot of a sine curve with a table 
of sine values. Each value within the table corresponds to a specific point on 
the graph. However, the plot displays a far greater number of points than 
could the most extended table. A high information-transfer rate results from 
the greater data density and the faster operation of the human mind and visual 
system. Patterns, periodic functions, trends, and comparisons can often be ob- 
tained "by inspection" of a graph, while understanding a tabular display re- 
quires much more time and effort. This is not, however, accomplished without 
a cost. The only penalty paid for speed is the loss of precision: a graph cannot 
be read to the same number of significant digits as can be obtained from a 
table. This loss of precision is not a problem, as the specific data value of in- 
terest can be extracted from the function or table of data used to generate the 
plot initially. 

About the Authors 

Ken Lodding and Jay Nickson are employed by the Digital Equipment Corporation in Mer- 
rimack, New Hampshire. 



November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Mlcrocompi g£ 



usrao 



smLVszsu 



y 



For reliable data storage, 
I recommend systems with 

Shugart disk drives'. 



!9w Tom Knight, President— 

Nycom, Los Altos, California 



"The last thing you need when you put 
your personal computer or small business 
system to work is a disk drive that you 
can't rely on. If the drive quits, your 
system is out of business!' 

Thats why more and more manu- 
facturers and dealers depend on Shugart 
disk drives for reliable data storage. These 
professionals don't want disk drive prob- 
lems any more than you do. Shugart has a 



large family of drives, too— in all sizes and 
capacities to suit your system storage 
needs. For the smaller system, the original 
5'/4-inch Minifloppy '" stores 250 to 500 
kilobytes (single or double-sided)— mats 
about 50 to 100 pages of printed material. 
Our single and double-sided 8-inch 
floppys store 800 to 1600 kilobytes. And 
for systems that need a larger data base, 
our 8-inch or 14-inch fixed disk drives 



store from 5 to 58 megabytes. No other 
manufacturer offers such a wide variety of 
disk storage for personal computer and 
small business systems. 

Word processing, general business, 
accounting— big system or small, you can 
rely on Shugart drives. We're known as the 
Headstrong company for good reason. 
We're Headstrong about reliability, quality, 
and value. Ask your dealer. He knows us. 



TM— Minifloppy is a trademark of Shugart Associates. 



Rely on the 
Headstrong Company. 

^.Shugart 

475 Oakmead Parkway, Sunnyvale, California 94086 



In addition to presenting data in a rapid, meaningful 
fashion, an important benefit of computer graphics is the 
ability to present images realistically. Plotting a 
topological surface, modeling DNA, creating an architec- 
tural rendering, and simulating a pilot's view from the 
cockpit of an aircraft are all enhanced by presenting the 
image in a manner which gives the viewer a sense that the 
picture is not an illusion. To achieve greater realism, a 
prime factor is to provide the illusion of depth. Perspec- 
tive, hidden-line removal, shading, and highlighting all 
provide depth cues to the viewer. This month's com- 
puter-generated cover by Lance Williams of the New 
York Institute of Technology clearly illustrates the cur- 
rent state of the art as applied to an artistic endeavor. The 
same techniques are available and can be employed when 
graphically representing numeric data. 

Three-Dimensional Graphics 

To provide the illusion of depth, a three-dimensional 
model can be defined. Establishing the viewer's geometric 
relationship to the model and following the rules of 
perspective, the model image is mathematically projected 
onto a two-dimensional viewing plane. Although pro- 
viding good visual depth cues (eg: parallel lines appearing 
to meet at a point), there is no real illusion of depth; in 
other words, the model image is still "flat." To correct 
this, the phenomenon of stereopsis (from the Greek, 
meaning "solid sight") can be employed. You may be 
familiar with the 1847 Brewster stereoscope. Here, the 
approach taken to give the illusion of depth was to 
photograph the same scene twice, having moved the 
camera about 6 cm sideways between photos. The two 
images could then be viewed through a stereoscope that 
utilized a prism and lens system to alter the image paths 
to the eye, so that the two views seemed to originate from 
a common point. (The old-fashioned stereopticon and the 
modern View-Master are variations on this theme.) The 
observer's visual system fused the two images, giving the 
illusion of a three-dimensional image. 

Various computer-graphic techniques using the same 
principles have been developed. A common technique is 
to employ glasses with electro-optic shutter eyepieces to 
provide the image separation. With the electro-optic 
glasses, the cyclopia video display presents left- and 
right-perspective images in alternate frames, which are 
then synchronized with the electro-optic shutters. The 
left eye is presented with the left stereograph, while the 
right eye's view is blanked by the optical shutter; the im- 
age and shutter swap for the right eye. The viewer's inter- 
nal visual system fuses the image to give the appearance 
of depth. For an example of this, see 'The Future of Com- 
puter Graphics," page 22. 

A different approach to providing left and right images 
to the visual system uses color to separate the images. 
Using a device called an anaglyph, the left view is 
presented in one color, and the right in a different color. 
Color filters control which eye sees what view. A pro- 
gram for generating and viewing anaglyphs is presented 
in the article 'Three-Dimensional Graphics for the Apple 
II." (See page 148.) While the traditional colors employed 
are red and green, any two colors and corresponding 
filters could be used, because the illusion is based on the 
separation of the images, and has nothing to do with the 
particular colors. The phenomenon is as apparent to a 

8 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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Outside of the garden 
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For the average garden-variety home and hobby operation, 
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Intersystems Series II is the most complete line of fully 
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Micros for bigger ideas. 



color-blind person as it is to a viewer with normal color 
vision. For those interested in further information, the 
book Seeing is an excellent reference on vision in general 
and stereopsis in particular. (See reference 4.) 

A more recent and unique approach to presenting 
three-dimensional images is SpaceGraph, developed by 
Dr Larry Sher. His technique uses a vibrating mirror and 
a video display. The technique is to generate on the 
display two-dimensional "slices" of the three-dimensional 
object to be viewed. The slices are rapidly generated in 
synchronization with the dynamic motion of the mirror, 
the front slice being generated when the mirror is extend- 
ed toward the viewer, the back slice when the mirror is 
concaved away from the viewer, and the intermediate 
slices as appropriate for the travel of the mirror between 
these extremes. The rapid sequence of images is fused 
by the viewer's visual system to give the illusion of a 
"space filling" object. (See reference 7.) 

Those adventuresome souls who find three-dimensions 
insufficient for their purposes can use computer graphics 
as an aid for visualizing objects which, theoretically, exist 
in four or more dimensions. If you are interested in this 
area, Hypergraphics is a good introduction to the sub- 
ject. (See reference 3.) The book includes 
hyperstereograms of such objects as hypercubes or 
tesseracts, hypercones, and other denizens of higher 
dimensions. 

Animation is another technique that can assist in user 
comprehension of data. Often we are dealing with infor- 
mation gathered at discrete intervals over a period of 
time. Here, the problem of analyzing data is one of 



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understanding what is occurring to the data elements 
over some length of time. Animation provides a looking 
glass into the time domain. Flowing, three-dimensional 
images can represent anything from an economic world 
model to a bridge under stress. 

Hidden Benefits 

There are times when animation provides the viewer 
with unexpected information — information which, in 
retrospect, was present but not readily discernible by any 
other method of examination. An interesting example of 
this situation involves the simulation of an internal com- 
bustion engine. The simulation, performed at a research 
laboratory, wrote out data in the conventional manner: 
stacks of numbers. At the same laboratory, some time 
after the engine simulation had been completed and used 
for experiments, a different group of researchers devel- 
oped a computer-animation system. The engine simula- 
tion was selected as a good demonstration of the new 
graphics software, and a computer-generated film was 
produced. During the screening of the film it was noticed 
that small rectangular elements, used to represent ideal- 
ized gas packets, displayed a strange, unexpected oscilla- 
tion at their endpoints. Review of the animation soft- 
ware provided no explanation for this erratic behavior. 
Close examination of output from the original simulation 
revealed that the oscillations were indeed present. This 
fact had not been previously noticed because the infor- 
mation had been obscured by a combination of the 
tremendous amount of data, the smallness of the oscilla- 
tion, and the extended period over which it occurred. 
What had in fact been found were acoustical-wave 
phenomena occurring within the cylinder of the engine, 
which could potentially be used for the development of 
more efficient engines. The events went unnoticed until a 
computer-generated movie was constructed. 

In the 30 years since its beginnings, computer- 
generated graphics has grown steadily, but not spec- 
tacularly. Previously the costs of both the display and the 
computer resources needed to support graphic displays 
have limited the impact. Rapidly falling memory prices 
and television technology have renewed the interest in 
computer graphics. The combination of a television 
raster display and a memory-intensive, bit-mapped ar- 
chitecture makes possible a graphic system capable of 
providing full-color, dynamic images with previously 
unheard of realism and economy. "Micrograph, Part 1: 
Developing an Instruction Set for a Raster-Scan 
Display," describes the design and construction of a 
color-display processor that costs approximately $250 to 
build. (See page 64.) This is possible only because of the 
plummeting cost of hardware. This is a cost reduction of 
three orders of magnitude in 15 years, with color added 
for free I 

Graphics Software 

The advent of inexpensive graphics hardware has, not 
unexpectedly, spurred the development of graphics soft- 
ware. The traditional approach for supporting graphics 
has been to provide a collection of subroutines that per- 
form the graphic-display functions. These subroutines 
are called from languages whose orientation is toward the 
manipulation of text and numerical data. This approach 
is fine if you only want to accumulate data and make a 



10 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 4 on inquiry card. 



Circle 5 on inquiry card. 




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>e we can 
save you a call. 

Many people have called with the 

same questions about the AIO. 

We'll answer those and a few more here. 

Q: Does the AIO have hardware handshaking? 

A: Yes. The serial port accommodates 3 types— RTS, 

CTS. and PCD. The parallel port handles ACK, ACK 

BSY, STB, and STB. 

Qi What equipment can be used with the AIO? 

A: A partial list of devices that have actually been tested 

with the AIO includes: IDS 440 Paper Tiger, Centronics 

779, Qume Sprint 5, NEC Spinwriter, Comprint , Heathkit 

H14, IDS 125, IDS 225, Hazeltine 1500, Lear Siegler 

ADM-3, DTC 300, AJ 841. 

Q: Does the AIO work with Pascal? 

A: Yes. The current AIO serial firmware works great 

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the serial and parallel ports with Pascal, order our 

"Pascal Patcher Disk'.' 

Q: What kind of firmware option is available for 

the parallel interface? 

A: Two PROM's that the user installs on the AIO card 

in place of the Serial Firmware PROM's provide: 

Variable margins, Variable page length, Variable 

indentations, and Auto-line-feed on carriage 

return. 

Q: How do I interface my new printer to my Apple 
using my AIO card? 

A: Interconnection diagrams for many popular 

printers and other devices are contained in the 

AIO Manual. If your printer is not mentioned, 

please contact SSM's Technical Support Dept. 

and they will help you with the proper 

connections. 

Qi I want to use my Apple as a dumb terminal 
with a modem on a timesharing service like 
The Source. Can I do that with the AIO? 
A: Yes. A "Dumb Terminal Routine" is listed 
in the AIO Manual. It provides for full and 

half duplex, and also checks for presence 

of a carrier. 

Qi What length cables are provided? 

A: For the serial port, a 12 inch ribbon cable 

with a DB-25 socket on the user end 

is supplied. For the parallel port, a 72 inch 

ribbon cable with an unterminated user 

end is provided. Other cables are available 

on special volume orders. 



iP »n at vour local iu» 
^^eWormation. 



us 



33® 



The AIO is just one of several boards 
for the Apple that SSM will be introducing 
over the next year. We are also 
receptive to developing products to 

meet special OEM requirements. 

So please contact us if you have 

a need and there is nothing available 

to meet it. 



TM 



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ng and the Apple. 



If you could talk to Orville Wright, he'd 
tell you the problems he faced as a turn- 
of-the-century engineer. You could tell him 
all about the technological solutions 
available to today's engineer and scientist. . . 
particularly a 20th century phenomenon 
that tests assumptions and defines models 
before a project gets off the ground. 
The Apple personal computer. 

Computation, calculation, 
analysis. ..the power to 
pilot your projects. 

With a highly-integrated system from 
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family, Orville and brother Wilbur would 
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An Apple in their hangar would have 
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crunching numbers by hand. 

An Apple in your lab or office will give 
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demand from a big computer. . without 
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But the Apple system solution doesn't 
stop there. It keeps on soaring with proven 
performance, power and expandability 




Apple's existing software library includes 
a program that plots the shape of an 
airfoil, given its parameters. 

that's unparalleled for analyzing alterna- 
tive paths of design and modeling a 
wide variety of physical processes. 

Want more memory? Depending on 
your choice of system, Apple has memory 
expandable to 64K bytes or 128K bytes. 
Prefer wide displays? Choose 40 or 80 
characters. Need to control instruments 
in the lab? Get on the IEEE 488 bus. Over 



Circle 6 on Inquiry card. 



*P^ your own 
""P* programs, the 
Apple also speaks 
in languages other 
than FORTRAN: Pascal, 
BASIC, PILOT and 6502 
assembly language. 



100 companies also supply peripherals for 
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Apple system. With 
proven reliability, 
no wonder it's the 
most popular drive 
on the market today. 




Wilbur determined that birds didnt have to constantly flap 
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fixed-wing design of the Kitty Hawk Flyer much faster. 



FORTRAN that helped 
to design a 20th century 
flying machine. 

Fluent in the same language that helped 
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you can have one of the most impressive 
program libraries ever. . .including vast 
subroutine libraries for math, science, 
engineering and statistics. When you write 



Where to learn 
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Let the Apple dealer show you how, 
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And he'll prove that a personal computer 
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Visit your nearest Apple dealer, or call 
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w cippkz computer 




* syi 



fiN eXCITING"R€UJ 

tunv TO POLISH 
TH€ flPPL€ . 

CHEM LAB SIMULATIONS 
FROM HIGH TECHNOLOGY.' 

I ligh I i i hnology introduces two new and 
effective education packages . . . Chem Lab 
Simulation #1 and #2 . designed for use with 
the Apple II "computer. 

Developed by a chemistry professor at 
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Suitable for high school or college level 
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CH€M LAB SIMULATION #1 . . . 



• An acid-base titration 
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experiment and a pH 
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"Determination of 
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including a titration 
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experiment 




CH6M LRI3 SIMULATION #2 . . 

written in machine language for fast response 
time, uses APPLE'S*" colorful low-resolution 
graphics to simulate: ' 



'The Kinetic- Molecular 

Theory 

• The Principles 
of Entropy 



' ' ■ imm&imt 



See your nearest dealer today, or contact: 



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APPLE™ is a registered trademark of APPLE COMPUTER, INC. 



picture from it. The subroutine approach excludes the 
possibility of treating graphical objects as variables 
within the language, or using them within statements and 
expressions. Some research work has been done which in- 
cludes the concept of graphical objects and operators 
within a language structure. To date, there have been a 
number of different approaches to the problem of han- 
dling graphical objects. Deeply intertwined in the prob- 
lem is our fundamental lack of understanding of how to 
provide graphics support. Viewed from the perspective of 
a language, what fundamental primitives must be pro- 
vided? What are the appropriate data types? How are ex- 
pressions constructed? What operators need to be pro- 
vided? The list of unknowns goes on and on. "Language 
Control Structures for Easy Electronic Visualization," by 
Dr Tom DeFanti, addresses this area. (See page 90.) Some 
examples of other, experimental, graphics languages are 
given in references 2 and 5. SHAZAM (Smalltalk's 
sHaded imAge Zippy Animated Moviemaker) is an in- 
teresting animated-movie language written in Smalltalk. 
(See reference 1.) In no way does this list exhaust the pro- 
gress that has been made in graphics languages, but 
rather it reflects a small sampling of recent work. 

All the aspects of graphics we have discussed allow us 
to construct windows into universes, real or imaginary. 
Computer graphics is exciting because with this tool we 
can witness the unraveling of a DNA molecule, or the 
collision of galaxies. We can watch the structure of the 
universe as it expands from the moment of the theoretical 
big bang, or, reversing entropy, see it collapse into the 
primordial particle. We can plot a mathematical func- 
tion, view an economic trend, or travel faster than light 
to where robotic insects populate metallic worlds. Best of 
all, we can make it all seem real, because we can see itla 



References 

Baecker, R. "A Conversational Extensible System for the Anima- 
tion of Shaded Images." Computer Graphics, Volume 10, Number 
2, Summer 1976. 

Bergman, S and A Kaufman. "BGRAF 2: A Real-Time Graphics 
Language With Modular Objects and Implicit Dynamics." Com- 
puter Graphics, Volume 10, Number 2, Summer 1976. 

3. Brisson, D (editor). Hypergraphics — Visualizing Complex Rela- 
tionships in Art, Science and Technology. Westview Press, 1978. 

4. Frisby, J. Seeing. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. 

5. Gonzales, C and J Vial. "GRAL — A Graphic Computer Language 
for Intelligent Terminals." Proceedings of the Conference on 
Computer Graphics, Pattern Recognition and Data Structures, 
May 1975. 

6. Myers, W. "Computer Graphics: A Two Way Street." Computer, 
July 1980. 

7. Shershow, H. "Realistic Spatial Display." Digital Design, June 
1980. 

Walters, T and W Harris. "Graphics in Depth." BYTE, Volume 3, 
Number 5, May 1978, page 16. 



2. 



8 



Articles Policy 

BYTE is continually seeking quality manuscripts written by indi- 
viduals who are applying personal computer systems, designing 
such systems, or who have knowledge which will prove useful to 
our readers. For a more formal description of procedures and 
requirements, potential authors should send a large (9 by 12 inch, 
30.5 by 22.8 cm), self-addressed envelope, with 28 cents US postage 
affixed, to BYTE Author's Guide, 70 Main St, Peterborough NH 
03458. 

Articles which are accepted are purchased with a rate of up to $50 
per magazine page, based on technical quality and suitability for 
BYTE's readership. Each month, the authors of the two leading 
articles in the reader poll (BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box or 
"BOMB") are presented with bonus checks of $100 and $50. Unso- 
licited materials should be accompanied by full name and address, 
as well as return postage. 



14 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 7 on Inquiry card. 



Circle 8 on inquiry card. 




odel I Computer Owners . 

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Letters 



Moore Praise Comes FORTH 

If FORTH is trickery, give me more 
trickery. 

In my view, FORTH is a common- 
sense approach to programming. 
Granted, there are also bits of pure 
genius thrown in. 

It makes sense to put all the routines 
used by the operating system, compiler, 
parser, editor, etc, in one dictionary 
conveniently accessible to the user at all 
times. That is, if they will fit. One of 
the bits of genius of FORTH is that they 
do indeed fit with room to spare for 
user-defined routines. The result is in- 
stant liberation from the "systems man" 
who tries but can't please everyone. It is 
your computer, and with FORTH you 
have access to everything on it. 

It makes sense to use a stack to pass 
parameters between routines and to 
separate this stack from the return- 
address stack. You end up with a 
language that is designed to compute 
rather than to be read. Every step in 
FORTH is directed toward computing a 
result. FORTH is a sequence of com- 



mands rather than statements as found 
in BASIC or Pascal. The functions of 
computing and documentation are 
separated. Hence I strongly disagree 
with Gregg Williams' advice (see August 
1980 BYTE, page 130) that the user 
should introduce intermediate variables 
to improve readability. I concur with his 
objective, but I would encourage their 
use only in the commentary where they 
belong. There is no point to introducing 
unnecessary variables in the computing 
process. In the commentary, in- 
termediate variables can and should be 
used very effectively to help describe the 
computations that are occurring on the 
stack without interfering with the process 

While FORTH takes away the ex- 
pository statement, it does give back an 
important documenting feature, namely 
relative ease in preparing precise 
common-language definitions of each 
routine. All FORTH routines have a 
describable goal, and most of the action 
takes place on the stack. Hence FORTH 
routines tend to be simpler to describe. I 
have never seen a glossary for a 
language or operating system that comes 




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even close to the completeness and con- 
ciseness of the fig-FORTH glossary sup- 
plied by the FORTH Interest Group. It is 
a gem, a complete English-language 
description of FORTH. Every routine on 
the computer is concisely defined in 
English. 

You have to have faith that taking the 
sacred function of documenting out of 
the language and turning it over to the 
user to do as he sees fit will work. After 
a while, you begin to wonder if Milton 
Friedman didn't write FORTH for his 
television series Free to Choose. 

Finally, it makes sense to give the pro- 
grammer a shot at controlling the com- 
piler, especially when the compiler has 
access to all the routines of the system. 
C H Moore has shown with FORTH 
that compilers do not have to be large 
inflexible systems which try to take into 
account every eventuality and really 
can't do it. The result of this bit of 
FORTH trickery is a powerful compiler 
so tiny that it can be made interactive 
and used on line with no batch process- 
ing, linking loader, or other monstros- 
ity which we are accustomed to 
associate with a compiler. 

How small (or big) is tiny? The fig- 
FORTH system supplied by the FORTH 
Interest Group for the 6502 contains 220 
primitive routines (not including the 
Editor or Assembler) that occupy a total 
of 6221 bytes. By my count, 34 of these 
routines are compiler functions, and 
they occupy a total of 982 bytes. My 
guess is that this is an order of 
magnitude smaller than other compilers 
of comparable power. That is trickery. 

If there ever is a contest for the all- 
time ingenious software development, I 
would like to nominate C H Moore's 
best, the { ;CODE } routine and/or its 
logical extension 
{ <BUILDS ... DOES> }. 

Edgar H Fey Jr 
Edgar H Fey Jewelers Inc 
1156 Fox Valley Ctr 
Aurora IL 60505 



Flash: Magic Exists! 

I was delighted to see an issue of 
BYTE devoted to FORTH. As a user of 
and tinkerer with STOIC for 5 years, I 
heartily agree with the various authors' 
ravings about the extensibility, flexibili- 
ty, and increase in productivity provided 
by FORTH. I was, however, amused at 
the many ways in which postfix 
(reverse-Polish) notation was rational- 



16 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 9 on Inquiry caro. 




In late 1978, Intertec conceived the idea 
of the InterTube Video Display Terminal. 
Since that time, we've greatly enhanced its 
operation with the addition of many new 
exciting features. But perhaps the most sig- 
nificant announcement in the InterTube line of 
video terminals is our new InterTube III. 

The new $895* InterTube III obsoletes 
dumb terminals and out-performs the smart 
ones. Powerful standard features include: 
a full 24 line by 80 character display, 128 
upper and lower case ASCII characters, 
reverse video, complete cursor addressing 
and control, an 18 key numeric pad, user- 
defined function keys, blinking, a self-test 
mode, protected and unprotected fields, 
below-the-line descenders, automatic key 
repeat, twin RS232 serial ports and character 
and line insert/delete. Incredible! 

'Quantity One • Dealer inquiries invited 



InterTube III also boasts newly designed 
processor, video and power supply circuits. 
All in all, the InterTube III is what we believe 
to be the most powerful, reliable video termi- 
nal available today. And it costs less than its 
predecessor - our popular InterTube II. 

InterTube III users will appreciate the 
many painstaking hours of human engineering 
which insure effortless operation without 
operator fatigue. InterTube Ill's new high 
resolution, non-glare CRT provides the 
sharpest possible display image. And our 
newly designed keyboard has that expensive 
"feel" you normally find only on terminals 
costing two to three times as much. But, 
most importantly, the InterTube III features 
state-of-the art design with just three easily 
removable modules. So, with only a common 
screwdriver, servicing is a snap! 



Better yet, we've got a nationwide serv- 
ice network with outlets located in over 50 
cities to provide fast and efficient on-site or 
depot maintenance. Pius, an extended 
warranty program is also available. 

If you're an existing InterTube user, you 
no doubt have discovered the exceptional value 
the InterTube really is. And, if you're not, why 
not call or write us today for the name and 
address of your nearest InterTube III dealer. 
Intertec video terminals are distributed world- 
wide and may be available in your area now. 



3 



3NTE?TEC 

Cdata 

=SYSTEMS. 



2300 Broad River Rd, Columbia, SC 29210 
(803) 798-9100 TWX: 810-666-2115 

Circle 10 on Inquiry card. 



ized as being a better or more efficient 
way to do things even though it renders 
programs "write only" or at best difficult 
to read. 

Since maintainability of programs 
becomes even more critical when pro- 
ductivity is increased tenfold or more, I 
feel that the requirement of postfix nota- 
tion by FORTH is a serious shortcom- 
ing. There is nothing mystical about 
postfix notation; all compilers and inter- 
preters must eventually reach this form 
because that is the order in which the 
computer must carry out its operations. 

Over the past two years Jeff Morris 
and I have added various superstructures 
onto FORTH (one per application) that 



attempted to combine the better features 
of Pascal (eg: record structures, algebraic 
notation) with the power and flexibility 
of FORTH. The outcome of all of these 
experiments was a conceptual break- 
through which resulted in the invention 
of Magic. Magic has all the advantages 
of FORTH, plus, Magic programs are 
readable (thus maintainable). 

For example, the FORTH (or Magic) 
statement: 

B@ C@ + A@ * A! 

can also be written in Magic as: 

A: = A*(B + C) 




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and in fact compiles in three fewer 
words (since the @s are not needed), 
and the FORTH (or Magic) statement: 

A® B@ = IF 

can also be written in Magic as: 

IF(A.EQ.B) 

Magic is a major enhancement to the 
basic compilation structure of FORTH (a 
metaFORTH), not simply an add-on 
superstructure. Magic programs typically 
compile more slowly (due to the in- 
creased complexity of the compiler) but 
require less memory and run faster than 
equivalent FORTH programs. 

The concept of metaFORTH is 
discussed briefly in the article by Kim 
Harris. (See "FORTH Extensibility: or 
How to Write a Compiler in Twenty- 
five Words or Less," August 1980 BYTE, 
page 164.) This is the direction of the 
future and will be the source of some 
super-powerful programming tools in the 
next decade. Magic is a first step in that 
direction. 

I hope and expect that new 
metaFORTH languages such as Magic 
will be developed so that FORTH users 
can have their cake and eat it too. The 
time has come to stop justifying the 
unreadability of postfix notation. 

Arnold Epstein PhD 

Director, Software Development 

Octek Inc 

7 Corporate PI 

S Bedford St 

Burlington MA 01803 



Needs Tektronix Secrets 

Can a BYTE reader help me? I have a 
Tektronix 4051 computer which came 
with a BASIC interpreter. Some of my 
programs must run faster, and I would 
like to rewrite them in machine code. 
Tektronix states that machine code is 
unsupported on the 4051 and suggests 
spending another $10,500 for a faster 
Model 4052. Someone somewhere is pro- 
gramming the 4051 in machine code, as 
"Space Tag" on the demonstration tape 
is in machine code and runs incredibly 
faster than ordinary BASIC programs. 



Richard Daily 
800 Charlesgate Dr 
St Louis MO 63122 



Information Please 

I recently acquired a Video Brain 
home computer built by A Umtech 
Company. The serial number is 003087 
and the model number is 101A. It was 
built in either Santa Clara or Sunnyvale, 



18 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 11 on Inquiry card. 



Circle 12 on inquiry card. 




ountain Computer 

can now 

EXPAND 

Your Apple II Peripheral Capacity 

EXPANSION CHASSIS 



Quality You Expect 

Eight more slots for your Apple! Now you 
can bank-select eight more peripheral slots 
with immediate or deferred software 
commands — like having up to 16 peripheral 
cards "on line" — or use the Select/Deselect 
switch mounted on the front panel. 
Expansion Chassis' heavy-duty power 
supply is primarily for peripherals, without 
the heavy demand of motherboard support 
chips required in your Apple. This means 
much more power is available for peri- 
pherals than in your Apple itself! If you've 
run out of room in your Apple — Expansion 
Chassis is your answer. Drop by your Apple 
dealer for a demonstration, or contact 
Mountain Computer for the location of 
the dealer nearest you. 



Performance You Demand 

• Eight mirror image I/O slots of the Apple 

• Fully buffered, bi-directional data lines 

• Apple II compatible interface card 

• Dual selection capability; hardware or 
software 

• Immediate or deferred selection in 
software mode 

• From BASIC, a single POKE command 
turns the chassis ON or OFF 

• Compatible with all software 

• Dedicated power supply with 
approved power transformer 

23 Mountain Computer 

4£| INCORPORATED* 

300 Harvey West Blvd., Santa Cruz, CA 95060 
(408) 429-8600 TWX 910 598-4504 




California. I understand it has a Fair- 
child F-8 8-bit microprocessor. It has 
1 K bytes of programmable memory 
and 4 K bytes of read-only memory. 

What I am looking for are cartridge 
programs, which have a 45-terminal bus, 
the expander sets, or anything that 
would be interchangeable. Also, any in- 
formation or leads would be gratefully 
appreciated by me and my friends. 

Richard L Rowland 

7072 Kenwood 

Us Vegas NV 89117 



An Overlooked FORTH Vendor 

The staff at Datricon Corporation was 
both delighted and disappointed with the 
August 1980 BYTE. Our delight stems 
from the extensive coverage of the 
language FORTH and Charles H 
Moore's interesting article, 'The Evolu- 
tion of FORTH, an Unusual Language," 
page 76. 

However, we were disappointed with 
BYTE's failure to mention Datricon's 
ACS 12-PRO or Datricon's 4 K 
D-FORTH. Datricon's implementation of 
FORTH resides in 4 K bytes of EPROM 
(erasable programmable read-only 
memory), produces code that can be 
placed into ROM (read-only memory), 
and provides for interrupt handling and 
the automatic setting of the data-transfer 
rate. Our ACS 12-PRO, with D-FORTH 
and the STD BUS interface, is a very 
powerful 6800-based single-board com- 
puter. A development package is also 
available for generating application 
EPROMs. 



Jed W Heald, President 
Datricon Corporation 
7911 NE 33rd Dr 
Suite 200 
Portland OR 97211 



We at BYTE were surprised to find 
additional FORTH vendors advertising 
in our August 1980 issue. Other vendors 
include Rockwell International (for the 
AIM microcomputer, see page 67 of the 
August 1980 BYTE), Kenyan 
Microsystems (for 6809 systems, see 
page 104 of the same issue), Sirius 
Systems (for the Radio Shack TRS-80, 
see page 171), Quality Software (for the 
Exidy Sorcerer, see page 208), Eric 
Rehnke (for the KIM, SYM, and AIM 
computers, see page 290), the Software 
Farm (for the TRS-80, see page 292), 
and Professional Management Services 
(for the Alpha Micro, see page 294). 
FORTH vendors not listed in the August 
1980 BYTE are invited to submit a two- 
paragraph product release, which will be 
published in a future BYTE "What's 
New?" column.... GW 

20 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



FORTH Is Better Than LISP, He Cs 

Unlike BYTE's earlier issue on LISP, 
the August issue on FORTH did an ex- 
cellent job in making this intriguing 
language readily understood. The ar- 
ticles did not come right out and say 
that FORTH is so machine-efficient due 
to the user preprocessing his logic into 
postfix notation, but most readers 
should realize this. 

Although I can tolerate that sort of 
notation for a desk calculator, it is 
unbearable for computer data process- 
ing. Although the C language is 
philosophically different, it is a threaded 
language which is much preferable. 

Dick Sims 

185 Freeman St, Apt 951 

Brookline MA 02146 



Check Out a Computer 

I always look forward to the new 
issue of BYTE and was especially eager 
to read the July 1980, Computers and 
Education issue. Arthur Luehrmann's ar- 
ticle, "Computer Illiteracy — A National 
Crisis and a Solution for It," page 88, 
struck home on a point with which I 
wholeheartedly agree: "this country's 
general public is woefully ill-prepared to 
live and work in the Age of Informa- 
tion." 

I was, however, disturbed by the fact 
that the role of public libraries was 
never mentioned. Public libraries are in 
a unique position to help solve the prob- 
lem: they serve people of all ages, 
regardless of educational background; 
they are generally open more hours than 
schools; they are, perhaps more than 
any other institution, vitally interested 
in an information-aware public; they 
specialize in providing access to informa- 
tion, and they are free. 

Many public libraries have microcom- 
puters available for public use and pro- 
vide a complement of interactive pro- 
grams for individuals to learn with. 
Libraries that have done this report ex- 
tensive and enthusiastic use of the equip- 
ment. 

It's a sorry fact that most people have 
just never had the opportunity to even 
see a computer system. Until the oppor- 
tunity to see, touch, and use computers 
is afforded, computers will remain 
shrouded in mystery for the vast major- 
ity of people of all ages. The public 
library is one of the best hopes we have 
to alleviate this problem. 

Carlton A Sears 

Adult Services Coordinator 

Asheville-Buncombe Library System 

67 Haywood St 

Asheville NC 28801 

Letters continued on page 122 

Circle 13 on Inquiry card. > 



A growing 
line of tools to 
expand the Appl 



7440* Programmable Interrupt Timer Module. 
Time events in four operating modes— continu- 
ous, single shot, frequency comparison, and 
pulse width comparison. Includes three 16-bit 
interval timers, plus flexible patch area for 
external interface. Programmable interrupts, 
on-board ROM, and much more. 

7720A Parallel Interface. Two bi-directional 8-bit 
I/O ports will connect your Apple to a variety of 
parallel devices, including printers, paper tape 
equipment, current relays, external on/off 
devices. Full featured, programmable inter- 
rupts, supports DMA daisy chaining. 

781 1 B Arithmetic Processor. Interfaces with 
Applesoft, so you just plug in and run. Based 
on the AM 9511 device, provides full 16/32-bit 
arithmetic, floating point, trigonometric, loga- 
rithmic, exponential functions. Programmed I/O 
data transfer, much, much more. 

7710A Asynchronous Serial Interface. Conform- 
ing to RS-232-C A thru E 1978 standard, this 
card will drive a variety of serial devices such as 
CRT terminals, printers, paper tape devices, or 
communicate with any standard RS-232 device, 
including other computers. Full hand-shaking, 
and fully compatible with Apple PASCAL! 

7470A 3% BCD A/D Converter. Converts a DC 
voltage to a BCD number for computerized 
monitoring and analysis. Typical inputs include 
DC inputs from temperature or pressure 
transducers. Single channel A/D, 400 ms 
per conversion. 

7490A 6PIB IEEE 488 Interface. A true imple- 
mentation of the IEEE 488 standard— the 
standard protocol for instrumentation and test 
devices. Control and monitor test instruments 
such as digital voltmeters, plotters, function 
generators, or any other device using the 
IEEE 488. 

7114A PROM Module. Permits the addition to or 
replacement of Apple n firmware without 
removing the Apple II ROMs. Available with 
on-board enable/disable toggle switch. 

7900 A Wire Wrap Board. For prototyping your 
own designs. 

7510A Solder Board. 

7590A Extender Board. 

701SA 16K Dynamic Memory Add-On. 

Watch this space for new CCS products for 
the Apple. We've got some real surprises in the 
works. To find out more about the CCS product 
line, visit your local computer retailer. The CCS 
product line is available at over 250 locations 
nationally, including most that carry the Apple. 
Or circle the reader service number on this ad. 

Apple II, Apple II Plus, and Applesoft are trademarks 
of the Apple Corporation. 



CCS makes the difference 



We see the Apple 
a little di" 



''-'%■ 








We see it as a good 
way to get things done. 

Apple has built a great computer. We at CCS have 
built a great line of peripherals and components to expand 
the Apple. To do almost anything you want to get done 
with a computer. 

If you want to do business with an Apple, we've got 
tools to connect the Apple to standard business printers and 
terminals. Or to modems, for communications over tele- 
phone lines, with other computers, even with other Apples. 

If you want to apply your Apple to engineering, scien- 
tific, or graphic projects, we've got tools for high-powered, 




high-speed math functions, and fast, high resolution graph- 
ics. And tools to connect the Apple to lab test equipment 
like function generators or plotters. 

And we have tools to connect the Apple to the outside 
world, including A/D converters and interval timers with 
external interface. 

We make components for the S-100 bus, the PET, and 
the TRS-80, too. We built our products to deliver hard- 
nosed value to the OEM, and to the inventor who knows the 
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To find out how much computer your Apple II can be, 
see things our way. Because for serious users with serious 
uses for the Apple, we've got the tools. 



California Computer Systems 

250 Caribbean Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (408)734-5811 



The 

Future of 
Computer 
Graphics 



Bruce Eric Brown 

and 

Stephen Levine 

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 

University of California 

POB808 

Livermore CA 94550 



Predicting the future can place one 
in a very precarious position. 
Although technology is moving for- 
ward at such a pace that it is almost 
impossible to look a long way down 
the road, we do have a good idea of 
what the near-future trends will be. 
So here I will discuss where the trends 
in computer-generated graphics are 
headed. 

Computer graphics is the fastest- 
growing segment of the computer in- 
dustry. Although many existing com- 
puter's already have graphics 
capabilities, the future is even 
brighter. Since personal computer 
users will make up the largest percen- 
tage of the computer graphics 
market, the standard color television 
receiver will be the most common 



Editor's note: 

It was only 5 years ago when the first annual 
computer graphics show was held. The 
Philadelphia show was sponsored by SIG- 
GRAPH (the Association for Computing 
Machinery's Special Interest Group on Com- 
puter Graphics). At that time, the show at- 
tracted ten vendors and a few hundred visitors. 
SIGGRAPH-80, which was held this summer in 
Seattle, brought to that city over 100 vendors, 
about 6000 visitors, and filled twenty-four 
times the space of SIGGRAPH-75. So you can 
surmise how the the computer graphics field 
will continue to grow.... SM 




display device. Research is continual- 
ly going on in video-generation 
techniques, and we can expect the 
quality of video images to improve 
dramatically. 

Also on the horizon is the use of 
networks. Best of all, the price of 
graphics systems should continue to 
fall, and as they do, the number of 
applications will increase drastically. 

Three Dimensions 

This is an exciting time for ex- 
perimentation with computer 



graphics. Looking into our crystal 
video display, we can see many 
changes coming within the next few 
years. True three-dimensional 
displays will become common. 
Researchers will finally be able to see 
their models in three dimensions 
without the need of special glasses, 
stereo pairs, or by viewing two- 
dimensional projections. 

Already in existence are integral 
hologram displays made from 
computer-generated images. (An ex- 
ample is shown in photo 9.) The 



22 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 




holograms are made by 
photographing 1080 computer- 
generated images on 35mm film and 
transferring them to the hologram. In 
a few years it will be possible to 
generate these directly; we might 
even see a laser-driven, computer- 
controlled, holographic-image output 
device. 

There are currently several 
methods in use for displaying three- 
dimensional television images, but 
the most promising uses an interlaced 
television picture. The even scan lines 



display an image for viewing with the 
right eye and the odd scan lines have 
an image for the left eye. The screen is 
viewed through a pair of glasses 
whose lenses are made with PLZT 
(lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) 
ceramic. Voltage pulses synchronized 
with the display of the odd and even 
fields darken the left and right lenses 
alternately. As a result, the viewer 
sees a true three-dimensional image. 
Photo 10 is a composite view of a 
display showing the images for both 
the left and right eyes. 



Photo 1: A computer-generated com- 
posite view of a DNA molecule using both 
ball-and-stick and space-filling models. 
Using keyboard control, the configuration 
of the model can be changed and it can be 
rotated in any direction. Such models are 
already assisting scientists in their 
research and will have an even bigger role 
in the coming years. Photo courtesy of 
Nelson Max, Lawrence Livermore Na- 
tional Laboratory. 

Photo 2: Computer-generated art by Los 
Angeles artist David M. As you can see, 
computer graphics could revolutionize the 
world of art. 

Photo 3: A perspective view of a two- 
dimensional array of numbers. Photo 
courtesy of Melvin L Prueitt, Los Alamos 
Scientific Laboratory. 
Photo 4: Census data plotted to show 
population changes. This is an example of 
the type of material which could be 
available on a computer network with 
wide-band capabilities, such as cable 
television. Courtesy of Edward Zimmer- 
man, White House. 

Photo 5: A ground-level view of a 
computer-generated airport scene used in 
a real-time flight simulator. Photo 
courtesy of Marconi Radar Systems. 



Raster-Scan Displays 

Low-priced memory will also 
change the look of computer 
graphics. Up to the present, the 
market has been dominated by 
storage tubes and calligraphic (ie: 
stroke-writing) displays; however, 
raster-scan displays can be refreshed 
from a frame buffer of semiconductor 
memory. Therefore, in the coming 
years, we can expect the graphic- 
terminal market to be dominated by 
raster-scan devices. The standard 
display will be a color television 
receiver connected as a mirco- 
processor-controlled intelligent ter- 
minal. The cost of some of these 
graphics terminals will be at or near 
the cost of a modern color television 
receiver. 

Raster-scan color television will 
probably be the graphics standard for 
the following reasons: 

• The US video standard is well 
established. 

• It has a large industry supporting 
it. 

• The cost of developing another 
standard is prohibitive. 

• The great numbers of personal 
computer users will help determine 
the trend. Why buy a color output 
monitor when you already have 
one or several available at home? 



November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 23 



Top-of-the-line video displays will 
include devices with 1000-line resolu- 
tion (already available) as well as a 
number with 2000-line resolution. 
The cost of these will be significantly 
higher than that of a modern color 
television receiver. 

On a raster-scan display, each dot 
on the screen is known as a picture 
element or pixel. Since each pixel is 
displayed 30 times a second, the im- 
age generator must either generate 30 
Hz or store the pixel intensities in 
memory. Frame-buffer systems usual- 
ly use dual-ported memory which 
both stores the image and refreshes 
the display. 

To simplify things, let's assume a 
square picture with the standard 500 
lines and each line containing 500 pix- 
els. To display a completely black- 
and-white line image with no shades 
of gray we would need 250,000 (500 
by 500) bits or 32 K bytes of 
memory. In order to display gray 
levels, the number of bits used for 
each pixel must be increased. To 
display color, we either divide the 
number of bits available among the 
three primary colors (red, green, and 
blue) or use a color map. A color map 
takes each pixel value stored and out- 
puts the three intensities: the most 
common method is to use 1 byte in- 
put and 3 byte output. The number of 
colors which can be displayed is the 
product of the number of output in- 
tensities for each color. At a given 
time, only a subset, which is limited 
by the input values, can be displayed. 
If we use 8 bits in, 24 bits out, we can 
display any 256 colors of the 
16,777,216 available. 

In the near future we should be see- 
ing 2000-line resolution systems with 
24 bits per pixel (1 byte for each of the 
three primary colors and 12 bits per 
color in the map). 12 megabytes of 
memory would be 
needed for such a l 
system. With 
memory prices ex- 
pected to continue 
to fall, in about 5 
years the major 
cost element of 
such a system 
would be the 
monitor and elec- 
tronics. 

Vector Displays 

Although it ap- 
pears that raster- 
scan displays will 

24 November 1980 © BYTE Publi 



have the major share of the graphics 
market, line-drawing (ie: vector- 
display) systems will continue to 
grow, though at a slower rate. There 
are basically two types of line- 
drawing systems: the storage tube 
and the refresh calligraphic writer. 

Storage tubes available today have 
higher resolution and greater image 
stability than most refresh systems. 
One disadvantage of the storage tube 




Photo 6 (above): An example of the 
computer-generated graphics used to train 
space-shuttle pilots at the Johnson Space 
Center in Houston, Texas. 
Photo 7 (below): The control panel for an 
experimental fusion reactor at Lawrence 
Livermore National Laboratory . 
Transparent touch panels mounted over 
the color video displays have eliminated 
most switches. To control the reactor, the 
operators need only to touch the screen 
over the desired control area shown on 
the screen. Photo courtesy of Glenn 
Spreckert. 




is the lack of selective erasure. In 
order to remove one line the entire 
screen must be erased and redrawn. 
With refresh displays the line is 
removed from the display list and the 
line is redrawn on the next refresh 
cycle. 

Calligraphic displays can display 
about 20,000 three-dimensional vec- 
tors or 100,000 two-dimensional vec- 
tors at 30 Hz. In the next few years we 
can also expect a doubling of these 
capacities. 

Raster-scan display buffers can also 
be used to display vector images and 
should begin to replace calligraphic 
displays as faster hardware becomes 
available. Many users will probably 
prefer the somewhat slower speed of 
the raster scan since they are able to 
display continuous-tone color im- 
ages. 

Input 

One tool which should see much 
use in the future is a transparent 
touch panel mounted over the face of 
a video screen. As shown in photo 7, 
an automated nuclear-reactor control 
room is one of the many possible ap- 
plications. (Note the lack of 
switches.) 

Hard Copy 

Currently, one of the major prob- 
lems of graphic terminal users is how 
to satisfactorily get hard-copy 
output. The most common method is 
to use a camera to take a picture of 
the video screen. A device is also 
available which records the video 
output directly on film. Both of these 
methods leave much to be desired. 
The final solution may not necessari- 
ly come from the manufacturers of 
graphic terminals. The goal of copy- 
ing machine companies is a dry 
method of putting a color image on a 
piece of paper (like 
the current, dry 
black-and-white- 
image method). 
At present, the 
device with the 
highest-quality 
color output is 
the film recorder. 
For raster output 
devices, the reso- 
lution of current 
recorders is 4000 
by 4000 pixels, 
each with a range 
of 256 intensities. 
These devices use 

Circle 14 on inquiry card. — 



Hard and 
Fast... 




...Bulk Storage from 
Industrial Micro Systems 



THE NEW MODEL 16 

The new Industrial Micro Systems Model 16 Hard Disk 
Subsystem is a "fixed-removable" high speed, bulk 
storage device providing from 32 megabytes (32 
million characters) to 96 megabytes of on-line storage 
for the Industrial Micro Systems 8000 or Series 5000 
microcomputer systems. The Model 16 includes a 
credenza enclosure that provides a quiet, strong and 
attractive package for office 
or industrial applications 
where large memory is 
required. The Model 16 also 
includes a fully buffered 
DMA S-100 bus controller for 
fast and easy interfacing. 

WINCHESTER 
TECHNOLOGY WITH 
BUILT-IN BACKUP 

The Model 16 includes a 16 
megabyte removable 

cartridge and a 16, 48, or 80 




megabyte fixed media that employs Winchester 3340 
technology. Files and programs may be copied 
between the fixed media and the removable cartridge 
for fast, easy backup and archival storage. 

FAST ACCESS 

The interface between the Model 16 hard disk and the 

Industrial Micro Systems 
computer is provided by the 
Hard Disk Controller. The 
Hard Disk Controller utilizes 
Direct Memory Access (DMA) 
for fast data transfer with 
minimum processor interven- 
tion. The maximum data 
transfer rate is 1.2 megabytes 
per second and the controller 
fully buffers the data, a 
sector at a time, to and from 
the disk. Available in 220 V, 
50 HZ Versions 



Now you don't have to look hard for fast computing power. Contact your Industrial Micro Systems Dealer today. 

INDUSTRIAL MICRO SYSTEMS 

Marketing Manufacturing 

628 N. Eckhoff, Orange, CA 92668 2800 Lockheed Way, Carson City, NV 89701 

(71 4) 978-6966 (702) 883-761 1 

See us at Comdex '80 Nov. 18-21, 1980 Las Vegas Convention Center. 



as many as seven filters and multiple 
passes are made on the film to create 
full-color images. Additive-color red, 




Photo 8: A problem in hydrodynamics 
illustrated through the use of computer 
graphics. The photo is part of a series 
illustrating a steel rod impacting a steel 
plate. Color changes represent areas of 
varying stress. In the future, such graphics 
will be widely used in education. Photo 
courtesy of Lawrence Livermore National 
Laboratory. 



1 


i^^ 






:*m 


■Si 




j 




^JP""" 



Photo 9: Integral hologram of a molecule 
created by photographing 1080 computer- 
generated images on 35mm film and then 
transferring them to a hologram. In the 
future computers will be able to generate 
holograms directly. Photo courtesy of 
Donald L Vickers, Lawrence Livermore 
National Laboratory. 



green, and blue filters or subtractive- 
color yellow, cyan, and magenta 
filters are used. In both systems, the 
seventh color is neutral for plotting 
black-and-white images. We can ex- 
pect to see more of these recorders 
available in the near future, and some 
of the stripped-down models should 
be available at lower prices. 

Another group of devices which fit 
into this category of film output are 
COM (computer-output-on-micro- 
film) devices. Many of those current- 
ly available have graphic capability 
as well as variable intensity. At the 
present time, COM devices are main- 
ly used for alphanumeric-fiche out- 
put. Currently only black-and-white 
machines are available, although 
color-fiche machines are expected to 
be produced in the future. The most 
important consideration is the need 
for high-quality, large-format color 
images. The resolution of current 
COMs is about 32,000 by 32,000 pix- 
els. Although higher resolution is 
theoretically possible, such devices 
will not be produced until a need for 
them is demonstrated. 

Laser recorders may soon capture a 
portion of the expanding graphics 
market. Since a laser beam has much 
more energy to deposit on film than a 
CRT (ie: video display) image, laser 
recorders will be much faster than ex- 
isting methods. On a modern film 
recorder, one full-intensity pass at 
4000 by 4000 pixels takes about 1 
minute. To record the same amount 
of data, the laser requires 1 second or 
less. The energy of a laser beam is 
great enough that a split beam could 
record up to five copies at the same 
time. 

A current weak link in laser 
systems is the deflection systems. 
Although solid-state methods are be- 
ing developed, rotating mirrors are 
used today. Another drawback with 
any system that uses film is that 
unless users have their own process- 
ing facilities, film development takes 
at least 24 hours and sometimes much 
longer. 

The Xerox 6500 color copier can be 
interfaced to a number of terminals 
for image-recording, or it can be con- 
nected to computers for direct out- 
put. Ink-jet plotters, printers with 
color ribbons, and flat bed-drum 
plotters with color pens are included 
in this class of output devices. Con- 
tinued improvements in speed and 
color reproduction can be expected. 

The brightest future is for the video 



disk. Today, these devices can hold 
50 minutes (180,000 frames) of video 
per disk. Although the initial cost is 
high, the great number of frames 
available makes this device the ideal 
output and storage medium. 

Computers — The Future 

Although so far I've concentrated 
on graphics hardware, what about 
the future of the beast behind the 
display — the computer? 

It seems likely that within a few 
years the home computer user will 
have a choice of several 32-bit virtual 
machines with at least a million 
words of expandable, central mem- 
ory, and 100 million words of disk 
space. This type of system will be 
ideal for a color-frame buffer system. 

Applications 

Since pictures are a very efficient 
means of communication, the future 
applications of computer graphics are 
virtually unlimited. Photo 6 is a 
photograph of computer-generated 
graphics used to train space-shuttle 
pilots. Within the next few years, 
games and simulations with graphics 
of nearly the same quality will be 
available to the personal computer 
user. The PLZT glasses described 
earlier will be used to provide three- 
dimensional images for the would-be 
space-shuttle or 747 pilot. You can 
also expect the technology to be put 
to use in amusement parks. The 
Disneyland people have already used 
computer-generated graphics in some 
of their attractions and are continuing 
to develop them for future use. 

Networks 

There are a number of advantages 
to having your own, isolated per- 
sonal computer, but connecting it to a 
network opens up a vast new world. 
Networks designed specifically for 
personal computer users, such as The 
Source, are already in existence. Un- 
fortunately, the narrow bandwidth of 
conventional voice-grade telephone 
lines severely limits graphic 
capabilities. 

One future possibility is the use of 
cable television for networks with 
graphic capabilities. Cable is increas- 
ingly available in all but the most 
rural areas and has wide bandwidth, 
portions of which are not used. Per- 
sonal computer users could tap into 
this resource and use the extra band- 
width for local communication nets. 

Another possibility is to have the 



26 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 15 on inquiry card. 



ATARI: PERSONAL 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS THAT 

GROW WITH YOU 



\ 



Start with a better computer. 

Atari computers have built-in capa- 
bilities you can't even add onto 
many other personal computers. 
Three programming formats (ROM 
irtridge, disk and cassette). A 57 key 
ipper/lower case ASCII keyboard with 
29 keystroke graphics symbols. 128 
colors and hues. Four separate sound 
channels and a built-in speaker. Four 
controller ports. A built-in RF 

©1980, Atari, Inc. 

O A Warner Communications Company 

Atari reserves the right to make changes to products 
or programs without notice. 



modulator and FCC approval for 
connection to any TV Plus, nationwide 
j^. Atari Authorized Service Centers. 
And more. 

Add memory. The ATARI 

800™ is supplied with 
16K of memory. You can 
'expand up to a full 48K of 
\M with 8K or 16K Memory 
: Modules™ you install yourself. 
In less than a minute. The 
ATARI 400's™ 8K of RAM may be 
expanded to 16K at Authorized Ser- 
vice Centers. Both may be expanded 
to 26K of ROM with slip-in ROM 
cartridge programs. 

Add peripherals. The ATARI 410™ 
audio-digital program recorder. Sin- 
gle or dual density* disk drives. The 
ATARI 800 individually addresses up 
to four drives. Add the ATARI 850' 
RS232 Interface Module. Add high 
speed 40 or 8o-column printers. Add 
an acoustic modem for remote data 
access. Add a light pen* And there 
are more Atari peripherals 
on the way. 



ATARI 



Add programs. Choose among doz- 
ens of programs in Atari's rapidly 
expanding software library. Programs 
categories include: 

• Personal Finance 
& Record Keeping 

• Personal Interest & Development 

• Professional Applications 

• Education 

• Information & Communication 

• Entertainment 

• Programming Languages 

• Small Business Accounting 

Add It up. With Atari, you start 
with more. And you can build to 
more. Because Atari offers you per- 
sonal computer systems that grow 
with you. Ask your Atari retailer 
to give you a full demonstration 
of Atari computers, peripherals 

and programs. Complete systems. 

Because when other people were 
thinking hardware and software, 
Atari was thinking systems. 

•Available Fall, 1980 



PERSONAL COMPUTERS 

1265 Borregas Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Call toll-free (800) 538-8547 (Except Alaska and Hawaii) 
(In California: (800) 672-1404) for the name of your nearest Atari retailer. 




Circle 16 on inquiry card. 



Z8QOO 



The System X8000 MICRO-MINI™ based on 
the 16-bit Zilog Z8000 processor is available 
for immediate delivery. 

FEATURES (partial list) 

• Zilog Z8000 CPU 

• Intel Multibus compatible 

• Unique memory management system 
allows up to 16 megabytes of memory 

• Optional 951 1 arithmetic processor 

• 8-level vectored + non-maskable interrupts 

• Two programable timers 

• On-board monitor ROM option 

• Full "Multimaster" capabilities allow multiple 
processors and/or DMA devices on the 
same bus 

• Flexible and/or hard disk controller 

• Powerful disk-based operating system 

• Memory boards: 16K, 32K, 48K, 64K, 96K, 
128K 

• 1 5- slot backplane 

• Heavy-duty switching power supply 

• Industrial quality throughout 

Prices start from $998. System discounts. 
Call for prices on complete custom systems. 

SYSTEM X9020 

(CPU Manual $19.95) 




$ 4195 



» The SUPER-MICRO'" 
READY TO RUN 



SYSTEM FEATURES (partial list) 
PmcsI MICROENGINE" X9000 

• 16bitP-codeCPU 

• 64K bytes RAM/Full DMA 

• Floppy disk controller (SS or DS) 

• Floating point hardware (IEEE standard) 

• System software with enhancements 

• 2 serial, 2 parallel ports 

• Pascal compiler, text editors, file manager, 

CPU & memory diagnostics, symbolic Pascal debugger, 
linker, utilities and more 
Floppy Disk Drive* (2) 

• 1M combined memory 

• Double density, single sided 
■ Standard 8" diskettes 

• 6 ms track to track 




$900* 

With CPU 



MODEL X-920 

DISPLAY/EDIT TERMINAL 

'LIMITED TIMF cash price. 10% DOWN guarantees 

priority. Master Charge & VISA cards accepted. 
System discounts 

ADM3A f plus RG graphics (512x256). ..$1995 

NEC Spinwriter 5510 or 5530 w/trac 2895 

Anadex DP-9500 printer (60dpi) 1595 

X-912 CRT (less 18 function keys) 799 

P-E 550 CRT ("Bantam") 740 

Siemens standard 8" drive (ss/sd-dd) .... 399 



312 684-3183 



^f™ COMPUTEX 

^^k \ Microcomputer Syitoms V 






Microcomputer Syitem 

5710 Dw»l, Chicago, IL 60637 




Photo 10: Interlaced left-eye and right-eye view of a computer-generated image of an 
aircraft carrier. The image is viewed in three dimensions when the user wears glasses 
with lenses made of PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) ceramic. The lenses by 
the right and left are darkened alternately by voltage pulses synchronized to the display. 
Photo courtesy of John A Roese and Larry E McCleary, the Naval Ocean Systems 
Center. 



cable-television company provide a 
main computer to control the net- 
work and act as a data base. The 
range of services which could be pro- 
vided is virtually limitless. An exam- 
ple is shown in photo 4, where census 
data has been plotted to show 
population changes. 

Exploring the Future 

Computer graphics have exciting 
possibilities as an artistic medium. It's 
been said that computer-generated 
color graphics will revolutionize art 
in the same way that acrylics changed 
the world of artists who once worked 
with oil paints. Photo 2 shows 
computer-generated art by Los 
Angeles artist David M. 

The simulators discussed earlier 
will also be widely used by film- 
makers. Special effects, instead of 
being animated one frame at a time, 
could be programmed and filmed in 
real time. For instance, a director 
could ask for an airport scene on a 
clear day, as in photo 5. By changing 
a parameter, the same scene could be 
created on a foggy day. 

The motion picture industry is in 
the forefront of developing and using 
sophisticated systems for computer- 
generated graphics. Increasingly 
higher levels of realism will be created 
in the future and the time-consuming 



tasks of creating special effects and 
editing will be performed using laser 
scanner/recorders and video disks. In 
terms of dollars, the movies will be 
one of the largest users of computer 
graphics for the near future. 

Applications, as we've seen, are 
limited only by our present imagina- 
tions. Photo 1 shows a computer- 
generated composite view of a DNA 
(deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule 
using both ball-and-stick and space- 
filling models. Such displays will 
speed up the rate of research. The 
molecule model can be rotated, 
changed in configuration, and taken 
home for the scientist to use on his 
personal computer. 

Classroom displays will greatly 
surpass the audio-visual methods 
commonly used today. Photo 8 
shows a hydrodynamic problem with 
impact calculations displayed 
through color changes. A computer 
display of this sort could be created 
and updated in the midst of a lecture. 

In the wide world of computer- 
graphic applications, we have only 
scratched the surface. ■ 



28 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



THE UNBEATABLE S-100 
MEMORY 






M 



Motaanrar 




irnirr 




1 n vi' n 



«0UffBUDniDniaaai 
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,*-'.' .1 .. . .* ~! -! -• x -1 



"■-»/ 




That's the MEASUREMENT systems & con- 
trols DMB Series of S-100 bus memory 
modules, fully compatible with ALPHA 
MICRO, CROMEMCO, NORTH STAR, MP/M, 
and most other S-100 systems. 

Definitely a winner, the DMB Series is avail- 
able with Bank Select (DMB6400) or without 
(DM6400) and utilizes industrial quality con- 
struction, provides outstanding reliability, 
and is backed by dedicated customer service 
and a one year guarantee. 

The DMB6400 uses I/O port addressing for 
the bank select feature. A switch provides the 
ability to select any one of the 256 I/O ports 
for addressing the memory banks. The mem- 
ory is configured as four totally independent 
16K software selectable banks, with each 
bank addressable on any 16K boundary. 



Systems 



Group 



a Division of MEASUREMENT systems &. controls 

incorporated 



Outstanding features such as those listed 
below make the DMB series the UNBEATABLE 
S-100 Memory. 

• Four independent 16K software select- 
able banks. 

• Each bank is independently addressable 
on any 16K boundary. 

• Switch selectable bank sizes — from 
16K to 64K in 16K increments. 

• Eight banks (51 2K) per I/O port for each 
of the 256 ports. 

• Z-80 4MHz operation with no wait 
states using transparent refresh. 

• On-board diagnostic LED's. 

• Low power — 8 watts maximum. 

• Reliable, tested and bumed-in memory. 

• IEEE S-100 compatible timing. 

• One year guarantee. 

• Attractive Dealer & OEM Prices. 

See your nearest computer dealer, or contact 
us for the complete story on the UNBEAT- 
ABLE S-100 Memory. 



867 North Main St. / Orange, Calif. 92668 / (714) 633-4460 
TWX/TELEX: 678 401 TAB IRIN 




30 BYTE November 1980 



8-Et Champion 

In price-performance, look to Intel's powerful iAPX 88 microprocessor 
to leave the pack behind. Both now and down the road. 



In price -performance races, 
the iAPX 88 is the one to beat. It's 
two times faster than the Z-80A 
and the 6809. And recent bench- 
mark tests show that the iAPX 88, 
with its 8088 CPU, consistently 
outperforms its closest competi- 
tors in memory efficiency, ease of 
programming and throughput — by 
as much as 4 to 1. This is especially 
important in high-performance 
tasks such as block moves, charac- 
ter searches, word shifts, and 
16-bit multiplies. All critical for 
applications like word processing, 
terminal control, scientific 
instrumentation and industrial 
control. 

And because it's the only 8-bit 
microprocessor that addresses up to 
1 million bytes of memory, the 8088 
can take on large programs. Without 
having to slow down due to over- 
lays or memory bank switching, 
like other 8-bit processors. 

Tough price competitor 

In price competition with other 
8-bit microprocessors, the iAPX 88 
has become the front runner. 

You save dramatically on 





1-Bit Microprocessor Price Trends 

memory chips, too. The iAPX 88 
takes — on the average — 30% less 
memory than competitors for the 
same programs. Then too, it allows 
you to use lower cost memory to 
get the same throughput as 
competitors. With a 5 MHz 
8088, you can use our 450ns 
memories and still outper- 
form a 4MHz Z-80 requiring 
250ns chips. Depending on 



the application, your cost savings 
here can be substantial. 

No contest now with new 
Intel software 

To unleash the new power that 
the iAPX 88 puts in your hands, 
it takes more powerful software — 




the kind only Intel delivers today. 
Software that produces object code 
directly and gives you important ex- 
tensions that allow you to fine-tune 
the software to your application. 

Software such as PASCAL-88, 
the block-structured application 
language rapidly becoming the 
one most widely used. With our 
PASCAL-88, you can do direct 
port I/O and interrupt handling, as 
well as independent program 
module compilation. And produce 
code that runs faster than other, 
P-code interpreter versions. 

Along with PASCAL-88, you 
get PL/M-88, our systems imple- 
mentation language, our ANSI- 
compatible FORTRAN, and our 
ASM- 88 macroassembler. So with 
more software capability than 
you've ever had before, now you 



can choose the right language tool 
for each application — whatever 
it calls for. 

Get out in front with complete 
development support 

All the development support 
tools you need are ready to go 
today from Intel. Start with the 
Intellec® Microcomputer Devel- 
opment System. Add to that 
our ICE-88™ in-circuit emulator. 
Together they give you CPU emula- 
tion in real time, plus features like 
symbolic debugging, diagnostic 
commands and program trace 
capability. With these tools you'll 
get your products to market faster 
than by any other route. 

Looking down the road 

Best of all, with the iAPX 88, 
your investment in today's solution 
is protected. Since the 8088 is 
100% object-code compatible with 
the 16-bit 8086 — plus its future 
generations, the iAPX 186 and 
iAPX 286 — you have the industry's 
only guaranteed headstart on the 
path to the future. Regardless of 
which language you're writing in. 

So if you want to outdistance 
the pack, choose the iAPX 88 — 
available today from your local 
Intel distributor. To get your copy 
of benchmark results, contact your 
local Intel sales office or distributor. 
For more information write Intel 
Corporation, 3065 Bowers Avenue, 
Santa Clara, CA 95051. Or call 
(408) 987-8080. 

inty delivers 
Sutions. 

Europe: Intel International, Brussels, Belgium. 
Japan: IntelJapan, Tokyo. United States and Canadian 
distributors: Alliance, Almac/Stroum, Arrow Electronics, 
Avnet Electronics, Component Specialties, Hamilton/Avnet, 
Hamilton /Electro Sales, Harvey, Industrial Components, 
Pioneer, L.A. Varah, Wyle Distribution Group, Zentronics. 



Circle 17 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 31 



Gispcisfe Gipcuit Qellsp 

Copyright €' 1980 by Steven A Ciarda. All rights reserved. 



Home In on the Range! 

An Ultrasonic Ranging System 



Steve Ciarcia 

POB 582 

Glastonbury CT 06033 



Each month I try to present a hard- 
ware project that is both interesting 
and relatively easy to build. Unfor- 
tunately, it's not as simple as picking 
a topic and quickly whipping up 
some circuit. More often than not, I 
have a number of potential topics and 
projects on the fire at the same time. 
Some are in limbo and just waiting 
for the right parts. Others are post- 
poned when it turns out that the nec- 
essary hardware is something that 
could be better built by NASA 
(National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration) than by a computer 
hobbyist. 

One topic that has always in- 
terested me is the concept of auto- 
matic ranging. I became involved 
with this idea when I wrote an article 
entitled "I've Got You In My 
Scanner," November 1978 BYTE, 
page 76. The original article was 
about an infrared sensor and par- 
abolic reflector mounted to rotate on 
a stepper-motor shaft. With com- 
puter-controlled stepping, the result 
was something like the sweep of a 
radar antenna. The project was sen- 
sitive to infrared and visible light. 

The scanner, parabolic-reflector, 
and stepper-motor combination 
could easily tell the direction of a 
light source to an angular resolution 



Diagrams and schematics of the Ultra- 
sonic Ranging System Designer's Kit were 
provided through the courtesy of Polaroid 
Corporation. 



of 7.5°. It could make a 180° sweep, 
stop, and then follow the brightest 
object in its field of view. By 




Photo 1: A computer-controlled, stepper- 
motor-driven infrared and ultrasonic 
ranging scanner. An infrared-sensitive 
photo Darlington transistor (GE L14F2) is 
mounted at the focus of a parabolic reflec- 
tor, which is attached to the shaft of a 
stepper motor; the ultrasonic transducer is 
mounted above it. 

The infrared sensor and drive 
mechanism were described in a previous 
Circuit Cellar article, "I've Got You in My 
Scanner! A Computer Controlled Stepper 
Motor Light Scanner. " 



recognizing the absence of known 
light sources (when the light path is 
blocked), it could even function as 
part of an intrusion alarm. 

However, even though it could 
"see," the infrared scanner could not 
tell how far an object was in front of 
it, or detect the presence of a non- 
luminous body crossing its path. 
What I really wanted was a device 
that could provide the computer with 
range as well as direction. That's 
when I started hanging around the 
camera shop. 

Polaroid to the Rescue 

The automatic focusing system on 
the Polaroid SX-70 Sonar OneStep 
Land camera intrigued me. I had con- 
sidered tearing a camera apart just to 
use the ranging unit for my scanner, 
but sanity prevailed and I went back 
to designing my own circuit. Some- 
where between thoughts of "Who'd 
really build this thing anyway?" and 
"I hope everyone can find all these 
components," I started seeing ads 
from Polaroid offering just what I 
wanted, without the camera. 

The solution came in the form of an 
Ultrasonic Ranging System Designer's 
Kit sold by Polaroid for $125. The kit 
contains a technical manual, two 
instrument-grade electrostatic ultra- 
sonic transducers, a modified SX-70 
ultrasonic circuit board, an ex- 
perimental demonstrator display 
board, and two Polapulse 6 V bat- 
teries. With this unit I was able to 
enhance my original infrared-scanner 



32 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 18 on inquiry card. 



Now! North Star 
Applioation Software! 



North Star now offers application 
software for use on the HORIZON! 
Now you have one reliable source 
for both hardware and software 
needs! The first packages avail- 
able are: 

North Word— 

NorthWord is a simple-to-operate 
word processing system designed 
for use with the popular North Star 
HORIZON. NorthWord enables you 
to increase office efficiency and cut 
document typing time and cost. 
NorthWord incorporates the most 
sought-after word processing fea- 
tures: easy editing, on-screen text 
formatting, simultaneous document 
printing, and much more. NorthWord 
can be integrated with other North 
Star software packages to produce 
customized letters, labels and 
reports quickly and efficiently. 



MailManager — 

MailManager enables you to com- 
pile and maintain complete organ- 
ized mailing lists. Lists are easily 
accessible and can be compiled 
with a great deal of flexibility. Entries, 
corrections and deletions are easily 
made. The North Star MailManager 
can print your list on individual enve- 
lopes, on mailing labels, or in com- 
pact summary form. 

InfoManager — 

InfoManager is a powerful list- 
oriented, data management system. 
It will accept up to 50 categories of 
information for each record and has 
the ability to select and sort before 
printing. The North Star InfoManager 
has power and flexibility for many 
applications: product inquiry, in- 
ventory, customer/client records, 
calendar reminders, and as an easy 
way to fill in often-used forms. 



S 



GeneralLedger — 

General Ledger and Financial 
Reporting, two programs in one, 
maintains general ledger accounts 
based on such input as checks, 
bank deposits and journal entries, 
and uses the information in the 
general ledger to produce custom- 
ized financial statements and 
financial reports. 

NorthWord is the central building 
block for all the North Star applica- 
tion software to follow. Packages 
now being tested include other 
accounting and professional appli- 
cation packages. For more informa- 
tion or a demonstration, contact 
your local North Star dealer. 

NorthStar^ 

North Star Computers, Inc. 
1440 Fourth Street 
Berkeley, CA 94710 
(415) 527-6950 
TWX/Telex 910-366-7001 



>k: 



NorthSior 



NorthWord 



v*"* N v*^ vvaW^* 



design to include automatic range 
detection. The new scanner system 
incorporating the Polaroid unit is 
shown in photo 1. More on this later. 

Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging 
System 

The Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging 



System Designer's Kit costs $125 
(This offer is good until December 31, 
1980. Photo 2 shows the Designer's 
Kit as received.), and is available 
from: 

Polaroid Corporation 
Ultrasonic Ranging Marketing 



ULTRASONrC 0!SG\ERS 
RANGNG KIT 

SVSTEM 



itrrt/ttt/////// 






.4*m*k 




Photo 2: Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging System Designer's Kit, which includes ultrasonic 
sonar transducers, electronic circuitry, and a detailed specifications booklet. 



Department 465 E 
20 Ames St 
Cambridge MA 02139 
telephone (800) 225-1618 



Two primary components compose 
the ranging unit. They are the elec- 
trostatic transducer (see photo 3) and 
the ultrasonic transceiver board (see 
photo 4). Together these components 
are capable of detecting the presence 
and distance of objects within a range 
of approximately 0.9 feet (0.3 meters) 
to 35 feet (10.6 meters) with a resolu- 
tion of ± 1.2 inches (± 30 mm, or 
0.29% of range). 

In operation, a pulse is transmitted 
toward a target, and the resulting 
echo is detected. The elapsed time 
between initial transmission and echo 
detection can be used to find the dis- 
tance by taking this round-trip time 
and multiplying it by the speed of 
sound. For a transmitted pulse to 
leave the transducer, strike a target 2 
feet (0.61 meters) away, and return to 
the transducer, it requires 3.55 ms 
(1.78 ms per foot, or 5.84 ms per 
meter, during the round trip). 

Essential to system operation is the 
transducer (shown disassembled in 
photo 5). It acts as a speaker in the 
transmit mode and as an electrostatic 
microphone in the receive mode. The 
transducer is 1.5 inches (38.1 mm) in 
diameter and consists of a 0.003 inch 
(0.07 mm)-thick gold-plated foil 
stretched over a concentrically 




Photo 3: Close-up view of the Polaroid 
Ultrasonic Transducer. 



Photo 4: Close-up of the ultrasonic circuit board, which contains custom analog and 
digital integrated circuits. 



34 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 19 on inquiry card. 



National Microsoftware Producers 

ANNOUNCES 




Video Typing System for 8080, 8085 and Z80's 

PROFESSIONAL QUALITY 

WORD PROCESSING PACKAGE FOR 

CP/AA* COMPATIBLE MICROCOMPUTERS 



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CONTAINS ALL 
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PROMPTS ON SCREEN 
GUIDE USER THROUGH 
FUNCTIONS 

COMPARABLE TO DEC, 
NBI, Q YX. WANG . . . 



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• CHOICE OF 5" OR 8" 
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- REPLACEMENT KEYTOPS 
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CRT's 

1 SUPPORTS SERIAL AND 
WORD QUALITY 
PRINTERS (DIABLO, NEC, 
QUME) 



PACKAGE 



REPLACEMENT KEYTOPS 
COLOR CODED BY 
FUNCTION 

• MANUALWITH 
EXTENSIVE GRAPHICS 
DESIGNED FOR THE 
FIRST-TIME USER 

• SELF STANDING MANUAL 
IN EASEL BINDER 

• SPANISH, FRENCH, 
GERMAN, DUTCH 
VERSIONS AVAILABLE 



THORIZED DEALERS AND DISTRIBUTORS [ 



TED 
SUGGESTED RETAIL PRICE $549.00 




~^ National Microsoftware Producers, i 
i)) 3169 Fillmore Street 

San Francisco CA 94123 USA 
_> 415-346-7025 Telex 171790 




we cut taxes 7% 
up the prime rate 
2% double defense 
spending, while 
eliminating Saturday 
mail delivery? 

T/MAKER helps me 
juggle the imponderables 
fast and gives me a national 
overview on my CRTscreen.(Yukl) 

T/MAKER can integrate numerical and 
text data, making analysis easy and 
then print out a document in hard copy 
for the clods on Capitol Hill. 

T/MAKER is a wonderful tool for data 
analysis. It is easy to set up calculations 
for rows and columns of tabular data, 
automatically perform the 
computations, review the results and 
then modify some of the data to see the 
impact on the over all results. Several 
days of manual work can be 
accomplished in minutes. 

T/MAKER is a full screen editor for word 
processing which handles text up to 255 
characters wide. It includes features like 
text formatting and justification, text 
buffer for block moves and repeated 
inserts, global search and replace and 
commands for printing your letters, 
reports and documents. 

T/MAKER can perform an unlimited 
number of analysis and reporting tasks 
which integrate numerical and text 
processing. For example: 

• Financial Statements 'Balance Sheets 

• Statistics • Growth & Projections • 
Profitability Reports • Revenues & 
Expenditures • Portfolio Analysis* Price 
Lists • Rate Structures • Inventory 
Valuation and much, much more. 

T/MAKER requires a 48K CP/M system, 
a total of 240K bytes of disk storage, 
CBASIC-2, and a CRT computer 
terminal with cursor addressing and 
clear screen. 

T/MAKER system is $275.00 complete 
with documentation and quick- 
reference card. 
Documentation alone is $25.00. 



LIFEBOAT 
ASSOCIATES 

1651 Third Ave. NY, NY 10028 

(212) 860-0300 
International Telex 220501 

T/MAKER is a trademark 
of P. Roizen 
CP/M is a trademark 
of Digital Research 




grooved aluminum plate. When the 
metallic backplate is in proximity to 
the foil, it forms a capacitor. The foil 
is the moving element which converts 
electrical energy into sound and the 
returning echo into electrical energy. 
The diameter of the transducer de- 
termines the directionality of the 



transducer. The acoustical signal- 
strength lobe pattern, or acceptance 
angle, during operation is shown in 
figure 1. The graph indicates that the 
transducer is fairly directional. 

When the unit is activated, the 
transducer emits a sound pulse. The 
crystal-controlled electrical pulse 



(la) 



— r— 
50 



— r~ 

70 



- J— 
90 



~ I 
100 



TYPICAL TRANSMIT RESPONSE 



(lb) 




10kHz 20 



50 



—J— 
70 



80 



- r - 

90 



— I 
100 



TYPICAL FREE-FIELD RECEIVE RESPONSE 




TYPICAL BEAM PATTERN 
AT 50 kHz 



Figure 1: Typical transmission frequency-response curve (la), reception frequency- 
response curve (lb), and radial-beam pattern (lc) of the Polaroid ultrasonic transducer. 
The beam pattern was measured at 50 kHz, with dB values normalized to on-axis 
response. 



36 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 20 on Inquiry card. 



Memory Expansion Module 



for TRS-80.. 



All you have 
to remember 
is to plug it in 

Introducing the MT-32. Our new, brilliantly 
designed Printer/Memory expansion module 
for the TRS-80. This unit will add 16K or 32K 
of dynamic RAM to your basic 16K machine. 
The module also contains circuitry to drive 
Microtek's MT-80P dot matrix printer, or any 
other Centronics-compatible printer. 

No hardware modification to your TRS-80 is 
required. Just plug into your bus connector 
and you are ready to go. 

All Microtek products are covered by a one 
year warranty. 




Three assembled and 
tested configura- 
tions are available: 



Without RAM 
(MT-32A® $119.50) 



With 16K RAM 
(MT-32B® $159.50) 



With 32K RAM 
(MT-32C® $199.50) 



* 



TRS-80 is a Registered Trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Available from Microtek 

or your nearest computer dealer. 




9514 Chesapeake Drive 

San Diego, CA 92123 

Tel. (714) 278-0633 

Outside Calif, call toll free: 800-854-1081 

TWX 910-335-1269 



MEM0I1Y TRANSPLANT 





Circle 21 on inquiry card. 



SPECIALS 



■T"? 'Fl^. 




NORTH STAR HORIZON: 

HRZ-2-32K-DD-ASM $2275 

HRZ-2-32K-Q-ASM $2675 

NORTHWORD DQ $ 295 

MAIL MANAGER $ 235 

INFO-MANAGER $ 365 

GENERAL LEGER $ 775 

ACC. REC. OR ACC. PAY..$ 445 

WORD STAR $ 

COMMODORE (PET) : 



320 



2001 32K $1090 

8032 (80 COLUMN SCREEN) $1599 

2040 DUAL DRIVE $1090 

8050 DUAL DRIVE (1MEG).$1499 
2022 TRACTOR PRINTER. .. $ 749 



APPLE II PLUS CALL FOR PRICE 

ATARI 800 $ 799 

TI 99/4 CONSOLE&MONITOR..$ 1190 




SPINWRITERS FROM NEC: 

5510 RO OR 5530 RO $2490 

5520 KSR SERIAL $2790 

CENTRONICS: 



730 $ 659 

737-1 (LETTER QUALITY) $ 849 
(WE CARRY THEIR COMPLETE LINE) 
PAPER TIGER 440G $ 990 



BASE II 800MST $ 649 



OTHER PRINTERS WE STOCK: 
ANADEX , COMPRI NT , EATON . EPSON , 
TELETYPE, TI,ETC-CALL FOR PRICE 
DISPLAY TERMINALS 



HAZELTINE 1420 $ 949 

1500 $ 999 

(WE CARRY THEIR COMPLETE LINE) 
INTERTUBE II $ 775 



TELEVIDEO 914 $ 850 



MOST ITEMS IN STOCK. 
PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



MULTI-BUSINESS COMPUTER SYS 
28 MARLBOROUGH STREET 
PORTLAND, CONN. 06480 




(203)342-2747 TWX 710-428-6345 
M-F 9-6 SAT. 9:30-3:00 





Photo 5: Expanded view of the Polaroid ultrasonic sonar transducer. Behind a 
honeycomb grill, a 0.003-inch (0.07 mm)-thick gold-coated foil stretches over a 
concentrically grooved aluminum plate. The retainer at left holds the parts in place. 




Photo 6: The EDB, which contains the electronic circuitry shown in figure 4. The three- 
digit LED display is at the upper right. 



generated by the driver circuit is a 
300 V high-frequency 1 ms "chirp" 
consisting of fifty-six pulses at four 
carefully chosen frequencies: eight 
cycles at 60 kHz, eight cycles at 
57 kHz, sixteen cycles at 53 kHz, and 
twenty-four cycles at 50 kHz. This 



combination is used to overcome cer- 
tain topographical characteristics of 
the area into which the signal is being 
transmitted, where a single frequency 
might be cancelled and no echo 
would be received. 

Text continued on page 42 



38 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 22 on inquiry card. 



^iSfeRMANENT RELIEF 






Word Processing problems 






O; , ^ 







'^m 






Apple PIE 



+ 



Formatter 



Apple PIE (Programma International Editor) 
and FORMAT (text formatter) offer full strength 
solutions to today's word processing problems. 
These versatile, powerful programs provide 
document preparation and word processing 
capabilities previously found only on much larger 
computer systems. 

PIE is a general purpose, full screen editor 
that uses control keys and function buttons to 
provide a full range of editing capabilities such as 
search and replace, delete, copy, insert, move. 
Changes may be made directly anywhere on the 
screen and are shown as they are performed. 

FORMAT uses simple instructions 
embedded in the input text to describe the desired 
appearance of the final document. It handles 
centering, underlining, indenting, page numbering, 



Simple enough for the beginner. Versatile enough for the professional. 



margins, headers, footers, even form letters 
includes a proofing capability. 

These high-quality, cost-effective programs 
come with comprehensive documentation and run 
on a 32K Apple II. They are available through 
your local computer store or direct from 
Programma International, Inc. at the 
introductory price of $79.95*. 

VIDEX VERSION T.M. 

DOUBLE VISION T.M. 

SUPR TERM VERSION T.M. 

STANDARD VERSION 
♦December 1, $129.95. 

PROGRAMMA 

3400 Wilshire Boulevard 

Los Angeles, California 90010 






Photo 7: The prototype of the interface circuit of figure 5 has 
been attached to the EDB. The interface allows a computer to 
read the three-digit distance value. 



Photo 8: Close-up of the back side of the reflector and 
transducer of the scanner, showing the mounting apparatus. 





THERE IS A BETTER WAY: 

XX II for the 8086/8088 . . .only $175. 

A.C.T. II (Assembly Coded Translator) is a cross-assembler that lets you develop 8086/8088 code on any CP/M based 

8080. 8085, or Z80 machine. Compare with competing software: A.C.T. II supports more Intel mnemonics and costs less, 
while delivering features such as assembly speeds greater than 1 000 lines/ minute, macro support, a comprehensive set of 
pseudo-ops, absolute assemblies, system text file support, local proc definition, code file format (standard Intel hex), and 
many more special features. 

A.C.T. II fits in 24K of RAM (including CP/ M). Complete with manual (available separately for $20) and sample programs. 
A.C.T. I IS ALSO AVAILABLE. Develop 6502, 6800, 8080, 8085, and Z80 code on any 8080, 8085, or Z80 machine running 
8fc under CP/M. Same features as A.C.T. II ; $125 with manual (manual available separately for $15). 

SPECIAL COMBINATION PRICE : For a limited time, A.C.T. I and A.C.T. II are available for $225 including all manuals. 

— »-__ . order — call 408-248-5543 

PASCAL at a Basic Price : $ 175 complete :-v, :,..;-„ .■ 

CP/M compatible PASCAL/M includes features such as built-in error checking, console cursor ^^_^^^^ 

controls, extensions chosen for campatibility with other popular PASCALS, complete random file and A CV ~)0( \/\/\ 

long integer(32 bit) support, full Wirth implementation, all I/O totally compatible with CP/M file ^k UV7IW/I/ V I 

strui 'ure. optional updating service, full access to CP/M data files written in other languages and ^^ A 

stored underCP/M, and much more. ^&l 

PASCAL/Mfits in56Kof RAM (Including CP/M) and includes a 90 page manual (available S IP* 
separately for $10). You may never go back to BASIC again ! 

How to order: All disks are shipped on single-sided, single-density, soft-sectored CP/M compatible media. p _ R _„ •vjene 

PASCAL/M: Specify Z80.S080. or Z80+9511 math chip version (all are $175). We accept UPS COD, Mastercard® rSJ. OUA JZOUO ,__„.„. „.„ 
- VISA®, personal checks(allowtime to clear), and certified checks. Californians add sales tax. Add $10 outside USA. SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA 9515^ 




40 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 23 on inquiry card. 



Circle 24 on inquiry card. 



NEW DISK SYSTEM 
POLISHES APPLE 






■* -TRfW -»7 



1 1 

• 



Micro-Sci's new disk drive family 
really makes your Apple shine. 

Both the A-40 and A-70 offer 
extra performance phis the ability 
to read existing diskettes written 
on Apple Disk II systems. 

And a jumper selectable boot 
prom for 13 and 16 sector interger 
Bask or 8 sector Pascal comes 
standard. 

The Model A-40 actually costs 
a lot less than Apple Disk II drives. 
Yet it provides 40 tracks instead of 



35, along with up to 20K increase 
in capacity. Maybe an extra 20K isn't 
anything to write home about, but 
the speed sure is— 5 ms track to 
track vs. Apple's 15 ms. 

The Model A-70, on the other 
hand, features twice the tracks and 
capacity of the Apple Disk II, but 
it costs only a few dollars more. 

The secret of outstanding per- 
formance and reliability is a state- 
of-the-art design incorporating a 
band positioner, instead of a plastic 



jut-so 



cam, plus an improved media 
centering system. 

SPECIAL DISCOUNT. 

One A-40 plus controller is priced 
at only $495 and the second drive 
is Just $395. You can save 
up to $200 per system over Apple II 
drive prices. 

And you can save even more if 
you act now. Contact us today for 
a special $50 introductory discount 
on your Micro-Sci A-40 or A-70 
system order. 



MICRO-SCI 
1405 E. CHAPMAN AVENUE • SUETE E • ORANGE. CALIFORNIA 92666 

MICRO-SCI IS A DIVISION OF SIRNDUN CONTROLS, INC. 
Apple and Apple II are registered trademarks of APPLE COMPUTERS INC.. SAN JOSE. CALIFORNIA 



714/997-9260 



TRANSDUCER 



POWER 

INTERFACE 

CIRCUIT 



fCLOCKl— » DIGITAL < l ' 

\l^J section J 




PROCESSED 
ECHO 



GAIN AND BANDWIDTH' 
CONTROL 



NALOG 
IRCUIT J 



USER 
HARDWARE 



TRANSMITTED 
PULSE 



) 



REFLECTED 
ECHO 



Figure 2: Block diagram of the ultrasonic circuit. The circuit board contains a variety of 
custom components and is slightly modified from the unit used in SX-70 Land cameras. 
This circuit, as well as the EDB, is powered by a 6 V Polapulse battery. It seemed to 
work acceptably with a 5 VDC power supply. 

The block labelled "User Hardware" can be the EDB or any interface that can convert 
the ultrasonic circuit board's time-gated output into useful form. 



Text continued from page 38: 

The ultrasonic circuit board con- 
trols both the transmit and receive 
operating modes. It contains both 
digital and analog circuitry. In addi- 
tion to transmitting the chirp and 
processing the echo, this circuit also 
tailors the amplifier sensitivity 
depending upon the object distance. 
Lower amplification is needed for 
close echoes, while higher amplifica- 
tion is needed for distant echoes. This 
is accomplished by increasing the 
amplifier gain and Q (ratio of re- 
actance to resistance) in steps. Figure 
2 is a block diagram of the ultrasonic 
circuit board. 

Experimental Demonstration 
Board 

The ultrasonic circuit board 
previously described is a modified 
camera assembly. The EDB (Experi- 
mental Demonstration Board, shown 
in photo 6) is not a camera compon- 
ent; it was designed specifically as a 
user interface to the ultrasonic board. 
Text continued on page 48 



POWER 
SUPPLY 



+ 6V 



►vcc 



GND 



ULTRASONIC 

CIRCUIT 

BOARD 



GND 



V S W 
~LT 



MFLOG 



XLOG 



< TRANSDUCER 



i 



EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION BOARD 



ON/OFF 
SWITCH 



420 kHz 

CLOCK 

CIRCUIT 



SYSTEM 

CLOCK CIRCUIT 
5 Hz 



SET 
REFERENCE 



RESET 



TEl I 



SR -L 



TIME-TO-DISTANCE 
CONVERSION 



Al 

4 6/is 

PER CYCLE 



12 INCHES/CYCLE 
178/is /CYCLE 



AC 

COUPLING 



SR 1 



LC 



RESET 



SET 



ECHO 
LATCH 



OF 1 

1000 COUNTS 
OF A7 
178ms 



DLE 

T 



LE 



AC 
COUPLING 



MASTER 
RESET 



SCANNING CLOCK 
CLOCK INPUT 

SCANNING OUTPUTS 



LATCH 
ENABLE 



3-DIGIT BINARY 
COUNTER 



MULTIPLEXED BCD OUTPUTS 



3-DIGIT 
DISPLAY 



I 




DS, 



DS, 



DS 



DRIVE 
CIRCUIT 



Qo 



BCD-TO-SEVEN- 
SEGMENT CONVERSION 



DRIVE 
CIRCUIT 



Figure 3: Block diagram of the Polaroid Experimental Demonstration Board. 

42 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 25 on inquiry card. 






Even at 5 : 12 a.m. , it's hard to quit 
playing Personal Software™ strategy games. 




Gammon Gambler 



A quick game before turning in can become an all-night 
session when you load any of the Personal Software '" strategy 
games into your Apple* PET* or TRS-80.* They'll challenge, 
teach and entertain you. And now there are two new games- 
Gammon Gambler'" and Checker King * —joining Bridge 
Partner," Time Trek '" and the best-selling Microchess." 

Gammon Gambler is a sure bet. With ten levels of skill, 
you can begin a novice and become 
an expert. Whichever level you play, 
the computer moves so quickly 
you don't have to wait. The 
program follows U.S. 
tournament rules, and in- 
cludes the doubling 
cube to spice up the 
game. Written for 
the Apple and 
PET by Willy 
Chaplin. 
Checker King— you probably forgot 
how much fun it is! If you move and 
change your mind, take it back and move 
again— without a peep from the computer. 
Play eight skill levels. Add and remove 
pieces. Save three board positions for later 
play. And solve three challenging checker 
puzzles. Written by Michael Marks for 
the Apple, PET and TRS-80. 

Microchess, the most widely used 
personal computer chess program, is a 
nearly perfect chess opponent for the total 
novice or the advanced enthusiast. Written 
by Peter Jennings for the Apple, PET and 
TRS-80. 

"Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; PET is a 
trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc.; TRS-80 is ^m| 
a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. Mfflt 





Bridge Partner. You against the computer in over 10 million 
different hands of contract bridge. You can even specify the 
hands' high card points. Written by George Duisman for the Ap- 
ple, PET and Level II TRS-80. 

Time Trek is easy to learn, dif- 
ficult to master and impossible to 
forget. Take command of a starship 
in real-time action to make the gal- 
axy safe again. PET version by Brad 
Templeton. TRS-80 program 
by Joshua Lavinsky 

Personal Software, Inc., 

also produces the VisiCalc " 

program (the software that's 

revolutionizing personal 

computing), CCA Data Management Sys- 
tem, the Vitaf acts series and other exciting 
software for the Apple, PET and TRS-80. 
Now that you've read about the 
Personal Software programs, go see a 
demonstration. For the name of your 
nearest Personal Software dealer, call 
(408) 745-7841 or write to Personal 
Software Inc., 1330 Bordeaux Dr., 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 



Checker King 







STUATSjy GAMES SStlES 



While they were thinking 
hardware and software, 
we were thinking 



16K SUPER RAM 

32K SUPER RAM 

16K MEMORY MASTER 

24K MEMORY MASTER 




S-100 SYSTEMS. From add-in memory boards 
to add-on hard disk. High performance S-100 
busboards. Single, dual and quad-density disk 
systems with up to 1 .2 megabytes on a single 
floppy disk drive. I/O boards. All, with 
the Morrow Designs systems approach 
to hardware and software. 

COST EFFECTIVE SYSTEMS. 

Morrow Designs Discus M26 offers 
26 usable megabytes of memory for 
just $4,995. About $192 per mega 
byte. And, it's a complete system 
including a Shugart SA4008 
Winchester-type sealed-media 
hard disk, power supply, cables, 
and cabinet with fan. The single 
board controller supervises all 
data transfers, communicating 




with the CPU through 3 I/O ports (command, 
status, data). The controller can generate inter- 
rupts at the completion of each command. A 
512-byte sector buffer is on-board. And the 
system is available for S-100 main- 
frames. 

SYSTEMS FOR SYSTEMS. Whether 
you're building systems or trying to 
expand your present system at reason- 
able costs, Morrow Designs offers 
complete, cost-effective subsystems. 
Modular systems that allow you 
to build your system your way 

SOFTWARE FOR SYSTEMS. 

Morrow Designs backs each 
subsystem with high-quality, 
fully-tested software. INSTALL 
software allows you to attach 



systems. 





A K 


CF 


L 






LANGUAGES: 

C, RATFOR. FORTRAN, 

PASCAL. BASIC 




M . 






P 








"3 k 


Z80/8080 
CPU 


AUTO-INSTALL 
DEVICE 










WORD PROCESSING 

DATA BASE 

MANAGEMENT 

ACCOUNTING 


<M J 


N V 


DRIVERS 







H 



IEEE STANDARD S-100 BUS 



H 




MULTI BOARD 



1K 

ROM 



1K 
RAM 



REAL 

TIME 

CLOCK 



DAISY PORT 



PROGRAMMABLE 

INTERRUPT 

CONTROLLER 



DAISY WHEEL 
PRINTER 



+ + + 






3 SERIAL PORTS 



RS232 



RS 232 RS 232 



FLOPPY 

DISK 

CONTROLLER 



RS232 



L ! I 



14 INCH 26 MEGABYTE 
HARD DISK 



any Morrow disk system to any CP/M 
system operating under CP/M. 
Morrow CPM/CDOS software allows 
you to attach any Morrow disk drive 
to Cromemco Systems. In fact, if soft- 
ware runs under CP/M, it will run on 
any Morrow Designs hardware. 
COMPARE PERFORMANCE. 
Hardware performance. Software 
performance. System performance. Any 
Morrow Designs disk drive, hard or floppy, 
can be mixed and matched through Morrow 
Designs standard software. And all necessary 
hardware, software and firmware is included 
with each system. 

NOW, COMPARE PRICE. Morrow Designs 
products offer maximum efficiency at minimum 
cost. But we don't cut corners. What that means 

Circle 26 on Inquiry card. 




to you is reliable system efficiency at 
cost effective prices. 

Better systems for less. See Morrow 
Designs full line of memory and I/O, 
plus floppy disk/and the M26 hard 
disk system at your computer sup- 
plier. Or, send in the coupon for our 
full line catalog. Can't wait: Call us at 
(415)524-2101. 



5221 Central Ave Richmond. CA 94804 ;>«■.,.«»& 

Gentlemen, Please send me your complete OEM hardware and 
software specifications. Plus the name of my nearest distributor. 

Name 

Company 

Address 

City 






. State . 



-Zip_ 




* 3 



J3 
C 

s 
a 



1 



II 

S; *> 
\ •• 

12 v> 

n n 

2 *" 

re 2 

II 

* a. 

a. J' 

a 3 



2 ? 

a re 

IS 

3 Co 
re • 

Ih 

If 

ll 

a 

a | 
a. 1 " 

a-S. 

a r 

... 3 
»-► re 

3 i 

"I 

i 2. 

<*)' *» 

So 
On 

a. 9 

fi 

a a. 



re 
I 

I 

o 



r 

(n 

O 

3 

a 



V 0D V DD 




-OV DD SUPPLY 



- BATTERY O- 



IBB 



INPUT 



7.2K 



3 K 
JW^-A-«-(PIN8) 



/77 




e TRS-80 Model III. A 

Standard in Personal 

Computers! 









e new standard is now here 
— this beautiful, feature- 
packed, one-piece desktop 
computer system at a very, 
very affordable price. Continu- 
ing the TRS-80 tradition 
begun with our famous Model I, 
the amazing Model III gives you 
everything you've always wanted 
in a personal computer — including 
easy expandability 

It Talks Your Language! Model III is 
available with either Level I or 
powerful new Model III BASIC. 
Best news of all is that nearly all 
Model I software is compatible 
with Model III, so you already have 
a huge library of applications to 
choose from. Radio Shack already 
offers over 80 quality packages — 
from games to sophisticated 
business programs to word 
processing. 

Big Storage Capacity! Model III 
BASIC features dual-speed cas- 
sette loading (1500 and 500 baud). 
You can expand your Model III to 



Shack is 
Lowering the Cost of 
High Technology! 

$ 699 



As 

Low 
At 



Feature Packed! Every Mc 
III includes a parallel printer 
interface and 65-key 
keyboard. Model III BASIC 
adds "extras" like a real 
time clock, scroll protect, 
keyboard controlled screen 
print, and RS-232 firmware. 



support up to four (two integral) 
double-density disks at 175K each 
for a total system capacity of up to 
670K bytes. 

Powerful Memory! Up to 48K of 
internal memory is easily added, 
since no expansion interface is re- 
quired. Model III is completely 
self-contained. Start with a 4K 
Level I system or move up to our 
16K Model III BASIC right away for 
the applications you need. 

High-Resolution Display! Every 
Model III has a sharp display of 16 
lines of 64 characters. Model in 
BASIC adds lower case plus 
graphics and special characters. 



And It's Very Affordable! The 4K 

Level I system is only $699* The 
16K version with powerful Model 
III BASIC is just $999* So why 
wait, step up to the new standard 
now. Available at Radio Shack 
stores, dealers and Computer Cen- 
ters everywhere. 

The biggest name in little computers® 
Send me your TRS-80 Catalog! 

Radio Shack, Dept. 81-A-40 
1300 One Tandy Center 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



City 



Zip 



'Retail prices may vary at individual stores and dealers. Special order may be required initially. 



Bit 1 




1 
1 



BitO 



1 


1 



Output Digit to Computer 



T5S7 (LSD) 

TJS7 

"DS7 (MSD) 

n/a 



Table 1: Correspondence of the 2-bit digit-select codes with the EDB output data 
sent to the computer. 



ici 

CD4042 



QoO 



Q] 

Q2 

Q 3 



C^ 



o 



13 



n>- 



14 



Qo 

Q 2 
<33 



► 6V 



«< 



10 



11 



1C3 
CD4050 



^ 



$>> 



pt 



*&> 



-L3> BIT 3 



-L3> BIT 2 



-O 8IT1 



4-BIT 
\ PARALLEL 
( INPUT PORT 

(BCD OUTPUT) 



-Obito 



<3C 



+ 6V 
5 f IC4 



CD4070 



iJO 1 




(DIGIT SELECT) 



-ObITI J 2-BIT 

PARALLEL 



<CD BIT OUTPUT PORT 



Figure 5: Schematic diagram of an inter- 
face that allows a computer to directly 
read the three-digit LED display of the 
EDB, using four integrated circuits. 
Through 2 bits of a parallel output port, 
the computer sends a digit-select code and 
then reads the corresponding BCD value 
of the selected digit through 4 bits of a 
parallel input port. 



Number 


Type 


+ 6 V 


GND 


IC1 


CD4042 


16 


8 


IC2 


CD4052 


16 


8 


IC3 


CD4050 


1 


8 


IC4 


CD4070 


14 


7 



JlOOXl 



: loon 



COMPUTER 
OUTPUT { 
PORT 16 



bO L">" 

bl £Z>- 

b2 O- 



0.1 /iF 



7h 



14 



STEPPER MOTOR 



SAA1027 



Q4 
Q3 
Q2 

Qi 



x r 



YELLOW 



GRAY 



YELLOW 



GRAY 



RED 



RED 



BLACK 



Figure 6: Stepper motor and controller used in the infrared and ultrasonic scanner. The 
motor is a North American Philips K82701-P2 type, which turns 7.5° per step. It 
operates on 12 VDC. 

The SAA1027 integrated circuit is available from Signetics or from North American 
Philips, Cheshire, Connecticut, (203) 272-0301. 



Text continued from page 42: 

The EDB contains all the necessary 
electronic circuitry to convert the 
transmit/receive time interval into a 
figure indicating distance (in feet) and 
present it on a three-digit LED (light- 
emitting diode) display. Figure 3 is a 
block diagram of the EDB, while fig- 
ure 4 shows the schematic diagram. 

Connecting the EDB to the com- 
puter requires some thought. The 
output of the EDB is a three-digit 
display with a numeric output range 
of 00.9 to 35.0 in increments of 0.1 
feet. The multiplexed display is con- 
trolled by a three-digit binary counter 
with strobed digit-select lines. It uses 
a single BCD (binary-coded decimal )- 
to-7-segment decoder/driver. At any 
instant, only one digit is energized, 
but because of the persistence of 
human vision, they all appear to be 
illuminated. Unfortunately, this 
multiplexed display output is not 
very computer-compatible and re- 
quires additional interface circuitry. 



Decoding the EDB Output 

Figure 5 is the schematic diagram of 
a f our-integrated-circuit interface that 
decodes the counter output on the 
EDB and latches the digits while the 
computer reads them. Essentially the 
circuit consists of a three-input 
demultiplexer (IC2), an edge detector 
(IC4), a 4-bit latch (ICl), and an out- 
put buffer (IC3). The four-chip circuit 
is conveniently mounted on a piece of 
perforated circuit board and attached 
to the rear of the EDB, as illustrated 
in photo 7. 

When the MSD (most-significant 
digi t) of t he LED display is energized, 
the DS 3 line is low. The data on Q 
thru Q 3 at this time form the BCD 
value of t hat number. Similarly, 
when DS 2 goes low, the data lines 
will hold the second digit value. IC2 
is a 4-to-l-line demultiplexer with the 
three digit strobes as inputs. A 2-bit 
TTL (transistor-transistor logic)- 
compatible parallel output from the 
computer determines which of these 
channels is routed thr ough the 
multiplexer. To get DSi , the LSD 
(least-significant digit), the input code 
to the EDB interface would be 00. A 
binary code of 10 would set channel 
3, allowing DS 3 to go through. A 
summary of the codes is given in table 
1. 

The inputs to IC2 are offset by one 
channel due to the pec uliar t iming of 
the EDB. While the DS 3 line is 



48 November 1980 © BYTE Publications lnc 



Circle 28 on inquiry card. 




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physically tied to channel and 
would appear to be addressed with a 
00 input code, the edge-detector tim- 
ing of the circuit is such that we are 
not latching the current digit's value, 
but the next digit's value, when we 
address the channel. However illog- 
ical it may seem, the codes that work 
are stated in table 1. 

When we have selected which digit 
we want to read by setting the proper 
multiplexer-input code, that digit 
value will be latched into ICl and 
available as a BCD value to the com- 
puter. IC3 buffers the CMOS (com- 
plementary metal-oxide semiconduc- 
tor) voltage levels of the EDB to the 
TTL level required by most comput- 
ers. To read a three-digit range, we 
simply set the three multiplexer codes 
in succession. To obtain the distance 
indication, just add the three values 
as follows: 

Distance = (MSD) X 10 + (2nd 
digit) X 1 + (LSD) X 0.1 

This interface design is essentially 
speed-independent and can be driven 
equally well by an assembly-language 
or BASIC program. Listing 1 is a 
BASIC program that reads and dis- 
plays the three-digit range determined 



RUN 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 

****** 



**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

** 

** 

** 

** 



STEP1 



** 

**** 

** 

** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

**** 

** 



****************** 



******** 
******** 

******** 
******** 
******** 
******** 



******** 
******** 
******** 



********** 
********** 

******** 
****** 
****** 
****** 



******** 

****** 

******** 



STEP 25 



Figure 7a: Bar graph of distance 
measurements taken by the scanning 
system as the ultrasonic transducer was 
pivoted in twenty-five steps through a 
180° sweep around the Circuit Cellar 
(each asterisk represents approximately 
one-half foot) . Note correspondence with 
floor plan in figure 7b. 



by the ultrasonic ranging system. 

A More Sophisticated Scanner 

The original article, "I've Got You 
in My Scanner!," previously men- 
tioned, has been reprinted in the book 
Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, volume 1, 
available from BYTE Books. Photo 8 
is a close-up of the updated version of 
the scanner, which now includes the 
ultrasonic ranging detector. The basic 
scanner consists of a North American 
Philips stepper motor (12 V type 
K82701-P2) and integrated-circuit 
controller (SAA1027) with an infra- 
red-sensitive photo Darlington tran- 
sistor (General Electric type L14F2) 



fixed at the focus of a parabolic 
reflector mounted on the shaft. I used 
a Radio Shack solar cigarette lighter, 
catalog number 61-2797, as the para- 
bolic reflector. The driver circuit for 
the stepper motor is outlined in figure 
6. The original article explained the 
infrared sensing system in detail. 

The new scanner has the ranging 
detector mounted on the stepper- 
motor shaft, above the parabolic 
reflector. Both point in the same 
direction. The stepper motor is driven 
through the SAA1027 with 3 bits of a 
parallel output port. To drive the 
motor clockwise, bit 1 is set low, bit 2 
Text continued on page 56 




@ SUPPORT COLUMN 
SCAN STEP 



TABLE 



j [lJJ 



SOFA 



<*y///i\\ 

<■// li 

/ I 



jr~-STEP 1 

TELEVISION RECORDER 




STEP 25 



-TERMINAL 



-BOOKCASE 



TELEVISION 



Figure 7b: Floor plan of Circuit Cellar showing location of scanner and beam paths to 
room objects during the twenty-five steps in the scanning sweep. Bar graph of figure 7a 
shows relative distance to the nearest obstruction in the beam path at each step. 



50 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 29 on inquiry card. 



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52 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 




Listing 1: A BASIC program that uses the interface circuit shown in figure 5 to read the 
three-digit distance value from the EDB and display the distance on the computer 
printer. A sample execution follows the BASIC-language statements. 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
285 
290 
300 



RUN 



THIS PROGRAM ALLOWS A COMPUTER TO READ AND DISPLAY 
DISTANCE AS MEASURED BY THE POLAROID ULTRASONIC 



RANGING SYSTEM DEMONSTRATOR BOARD. RANGE .9 TO 35 FT. 



' ;S;" FEET" 



REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

GOSUB 250 

PRINT"DI STANCE TO TARGET IS 

GOTO 150 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 



THIS ROUTINE SETS AND READS THE 3 DIGITS ON THE 

RANGING BOARD. 

IT IS A THREE STEP PROCESS: SET THE DIGIT; READ THE 

DIGIT VALUE; AND MASK OFF EVERYTHING EXCEPT THE 4 BIT 

CHARACTER. 
FOR T=0 TO 2 
OUT 16, T 
S(T)=INP(16) 
S(T)=S(T) AND 15 
S=(S(2)*10)+(S(l)*l)+(S(0)*.l) 
NEXT T 
RETURN 



DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.3 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.4 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.5 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.4 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.3 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.4 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.3 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.4 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.4 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.5 


FEET 


DISTANCE 


TO 


TARGET 


IS 


3 


.3 


FEET 



Listing 2: A BASIC program that causes the scanner to make a 180° scanning sweep in 
twenty-five steps and prints the distance measurements in the form of a bar graph. 
Figure 7a shows the output from the execution of this program on the system set up in 
the Circuit Cellar. 



100 REM THIS PROGRAM MAKES A 180 DEGREE SCAN AND RECORDS THE 

110 REM DISTANCE TO SOLID OBJECTS EVERY 7.5 DEGREES. 

120 REM 

130 REM STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLER ATTACHED TO PORT 18 

140 REM ULTRA SONIC RANGING UNIT ATTACHED TO PORT 16 

150 REM 

16 REM 

170 DIM Z (25) 

180 OUT 18,1 :OUT 18,255 :REM PRESET STEPPER CONTROLLER 

190 REM 

200 REM CLOCKWISE SCAN 

210 REM BIT 2 IS SET HIGH AND BIT IS TOGGLED 

220 FOR D=0 TO 24 

230 OUT 18,5 

240 GOSUB 470 

250 OUT 18,4 

260 NEXT D 

27 REM 

280 REM COUNTERCLOCKWISE SCAN 

290 REM BITS 1 AND 2 ARE HELD HIGH AND BIT ZERO IS TOGGLED 

300 FOR D=0 TO 24 

310 OUT 18,7 

320 GOSUB 570 

330 OUT 18,6 

340 NEXT D 

350 REM 



Listing 2 continued on page 56 



Circle 31 on inquiry card. 



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56 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Listing 2 continued: 



360 


REM 


370 


REM PLOT RANGES AS BAR GRAPH 


380 


FOR D=0 TO 24 


390 


FOR W=l TO INT(Z (D) ) 


400 


PRINT"**"; 


410 


NEXT W 


420 


PRINT" " 


430 


NEXT D 


440 


GOTO 220 


450 


REM 


460 


REM 


470 


REM STEP DELAY AND RANGE SAMPLE ROUTINE 


480 


FOR T=0 TO 2 


490 


OUT 16, T 


500 


S(T)=INP(16) :S(T)= S(T) AND 15 


510 


NEXT T 


520 


Z(D)=(S(2)*10)+(S(l)*l)+(S(0)*.l) 


530 


FOR Q=0 TO 10 :NEXT 


540 


RETURN 


550 


REM 


560 


REM 


570 


FOR Q1=0 TO 100 :NEXT 01 


580 


RETURN 



Listing 3: A short BASIC program that demonstrates one method for using the 
ultrasonic scanning device in a security system. 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 



DEMONSTRATES HOW THE 
USED AS AN INTRUSION 



ULTRASONIC 
DETECTOR. 



TAKE FIRST DISTANCE READING 



REM THIS PROGRAM 

REM BOARD CAN BE 

REM 

REM 

A=l :GOSUB 220 :REM 

GOSUB 330 

A=2 :GOSUB 220 :REM TAKE SECOND DISTANCE READING 

IF ABS(X(1) )-ABS(X(2) ) >=.3 THEN GOTO 280 

IF ABS(X(2) )-ABS(X(l))>=.3 THEN GOTO 280 

GOTO 140 :REM CONTINUE SCAN 

REM 

REM 

FOR T=0 TO 2 

OUT 16, T 

S(T)=INP(16) :S(T)=S(T) AND 15 

NEXT T 

X(A)=(S(2)*10)+(S(l)*l)+(S(0)*.l) 

RETURN 

PRINT" I GOT YOU IN MY SCANNER AT ";X(2); 

REM AN ALARM ROUTINE WOULD BE PLACED HERE 

GOTO 140 

REM 

REM 

REM SAMPLE RATE DELAY TIMER 

FOR Y=0 TO 200 :NEXT Y 

RETURN 



RANGING 



FEET. 



RUN 

I GOT YOU IN MY SCANNER AT 11.4 FEET. 



Text continued from page 50: 
is held high, and bit is toggled to 
produce each step. To drive the 
motor counterclockwise, bits 1 and 2 
are held high, and bit is toggled for 
each step. The new scanner can read 
the distance at each step. 

Listing 2 is a program that causes 
the scanner to make a 180° scan and 
prints out the distance measurements 



in the form of a bar graph, demon- 
strated here in figure 7a. 

To help you understand the mode 
of operation and value of the ranging 
device, I have also sketched the area 
of the Circuit Cellar where the mea- 
surements were taken. (See figure 
7b.) 

The scanner (the red object in fig- 
ure 7b) was placed on a tripod at a 




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height of 5 feet (1.5 meters), about 2 
feet (0.6 meters) in front of my desk 
area. The parabolic reflector was 
pointed 90° to the left of center so 
that a 180° scan resulted in it ending 
up pointing 90° right of center. At 
each of the twenty-five steps it took 
to reach this point, it measured the 
distance to the nearest obstruction to 
its line of detection. For comparison, 
the blue dotted lines in figure 7b show 
where each step should have been and 
what should have been in the way of 
the sonar "beam." 

The program of listing 2 printed the 
graph bar corresponding to each step, 



starting with step 1. At the position 
reached after step 1, the system 
recorded a distance of about 5 feet 
(1.5 meters) to the VTR (videotape 
recorder) on the counter top. The 
same result was obtained for the next 
two steps. At the position reached 
after step 4 (about 30° around), the 
scanner was pointing between the 
stereo system and the TRS-80 com- 
puter on the desk to the right. This 
was indicated by a reading of about 
15 feet (4.6 meters), measuring the 
distance to the bookcase on the far 
wall. 
The next couple of steps had the 



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TRS-80 directly in the path of the 
scanner beam, and then the path of 
the beam was open to the far wall 
again for a couple of steps. The rest of 
the scan was similarly significant in 
that the range detector accurately 
described the perimeter from its view- 
point. Most important, however, was 
the demonstration of the sensitivity 
of the ranging device. At steps 9 and 
16, the only object in the path be- 
tween the scanner and the wall was a 
4-inch (10 cm) ceiling-support column 
about 7 feet (2.1 meters) away. In 
both cases the obstruction was ac- 
curately identified. 

We now have a device that can 
rotate to a particular position and ac- 
curately measure the distance to any 
object it "sees." A practical use of the 
range detector is as a security device. 
When the wall is known to be 16 feet 
(4.8 meters) away from the scanner, a 
sudden reading of 9 feet (2.7 meters) 
indicates that someone or something 
just moved in front of the range 
detector. The program of listing 3 
allows the range detector to be used 
as a motion detector. 

In Conclusion 

I have demonstrated only two uses 
for the Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging 
System Demonstrator Kit. The ma- 
jority of applications I've heard about 
thus far have been independent pro- 
jects that utilize the ranging system 
without the additional capabilities of 
a computer. They include a walking 
cane (with audio feedback) for the 
visually handicapped, a to 35 foot 
(0 to 11 meter) altimeter for the 
Gossamer Albatross aircraft (for its 
English Channel crossing), and as an 
electronic "dip stick" for measuring 
liquid levels in storage tanks. 

I hope that once you realize how 
easy it is to attach this automatic 
ranging system to a computer, you'll 
have as much fun experimenting with 
it as I have. Unfortunately, a new 
problem has arisen. Until now, one of 
the major reasons I haven't attempted 
to build a robot was the amount of 
expense and technical effort required 
to make it "see." Now I'll have to find 
a new excuse.! 



Next Month: 

Automated testing of electronic 
products using programs written in 
a high-level computer language. 



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Technical Fcnum 



Kinetic String 
Art for the Apple 

Louis Cesa, 305 Doris Ave, Vestal NY 13850 

The accompanying photographs were produced using 
high-resolution graphics on the Apple II computer. As in- 
teresting as the pictures are, they do not do justice to the 
real-time art that takes place on the screen. The photo- 
graphs show only time slices at different stages in the 
development of the kinetic string art. On the screen one 
can see shapes forming and gradually being replaced by 
other shapes in a continuous display of color and motion. 



Algorithm Description for 
Kinetic String Art Program 

1. Initialize Variables: 

Xl=X2 = Yl=Y2 = CNTl = CNT2=0; 
DIM C(150), TX1(150), TX2(150), TY1(150), 

TY2(150); 
AT = 1 

2. Erase the line from TXl(AT), TYl(AT) to TX2 
(AT), TY2(AT) of color C(AT). 

3. If CNTl =0 then choose a new random color and a 
new random CNTl. 

COLOR =1 + RND(3) 
CNTl = 5x(l+RND(10)) 

4. If CNT2 = then choose new step sizes for 
DX1, DY1, DX2 and DY2 and a new random CNT2: 
DXl = RND(9)-4 

DYl=RND(9)-4 
DX2=RND(9)-4 
DY2 = RND(9)-4 
CNT2=5X(1+RND(10)) 

5. Compute new XI, Yl, X2, Y2 for next line and test 
for screen boundaries. For example, 

470PX1=X1 + DX1 

480 IF PX1> =0 AND PXK = MX THEN 500 

490 PX1=X1: DX1= -DXl 

500X1=PX1 

6. Draw the new line from XI, Yl to X2, Y2. 

7. Store the coordinates and color of the new line in: 

C(AT), TXl(AT), TX2(AT), TYl(AT), TY2(AT) 

8. Step AT to next position in table. 
AT=AT+1 

IF AT > 150 THEN AT = 1 

9. Go to step 2. 




The algorithm used is quite simple. (See textbox. Con- 
tractual agreements preclude publishing a listing of the 
program.) The pictures are drawn by a line segment 
making a random walk on the screen. An initial pair of 
endpoints is chosen at random; also chosen at random 
are color, number of lines to be drawn with that color, 
step size for each endpoint (in the x and y directions), and 
number of times that the step sizes are to be used. Suc- 
cessive lines are drawn by advancing the endpoints of the 
line by the chosen step size in the x and y directions. 



62 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 




Whenever the number of times that an action was to be 
executed (such as number of lines to be drawn in a given 
color) is exhausted, new random values for that quantity 
and for the number of times that the quantity should be 
used, are chosen. If a point attempts to walk off the 
screen, it is reflected back. 

The designs in the accompanying photographs are 
formed by 150 lines. The program was coded so that 
when the 151st line is added, the first line is deleted, and 
so on. This is done by a routine that keeps track of each 



line segment currently on the screen. When the table con- 
tains 150 lines, this routine erases the oldest line segment 
before adding a new one. (This effect can be noted in 
photos 1 and 2.) Interesting effects can be obtained by 
using different algorithms to choose the new line to be 
added at each iteration. For example, an interesting effect 
is obtained with just 10 lines on the screen and choosing 
random endpoints for each new line (essentially a visual 
image of white noise). ■ 



November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 63 



Micrograph 

Part 1: Developing an 
Instruction Set for a Raster-Scan Display 



E Grady Booch 

4314 Driftwood Dr 

Colorado Springs CO 80907 



Simply stated, computer graphics 
is the technique of visual communica- 
tion from computer to man. (See 
reference 14.) Interactive computer 
graphics is an important subset of this 
broad field and relates to computer- 
generated displays that can interact 
with a user in real or near-real time. 
Interactive graphics started with at- 
tempts to use the CRT (cathode-ray 
tube) as a computer output device. 
(See reference 12). The Whirlwind I in 
1950 and Sketchpad in 1963 are ex- 
amples of early attempts at interac- 
tive computer-graphics systems. 
Since that time, two distinct classes of 
CRT-based devices have been 
developed for use in interactive 
graphics: calligraphic (or vector) 
devices and raster-scan (as in a televi- 
sion receiver) devices. 

The area of vector graphics "has 
for several years been sufficiently 
mature to justify efforts at standardi- 
zation within it." (See reference 8.) A 
large body of information is available 
on the design of such systems. (See 
reference 13.) However, the same is 



not necessarily true of raster-scan 
devices. Until recently, raster-scan 
technology has not been economical- 
ly feasible. Decreasing hardware 
costs, especially for memory, have 
facilitated the trend toward raster- 
scan displays. (See reference 3.) The 
emergence of raster-scan displays has 
a side benefit, namely that "raster- 
scan technology is the only 
economical way to achieve color in 
full-sized displays." (See reference 4.) 
For the microcomputer user, this 
means that he can add moderate- 
resolution color graphics to a system 
at an affordable price, using raster- 
scan technology. The benefits of col- 
or graphics for the personal computer 
are obvious: not only are color 
displays dazzling and eye-catching, 
but more important, they add a 
new dimension for communicating 
with a computer. Microcomputers 
with color-graphics capabilities have 
been available for some time, such as 
the Apple II and the Compucolor. 
Within the past year, however, 
Motorola and AMI (American 



Microsystems Incorprated) have 
released a LSI (large-scale integration) 
chip, called a video-display 
generator, which performs all the 
video functions necessary to produce 
a color-graphics and alphanumerics 
display on a standard, unmodified 
color television. As a result, low-cost 
color-graphics displays are now 
possible for the personal computer 
user. 

This three-part article presents the 
theory, design, and construction of a 
low-cost, color-graphics display pro- 
cessor called Micrograph, which is 
based on the Motorola MC6847 
video-display generator. (See photo 
1.) Essential characteristics of 
Micrograph are described in the text 
box. In the remainder of this article, I 
will review the characteristics of in- 
teractive computer-graphics systems, 
followed by an overview of the 
Micrograph design. Subsequent ar- 
ticles will concern the hardware con- 
struction details for Micrograph and 
the software necessary to control the 
system. 



About the Author 

£ Grady Booch is currently a computer 
systems design engineer with the Air 
Force Space and Missile Test Center. He is 
involved with the development of a high- 
resolution color-graphics system for 
tracking missile launches. Grady received 
his bachelor of science and master of 
science degrees in computer science from 
the United States Air Force Academy and 
the University of California, Santa Bar- 
bara, respectively. 



Micrograph Features: 

• 64 by 64, 128 by 128, and 256 by 
192 pixel resolutions are available. 

• Up to eight different colors are 
displayed at one time. 

• It contains a single-board pro- 
cessor, based on Zilog Z80 pro- 
cessor and Motorola MC6847 
Video Display Generator. 

• Construction cost: about $275 . 



• High-level graphics primitives 
support. 

• Both graphics and alphanumer- 
ics are supported. 

• It interfaces to a host microcom- 
puter via three 8-bit input/output 
ports (status, input, and output) 
and by radio- frequency or video 
entry to a standard, unmodified 
color television. 



64 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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PROCESSOR 2 
I 




CODE 
GENERATOR 



DISPLAY 
FILE 



__, DISPLAY 
^ PROCESSOR 



CRT 




DATA BASE 



Figure 1: A general block diagram of an interactive graphics-display system. The functions of Processor 1 and Processor 2 may be 
performed by the same device; however, the output of Processor 1 must be a structured abstract of the image to be displayed, for the 
graphics package (Processor!) to operate. (The figure is from Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics, by Newman and Sproull. 
Copyright 1973, used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company.) 



Background on Interactive 
Computer-Graphics Systems 

Newman and Sproull, in their book 
Principles of Interactive Computer 



Graphics (reference 12), present an 
excellent model of a generalized in- 
teractive graphics system, as 
reproduced in figure 1. Processor 1, 




Photo 1: A view of the completed Micrograph prototype, based on the Motorola 
MC6847 video-display generator. Use of this integrated circuit greatly simplifies hard- 
ware design by eliminating the complex divider-chains usually found in homebrew 
video displays. 



which is not necessarily a different 
physical processor than Processor 2, 
handles program-specific processing 
for a particular graphics application. 
The output of this processor is 
generally a structured, abstract 
representation of the set of images 
that will be displayed. 

Processor 2 represents the process- 
ing that is to be handled by a graphics 
package, as it is commonly called. 
This processor manipulates the 
abstract representations, performing 
transformations (such as rotation, 
translation, and scaling) and clipping 
as needed. The output of this pro- 
cessor is generally a display file con- 
sisting of instructions that are mean- 
ingful to a physical display processor. 
The display processor uses these in- 
structions to produce an image upon 
some type of display device. For in- 
teractive graphics, these processes 
must occur very rapidly. 

Numerous graphics packages for 
commercial systems exist to handle 
the requirements of Processors 1 and 
2. SIGGRAPH (Special Interest 
Group on Computer Graphics) of the 
ACM (Association for Computing 
Machinery) has proposed a standard 
for such systems. However, for our 
purposes, we must turn our attention 
to the display processor itself. Before 
examining the design for a color- 



66 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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graphics display processor, we must 
consider the characteristics of 
calligraphic and raster-scan displays. 

Comparison of Display 
Devices 

Four basic technologies exist to 
support interactive graphics: 

• calligraphic 

• raster-scan 

• storage-tube 

• plasma 

Three of these devices (calligraphic, 
raster-scan, and storage-tube) are 
CRT-based, but only two 
(calligraphic and raster-scan) are 
adaptable to interactive, rapidly 



Glossary 

Aliasing: As used here, a granular 
or stair-stepped appearance in an 
image caused by the display screen 
being divided into a finite number 
of elements. This effect is most 
noticeable on low-resolution 
displays and on high-resolution 
displays with near-horizontal or 
near-vertical lines. 
Calligraphic Display: A display, 
that produces an image from a col- 
lection of vectors and points, by 
directing the electron beam in the 
X and Y directions corresponding 
to the vector endpoints. 
Display Processor: A special- 
purpose peripheral processor that 
is dedicated to producing a visual 
image on some type of display 
(usually a CRT) based on special 
graphics instructions in a display 
list. 

Instancing: The technique of defin- 
ing one image, then being able to 
perform transformations to 
reproduce the same image in 
several different places on the 
display. 

Pixel: A picture element. 
Raster-Scan Display: A display 
that produces images, just as in 
television, by amplitude modula- 
tion of the Z-axis beam along a full 
screen of horizontal lines (the 
raster). 

Scan-Line Conversion: An 
algorithm used to calculate each 
individual point along a vector, 
given the starting and ending 
points. 

Transformation: Modifications of 
an image, such as translation 
(movement in the X, Y, or Z axis), 
rotation (also in any axis), and 
scaling (also in any axis). 



moving displays. 

Calligraphic displays produce im- 
ages by drawing vectors using end- 
point information. A relative or ab- 
solute position is presented to the 
display, and the electron beam is 
deflected from its current position. 
Analog methods of vector generation 
can produce high-resolution vectors. 
Symbols are usually generated as a 
collection of vectors. Special hard- 
ware may also exist to produce circles 
and arcs, but these features are 
generally not cost-effective. 

Calligraphic displays can achieve 
resolutions of up to 4096 by 4096 pix- 
els (ie: picture elements) which cor- 
responds to 16,777,216 elements 
(which is why I don't consider 256 by 
256 pixels or even 512 by 512 pixels as 
"high resolution"). (See reference 11.) 
Therefore, a 21-inch-diagonal rec- 
tangular CRT will typically have a 
spot size of 0.02 inches (0.5 mm). (See 
reference 9.) Vectors using these 
techniques will appear sharp rather 
than granular. Several thousand vec- 
tors may be displayed flicker-free. 

Calligraphic displays can produce 
color images using beam-penetration 
tubes. This type of CRT has multiple 
layers of phosphor coating on the 
face of the tube. Individual colors 
(usually four different colors) are pro- 
duced by varying the anode voltage 



and hence the depth of beam penetra- 
tion. 

Raster-scan displays produce an 
image much like commercial televi- 
sion by generating a full screen of 
horizontal lines. This set of lines (the 
raster) is modulated in the Z axis (in- 
tensity and color) to produce an im- 
age. Vectors are drawn using digital 
scan-line-conversion techniques 
which compute every point along the 
vector. Symbols are usually 
generated using a character generator 
which directly plots each point of the 
symbol. 

Raster-scan displays can achieve 
resolutions up to 2048 by 2048 in 
monochrome and 1024 by 1024 in 
color, which corresponds to roughly 
one million pixels (for color). (See 
reference 9.) The limited resolution 
for color displays results from the dif- 
ficulty in producing shadow masks 
and the granularity of the phosphor- 
dot triples used in constructing the 
CRT. Because of the nature of the 
raster-scan CRT, the individual dots 
have insignificant overlap and 
therefore vectors appear coarse and 
stair-stepped. However, techniques 
such as ordered-dithering and anti- 
aliasing algorithms exist to reduce the 
effect of granularity. (See references 
7, 10, and 12.) Stair-stepping (or 
aliasing) is most noticeable in near- 



68 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



CALLIGRAPHIC DISPLAY RASTER-SCAN DISPLAY 






Advantages 


Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages 






• High resolution 
(4096 by 4096). 


• Analog circuitry • Digital circuitry • Moderate 
often requires is quite reliable. resolution 
adjustment. (1024 by 1024 

color). 






• Thousands of 
vectors can be 
displayed. 


• Limited colors • Many colors • Digital scan-line 
(usually four). possible (more conversion is 

than 2"). slow. 

• Display has low • Display is 
brightness. high intensity. 








• Limited • Many (gray 
intensities scale) 
are possible. intensities exist. 






• Shading of • Shading areas 
large areas is simple, 
impossible. 








• Flicker occurs • Display does 
when too many not flicker, 
vectors are 
displayed. 








• Ghosting • Display has 
occurs on high contrast, 
rapidly moving 
displays. 






Table 1: Comparison of calligraphic (ie: vector) and raster-scan displays. 






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Figure 2: The display list of primitive in- 
structions performed by the display pro- 
cessor of a calligraphic (ie: vector) 
display. The loop is performed repeatedly 
by the processor to guide the display elec- 
tronics. A new or modified display is pro- 
duced by altering the display list. 



COLOR DATA 




Figure 3: A color raster-scan frame buffer. Each pixel (ie: picture element) on the screen 
is represented by a unique set of X and Y coordinates. Every coordinate is associated 
with some amount of color information (in this case, 4 bits). This data may be used to 
specify an address in a color-look-up table such as figure 4. 



vertical and near-horizontal lines. 
Any number of vectors, up to and in- 
cluding a full CRT screen, can be 
displayed without flicker. 

Color raster-scan displays produce 
their images by exciting triads of dots 
or rectangles at each pixel. Each triad 
generally consists of one red, one 
blue, and one green element. Dif- 
ferent colors (in excess of 2 16 ) can be 
produced by exciting each element at 
different levels of intensity. 

Clearly, the use of each type of 
display is associated with certain ad- 
vantages and disadvantages, as sum- 
marized in table 1. 

Controlling a Calligraphic 
Display 

As mentioned previously, a 
calligraphic display draws vectors 
based upon endpoint information. 
Even the most complex images can be 
created as a collection of vectors. 
Because of the short persistence of the 
CRT phosphors required for a fast 
calligraphic display, once a vector is 
drawn, it will disappear very quickly, 
typically in just a few milliseconds. 
Thus, the entire display must be con- 
tinuously refreshed to avoid flicker 
and a loss of portions of the image. 



Refresh rates vary with the intensity 
of the display, but the image must be 
refreshed at least 30 times per second. 

These requirements give rise to a 
structure called a display list. As 
figure 2 indicates, a display list is 
simply a collection of primitive in- 
structions for the display processor. 
The display processor repeatedly 
scans this list to send vector-drawing 
information to the display elec- 
tronics. To modify a display, Pro- 
cessor 2 (of figure 1) simply points the 
display processor to a new display 
list, or inserts or deletes a portion of 
the existing list. Generally, a display 
list is stored external to the display 
processor in the host-processor 
memory and is addressed via DMA 
(direct memory access). 

Numerous instruction sets have 
been devised for calligraphic-display 
processors. Since displays at this 
primitive level are very difficult to 
control, the trend is toward higher- 
level graphics languages. However, 
all primitive instruction sets must 
contain certain basic features, in- 
cluding primitives to move the beam, 
draw a line, draw a character, call a 
subroutine, and change colors or in- 
tensity. 



Controlling a Raster-Scan 
Display 

Unlike calligraphic displays, raster- 
scan displays generally employ what 
is known as a frame buffer. The 
frame buffer is essentially a block of 
memory that maintains a one-to-one 
correspondence with the set of pixels. 
In other words, there exists one 
memory location for every pixel. A 
pixel can be specified in one or more 
bits, as figure 3 indicates. Thus, color 
information for a pixel is stored at 
each memory location. In color 
raster-scan displays, this memory 
location does not necessarily hold 
physical color information, but often 
supplies a pointer to a color-look-up 
table, as figure 4 indicates. Thus, for 
example, a pixel may be specified by 
4 bits, but the color information may 
be translated to any sixteen of a possi- 
ble 2 16 colors. This technique allows 
the display of many different colors 
with a conservation of memory. The 
techniques of contrast stretching and 
pseudocoloring can be easily 
achieved with a color-look-up table. 

A raster-scan display does require a 
large amount of memory to imple- 
ment the frame buffer. For example, a 
display with a resolution of 512 by 



70 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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512 by 8 requires 256 K bytes of 
memory. This drawback is one of the 
primary reasons that raster-scan 
devices have only recently become 
cost-effective. 

Using a frame buffer, an image is 
drawn by inserting color information 
into the memory location 
corresponding to the appropriate pix- 
el. This architecture has the feature of 
producing flicker-free images; 
however, to draw vectors the display 
processor must calculate every point 
along the vector. Scan-line- 
conversion algorithms that calculate 
the points of a vector (given the end- 
points) exist, but such algorithms are 
slow compared to analog techniques 
used in calligraphic displays. Once an 
image is written into the frame buffer, 
it will be continuously displayed. 
Refresh is not required by the host, 
but the image cannot be modified as a 
calligraphic display can. 

Clearly, the characteristics of color 
raster-scan displays present control 
problems unlike those for calligraphic 
displays. We must therefore not only 
exploit the inherent color-display 
potential, but we must also deal with 
the problems of selectively updating a 
raster-scan display. As the next sec- 
tion indicates, we can adapt 
calligraphic control techniques to ef- 
fectively control a color raster-scan 
display. 

Primitives for a Color Raster- 
Scan Display 

To develop an instruction set for a 
color-graphics display processor, we 
must first establish our requirements. 
We assume as a minimum that these 
primitive instructions will be ex- 
ecuted by an intelligent display pro- 
cessor having both a single-frame 
buffer and a color-look-up table. 
Therefore, we require that: 

• The set of graphics primitives must 
permit the construction of any im- 
age within the physical limitations 
of the raster-scan display. The set 
doesn't need to be minimal: effi- 
ciency is a more important 
characteristic. 

• The graphics primitives must be 
implementation-independent. The 
primitives must be applicable to 
any resolution and not be con- 
strained by word size or any 
similar characteristic of the target 
processor. 

• The graphics primitives must be 

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DATA 


1 





PIXEL 



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WHICH 
POINTS 

TO •«. 





















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Figure 4: Color-look-up table. Using this scheme, a 4-bit value from the frame buffer 
(shown in figure 3) can select one of sixteen predefined colors. In this example, each col- 
or is composed of various intensities of red, green, and blue. Other systems may specify 
colors by indicating values for intensity, hue, and saturation. 



adaptable to a display-list struc- 
ture, since display lists are a well- 
established form of control for 
display processors and hence per- 
mit straightforward integration 
with generalized graphics-support 
software in the host processor. 

Graphics Primitives 

As explained previously, we know 
that raster-scan and calligraphic 
displays are architecturally different. 
However, our third requirement in- 
dicates that both classes of displays 
must at least appear identical to the 
user. Therefore, our graphics 
primitives become an abstraction for 
the control of a raster-scan display. 
We must design a set of primitives in- 
dependent of the actual architecture 
of the display. Just as with the 
benefits of using a high-level pro- 
gramming language, the use of 
abstractions in controlling a graphics 



display allows the user to concentrate 
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concerning himself with the 
mechanics of the implementation. 

Before examining the primitives for 
a color raster-scan display, it is im- 
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critical abstractions. First, it is 
necessary that the user visualize the 
display processor as manipulating a 
two-dimensional Cartesian surface, 
with the origin of the space at some 
predefined location (usually the 
center, or lower left-hand corner) on 
the display surface. There may or 
may not be a direct mapping of pixel 
data in the display-processor memory 
to this surface: the actual implemen- 
tation should be invisible to the user. 

From the previous section, we 
know that the display processor 
doesn't need to be concerned with 
identification of objects that are 
displayed in this space, but rather we 



74 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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need only to be able to manipulate 
the pixel data that forms these ob- 
jects. 

The second abstaction which we 
must develop concerns graphics- 
display registers. These registers are 
defined in the display processor and 
may be addressed by the user to set 
up global image parameters, such as 
current vector type, or to provide im- 
mediate processor-status informa- 
tion, such as the current X and Y posi- 
tion. Clearly, these registers may be 
implemented in diverse portions of 
the display hardware. Concerning the 
second requirement, it is important 
that the user sees these registers as an 
easily addressable set that may be 
referenced by the host processor. As 
we shall see, the use of graphics- 
display registers helps reduce the 
scope of some of the graphics 
primitives that are necessary to con- 
trol a color raster-scan display. 

It is evident, as with any graphics 
display, that the minimum set of in- 
structions we need includes only a 
point-positioning and a vector- 
drawing primitive. But clearly, this 
set is by no means efficient. Thus, I 
will present and defend the set of 
graphics primitives for a color raster- 
scan display which will be im- 
plemented in Micrograph. Next I 
will present the primitive instruc- 
tions in their mnemonic form in order 
to maintain their implementation in- 
dependence. 

As with a calligraphic display, one 
of the most fundamental operations 
we perform is point positioning. 
Since a raster-scan display does not 
produce an image by beam move- 
ment, but rather by Z-axis modula- 
tion, we must abstract current X and 
Y coordinates, which may also be ad- 
dressed as graphics-display registers. 
To increase the utility of a move 
primitive (ie: primitive instruction 
specifying a movement), we must in- 
clude several options. To begin, both 
absolute and relative point position- 
ing are necessary. The need for ab- 
solute positioning is obvious; relative 
positioning permits an entire display 
to be defined relative to a single point 
in the image, which is an essential 
feature if subroutines and instancing 
are to be supported. 

Furthermore, remember that the 
elements of an image are often closely 
spaced: thus, we need options for 
long and short movement. With a 



long movement, we may express a 
point position in the full-screen coor- 
dinates (for either absolute or relative 
positioning). With a short movement, 
we may express a point position with 
a limited maximum value (such as 
to 7, again either absolute or 
relative). Therefore, it's possible to 
decrease display-list memory re- 
quirements with the use of short 
movements, which take less storage 
than a long instruction. Finally, it is 
often necessary to simply plot a single 
point. To do so, we must include the 
option to illuminate or not. If we il- 
luminate, we obviously must include 
a parameter for the color of the point. 
Mnemonically, our move primitive 
can be represented as: 

MOVT,M,C,I,(±)X,(±)Y 

where: 

T = type (Short or Long move- 
ment) 

M = mode (Absolute or Relative 
positioning) 
C = color 

I = illuminate (Yes or No) 
X = X position or offset (with a 
sign on the relative mode) 
Y = Y position or offset (with a 
sign on the relative mode) 

For example, the primitive: 

MOVS,R,4,Y,+3,-4 

moves the current X,Y position by an 
offset of (3,-4) and illuminates that 
point in a color whose code is 4. 

The next obvious primitive we 
need performs vector drawing. With 
the same justification as for the move 
primitive, we must permit the options 
of long and short vectors. We assume 
that the starting point of the vector is 
the current X, Y position, and the end- 
points are determined by either ab- 
solute or relative positioning. Just as 
with a move primitive, we must also 
be able to specify the color of the vec- 
tor. Finally, we must be able to define 
the current vector type, such as solid, 
dashed, or dotted vectors. Experience 
indicates that such line types are rare- 
ly used. Therefore, rather than speci- 
fying this parameter in the primitive 
itself, we assume that we have 
available a graphics-display register 
that defines the current line type. 
Mnemonically, our vector primitive 



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can be represented as: 

VECT,M,C,(±)X,(±)Y 
where: 

T = type (Short or Long move- 
ment) 

M = mode (Relative or Absolute 
endpoints) 
C = color 

X = X position or offset (with a 
sign in the relative mode) 
Y = Y position or offset (with a 
sign in the relative mode) 

For example, the primitive: 

VEC L,A,15,255,180 

draws a vector (with the color coded 
15) from the current X,Y position to 
the pixel (255,180). 

We must have an instruction that 
allows us to call a subroutine. Such a 
primitive is essential to support object 
instancing. Furthermore, since we 
assume the existence of an intelligent 
target display processor, we must ex- 
pand our primitive to permit a call to 
a display-processor subroutine. Such 



an option allows the user to execute 
his own predefined routines, which 
can possibly decrease the image- 
generation time and reduce some of 
the processing burden from the host 
for often-used routines. Clearly, this 
option is not essential, but it does 
allow the user to exploit the full 
capabilities of the display processor. 
Mnemonically, our call primitive (ie: 
primitive instruction to call a 
subroutine) can be represented as: 



CALL T,N 



where: 



T = type of subroutine (Processor 

or Graphics) 

N = name or number of 

subroutine 

For example, the primitive: 
CALL G7 

calls the grapics subroutine number 7. 
Along with the call primitive, we 
obviously must have a primitive 
which allows us to return from a 
subroutine. Our return primitive in- 
struction can be represented as: 



RET 



Text is often an element of a 
display and therefore warrants its 
own primitive. It is important to 
realize that text usually occurs as a 
string of symbols rather than a single 
symbol. Therefore, we must include 
an option to display a number of con- 
tiguous symbols. Furthermore, in 
terms of the symbols themselves, we 
may wish to use either a standard 
alphanumeric font or a user-defined 
font. Therefore, we assume the 
availability of a programmable sym- 
bol generator. As will be explained, 
the user may define his own set of 
symbols and then display a string of 
symbols by using the symbol 
primitive, passing it the codes for the 
appropriate symbols. Mnemonically, 
our symbol primitive can be 
represented as: 



SYM N,S„..S„- 



where: 



N = number of symbols in the 

string 

Si = symbol code 




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For example, if we have defined a 
128-character ASCII (American Stan- 
dard Code for Information Inter- 
change) set of symbols, the primitive: 

SYM 5,68,80,77,80,83 

displays the string "COLOR". 

Also, as noted earlier, we may need 
to synchronize our display with the 
display frame rate, especially if we 
wish to perform animation with 
smooth movements. Therefore, we 
need a primitive that suspends 
display processing until the end of a 
frame or until after a certain number 



of frames. Mnemonically, our wait 
primitive can be represented as: 

WAITN 
where: 

N = number of frames to wait 

For example, the primitive: 

WAIT 7 

suspends processing for seven frames. 
Since we have assumed the ex- 
istence of a color-look-up table to 
facilitate pseudocoloring and 
contrast-stretching, we must provide 




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some method of controlling such a 
structure. There are two common 
methods for the organization of such 
tables. One method allows for the 
definition of a color by the propor- 
tions of red, green, and blue elements 
(the colors which physically make up 
a pixel). This method is easily per- 
formed in hardware, but it is not 
readily adaptable to common English 
color descriptions (such as hot pink 
or sea green). A preferred method, 
which we shall use, defines a color by 
its hue, intensity, and saturation. 
This classification refers to, respec- 
tively, the gradation of color (red, 
pink, purple), the brightness of the 
color, and the purity, or amount of 
black, in the color (dark red, fire- 
engine red). 

We abstract the existence of a 
three-part table (which will actually 
be implemented in hardware) that is 
used as a color-look-up table. Since 
this table is user-alterable, we will 
refer to its parts as color memories. 
(They would usually be implemented 
as programmable-memory elements.) 
In order to generalize this primitive, 
we need to be able to update the en- 
tire table, one entire portion of the 
table (hue, intensity, or saturation), 
or all the parameters for a given color 
code. This table will allow selection 
of 2" colors out of a 2' + ** 5 color set 
where n is the pixel size in bits and i, 
h, and s are, respectively, the word 
size of the intensity, hue, and satura- 
tion color memory. For example, if n 
= i = h = s = 4, we can select one 
of sixteen colors out of a 2 12 color set. 
Mnemonically, our load-color- 
memory primitive can be represented 
as: 



LCRAM R,M,(A,)C, 



where: 



R = reference (intensity, Hue, or 

Saturation color memory, or All) 

M= mode (Single address or All 

addresses in table) 

A = address (optional) 

C = color data for the color 

memory 

For example, the primitive: 

LCRAM A,S,2,5,7,2 



DETACHABLE INSERT 



80 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 48 on inquiry card. 



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ENGINEERING SELECTION GUIDE •FALL 1990 




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T 




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THE 8" 9 TO 45 M BYTES 
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FROM 



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PRIORITY rONEH ELECTRONICS , 



FOR THE INSIDE TRACK, SEE PAGE 8 



80 — CV II BYTE November 1980 



r 




PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 


1 


We thank Robert Tinney for accurately depicting, on our cover, PRIORITY ONE 


ELECTRONICS' support for the electronic industry, worldwide and beyond. We will continue 


to service you with the finest state of the art components. PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS is 


proud to present our 


Fall, 1980 Engineering Selection Guide. 


Please detach the selection 


guide from 


your magazine and take a few moments to look 


over the wide variety of fine 


products that PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS has assembled for you. 


Anacom General Corp. 


15 


Fluke 


44,45 


Probes 


34.38.39,46 


Antronics 


52 


Frequency Counters 


39, 47, 48 


Prototyping Supplies 


12,24-33.36-38 


AP Products 


17, 35-37 


Function Generators 


39,48 


Pulse Generators 


38, 39 


Apparat 


16 


Global Specialties Corp. 


38, 39 


QT Computer Systems 


2,3, 5,12,13 


Apple Memory Expansion 


16,17,19 


Godbout 


2-4,12,13 


RAM ICs 


16, 19 


Apple Peripherals 


17 


GSC 


52, 53 


Resistors 


22 


B. & K. Precision 


46, 48 


Hard Disks 


7-9 


Ribbon Cable 


24 


Bishop Graphics 


31-33 


Hard Holes 


18 


Robinson Nugent 


25 


Books 


17, 54 


Hazeltine 


14 


RS232 Connectors & Cable 


24 


Breadboards 


27-29, 32, 


33 Head Cleaning Kits 


18 


RS232 Interfaces 


3, 17 


Breadboards, Solderless 


37, 38 


Heders 


16,24,25,35,36 


S100 Products 


2-13,16,28,32,33 


Bug Box System 


40 


Heat Guns 


50 


Sams Books 


16, 54 


C-Probe 


41 


Heat Shrinkale Tubing 


51 


Sanyo 


14 


Cables 


15,24,34 


Hlckok 


45. CV III 


Semiconductors 


19-22 


California Computer Systems 2-4, 6, 12, 


13,16,17, CV-IV Hitachi 


41-43 


Serial Interfaces 


3, 17 


Caltronics 


21,24,34 


HUH? TRS-80 Products 


16 


Shugart 


13 


Capacitance Meters 


41,47,48 


Hunter Tools 


49 


Slit N' Wrap 


30 


Capacitators 


23 


I/O Boards 


2,3 


Sockets 


24-26, 36 


Card Cages 


13, 28, 30 


ICs 


19-21 


Software 


6, 7, 9, 16 


Card Extenders 


4, 12,28 


IC Storage 


40 


Soldering Equipment 


50. 51 


CAT Modem 


15 


IDC Connectors & Cables 


24,35 


Static RAM Boards 


4. 5 


Centronics 


15 


International Instrumentation, 


Inc. 40, 41 


Static RAM ICs 


19 


Clock/Calendar Boards 


2, 17 


ISOBAR 


52 


Super Ram 


5 


CMOS ICs 


21 


ISOTIP 


51 


Support Chips 


19 


Coleflex 


51 


Junction Boxes 


52 


Sullens 


26 


CompuPro 


2-4,12,13 


Just Wrap 


27 


Surgeonics 


52 


Connectors 


24-26, 34, 


35 Ledu Lamps 


52 


Switchboard 


3 


Continental Specialties 


38,39 


Linear ICs 


20 


TEI 


13 


CPU Boards 


2 


Livermore Data Systems 


15 


Temperature Probes 


45 


CPU Chips 


19 


Logic Probes & Analyzers 


27, 38, 39 


Terminals CRT 


14 


CP/M 


6 


LS ICs 


20 


Terminals Wiring 


27. 30 


Crystals 


23 


3M Scotch 


18 


Terminator Boards 


12 


"D" Connectors 


24 


Mainframes 


13,28.30 


Test Clips 


34, 35 


D-Cat 


15 


Magnifier Lamps 


52 


Test Equipment 


38, 39, 41-48. CV-III 


Digital Pulser 


38, 39 


Media Accessories 


18 


Texas Instruments 


25, 26 


Diodes 


22 


Memory Boards 


2,4, 5 


Textool 


25 


DIP Jumpers 


36 


Memory Chips 


16, 19 


Thinker Toys 


3,5,6,7,12.13 


DIP Plugs 


25 


Meters 


39, 40, 45, 47, 48, CV-III Tools 


12,25,27.30,34,35,49-52 


DIP Switches 


19 


Micropolis 


CV-II . 8-11.16 


Transformers 


21 


Discretes 


22,23 


Microprocessor ICs 


19 


Transistors 


22 


Discus 


6,7 


Modems 


15 


TRS-80 Memory Expansion 


16. 19 


Disk Cabinets 


13 


Monitors 


14 


TRS-80 Peripherals 


16 


Disk Drives 


6-11,13,16 


Morrow Designs 


3,5,6,7,12,13 


TTLICs 


20 


Disk Jockey 


6 


Motherboards 


12, 28 


UARTs 


19 


Diskette Storage & Care 


18 


Motorola 


19-21 


Ungar 


50 


Diskettes 


18 


Mullen 


12 


Vector Electronic Co. 


4,12, 28-30 


Drafting Aids 


31-33 


NEWDOS80 


16 


Verbatim 


18 


Dynamic RAM Boards 


2, 5 


Non-Linnear Systems 


46,47 


Video Boards 


2 


Dynamic RAMs 


19 


Novation 


15 


Video Displays 


14 


Econorams 


2,4,5 


Oscilloscopes 


41-43, 46 


Vista Computer Co. 


16 


Edsyn 


51 


Opto-lsolators 


19 


Winchester 


24 


Enclosures 


13.28,30 


Page Precut Wire 


25 


Winchester Technology 


7, 8, 9 


EPROM Boards 


4 


Pana Vise 


49 


Wire 


25 


EPROMs 


19 


Panel Meters 


47 


Wire Wrap Boards 


27, 28. 29, 32 


Expandable 1'™ 


5 


Photo Boards 


28 


Wire Wrap Headers 


24, 36 


Expandable+ 


5 


Plugboards 


27-29, 32, 33 


Wire Wrap Sockets 


25 


E-Z-Bus 


32,33 


Power Strips 


52 


Wire Wrap Tools 


27, 29 


E-Z-Circuit 


31 


Power Supplies 


53 


Z80 Microprocessor ICs 


19 


E-Z-Hook 


34 


Printers 


15 


ZIP DIP Sockets 


25 


. © 1980 by PRIORITY 1 ELECTRONICS. All rights reserved, no part shall be reproduced without written permission from PRIORITY 1 ELECTRONICS. 



ORDER TOLL FREE (800) 423-5633 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 1 









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DISCUS/2D™ 
DOUBLE DENSITY DISK SYSTEM 

Why not go all the way to the professional/industrial stan- 
dard of 600K byte/side disk memory with your S-100 
system? The new DISCUS/2D™ full-size, double-density 
floppy disk system is actually less expensive than many 
mini-floppy systems. 

And Thinker Toys™ hasn't just made full-size, double- 
density disk memory affordable .. .we've made it more 
functional. 

Thinker Toys™ has developed BASIC-V™ a virtual disk 
BASIC that lets you address all 600K bytes {expandable to 
1 megabyte) as if were main memory. The data format is 
soft-sectored and compatible with IBM's new System 34. 
And DISCUS/2D ,M accepts both single-density and dou- 
ble-density disks for complete flexibility in data storage. 

And DISCUS/2D™ is even more attractive because it's 
priced and delivered as a truly complete system. It's com- 
plete with all hardware. It's complete with all necessary 
software. And it's completely assembled, tested and 
warranted. 

Specifications: 

•CP/M V2. 2 standard 

■ Plug compatible with Shugart, Remex and Siemens 
single- or double-sided drives 

• Double/single-density capability utilizing MFM and FM 
data formats 

• Western Digital 1791 LSI floppy disk controller chip 

• Uses 2K of S-100 address space: 

— 1K PROM with built-in disk drive and I/O utility 
subroutines incorporating memory mapped I/O 

— 1K 2114-3L 300 ns access time RAM for disk data 
offering and general purpose use 

Starting address of memory space is 340:000 (E000 

hex) for compatibility with other popular ROM based 

systems 

Phase-locked data separator and crystal controlled 

disk data write precompensation capability to insure the 

highest standards of data integrity in double density 

mode. 

Compatible with all 2 MHz and 4 MHz systems which 

conform with the proposed IEEE standard for the 

S-100 bus 

1602 UART with crystal-controlled baud-rate generator 

Sixteen switch selectable baud rates from 50 to 19,200 

bits/second 

TTY current loop and industry standard RS232C serial 

interface 

Power-on jump circuitry for automatic bootstrap loading 

from the disk drive 

Power supply requirements: + 8V@ 1200 ma; + 16V@ 

150 ma; -16V@70ma. 

ROM utility subroutines: 

Bootstrap load Seek 

Terminal input Set sector 

Terminal output Set DMA address 

Home Disk read 



Disk write 
Select drive 
Terminal panic detect 
Terminal status 

Discus 2D 
Double density 
Single sided 



THT-D2DS Single Drive 
THT-D2DD Double Drive 



DMA status 
Disk status 
Disk error 

Switch density 

Discus 2 + 2 
Double density 
Double sided 



List Price Our Price 
. .$1199.00 $1098.00 
. .$1994.00 $1798.00 



THT-D22S Single Drive. . 
THT-D22D Double Drive 



List Price Our Price 
.$1545.00 $1395.00 
.$2740.00 $2450.00 



rrtWP PAFTUIA I 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



DRIVE A HARD BARGAIN! 



THINKER TOYS T 



9 



GENERAL SYSTEM INFORMATION 

The DISCUS M26 is supplied with the CP/M 2 Operating 
System prerecorded on the disk. Both low level drivers and 
bootstrap software are furnished in the documentation and 
on the disk itself. The drivers are assembled to run at F400 
hex and assume that the controller has I/O addresses 50, 
51. 52 and 53 hex. For recovery from a catastrophic soft- 
ware crash, Morrow Designs can supply a floppy diskette 
which reformats the disk and reinstalls copies of the oper- 
ating system. 

The controller can run up to four hard disks for a total of 
104 megabytes of on-line storage. It is implemented in 
forty-seven MSI and SSI TTL integrated circuits. A DIP 
switch is provided for setting the starting I/O address of the 
controller. The four addresses are: 
0-Control and data status 
1-Controller command register 
2-Drive select and control register 
3-Data In and Out 

The lowest address set into the switch must be divisible 
by four. Through the "Drive select and control register," the 
controller can select any of the four drives and up to 
sixteen heads within a drive. Also accessible through this 
register are the step and direction command lines which 
are used to move the eight read/write heads from one track 
to another. 

Data transfers are handled through an on-board finite 
state machine fashioned out of sfindard TTL and a medi- 
um-sized PROM (64 x 8). The commands are: 

write a sector header 

read a sector header 

read a sector of data 

write a sector of data 

reset the internal data buffer pointer to the beginning 
of the data buffer 

reset the internal data buffer pointer Jo the beginning 
of the sector header buffer 



26 MEGABYTES 



Suddenly, S-100 microcomputer systems can 
easily handle 100 million bytes. Because Morrow 
Designs'" now offers the first 26 megabyte hard 
disk memory for S-100 systems-the DISCUS 
M26 m Hard Disk System. 

It has 26 megabytes of useable memory (29 
megabytes unformatted). And it's expandable to 
104 megabytes. 

The DISCUS M26"" system is delivered com- 
plete -a 26 megabyte hard disk drive, controller, 
cables and operating system-for just $4995. Up 
to three additional drives can be added, $4495 
apiece. 

The DISCUS M26 m system features the Shugart 
SA400B Winchester-type sealed media hard disk 
drive, in a handsome metal cabinet with fan and 
power supply. 

The single-board S-100 controller incorporates 
intelligence to supervise all data transfers, com- 
municating with the CPU via three I/O ports (com- 
mand, status, and data). The controller has the 
ability to generate interrupts at the completion of 
each command to increase system throughput. 
There is a 512 byte sector buffer on-board. And 
each sector can be individually write-protected 
for data base security. 

The operating system furnished with DISCUS 
M26"" systems is the widely accepted CP/M* 2.0 




The CPU transfers data to the controller by first resetting 
the internal data buffer pointer to the beginning of either of 
the two data areas. Next, it fetches data from the appropri- 
ate location in memory and performs successive outputs to 
the data port of the controller. Each reference to the data 
port automatically increments the pointer to the buffer. 

Transferring data from the controller is accomplished in 
a similar fashion. The pointer is positioned and then the 
CPU does successive inputs and finally stores the data in 
an appropriate place in memory. The data buffer is stable 
between operations and can be referred to again. The 
buffer must NOT be touched during disk data transfer 
operations. 

Provision is made for the interconnection of controller 
interrupts to any of the S-100 Bus vectored or unvectored 
interrupts. 

SPECIFICATIONS 

Enclosure 

Cabinet dimensions: 6 7 /s" high, 16Vie" wide, 30V 2 " long. 
Cabinet is both rack mountable or useable as table top 
model. (Available Fall 1980: rack slides and desk height 
rack.) Color: beige. 

Power Supply (internal to cabinet) 

+ 24 v@3.0amps 
+ 5 v@ 3.0 amps 
-14 v @ 1.5 amps 

Drive Power Requirements 

115 v AC @ 3.0 amps, or 
230 v AC @ 1.5 amps 

Capacity (formatted): 26,476,544 bytes 

Seek time (track to track): 1ms: head settle time: 20 ms 

202 cylinders 

8 tracks per cylinder 

32 sectors per track 

512 bytes per sector 



LIST PRICE 
$4995.00 
OUR PRICE 

$4495.00 





CP/M® SOFTWARE OPTIONS 

For anyone currently running CP/M 2, we will provide a 
program that automatically integrates the DISCUS M26 
into the operating system. This program will be provided 
on an IBM standard diskette, and it will leave existing 
terminal and disk I/O unchanged. Thus the M26 can be 
readily added to most S-100 systems. 

For systems without CP/M 2, we offer CP/M in several 
configurations. The standard release provides disk t/O for 
the DISCUS M26 and the Disk Jockey, and terminal I/O for 
the Disk Jockey or Switchboard serial ports. Optionally, we 
provide terminal I/O for the SOL keyboard and monitor or 
for the EXIDY keyboard and monitor. Terminal I/O can also 
be left blank (jump-to-self) to allow custom patching. 

Finally, for CROMEMCO users, we plan to offer a CP/M 
2 expanded to full CDOS compatibility and interfaced to 
the M26 and to standard CROMEMCO floppys. This is sold 
and serviced by MICAH, 1250 Pine St., #102, Walnut 
Creek, CA 94596, (415) 933-2783. It will also be available 
directly from Morrow Designs. 

List Price Our Price 

THT-M26S Subsystem $4995 00 $4495.00 

THT-M26A Add-on hard disk drive $4995.00 $3995.00 
THT-M26HDC Hard disk controller $ 695.00 



Shipping Weight: THT-M26S&A 
THT-M26HDC 



50 lbs. 
3 lbs. 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



BYTE November 1980 80 — 7 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



THE MICROPflLIS MICRODISK™ 

WE DIDN'T JUST GIVE IT BETTER 

STORAGE CAPACITY. 

WE GAVE IT BETTER EVERYTHING. 




THE HEART OF 

EVERY MICRODISK™ 

SUBSYSTEM 



The MicroDisk rotary voice coil positioner, a balanced 
swing arm mechanism supported on two pre-loaded bearings. 



MICROPOLIS 

MicroDisk s: clean area, with lifetime filters, 
showing direction of general airflow in the system. 





Functional Specifications 

Encoding Method 
Platters 
Data Surfaces 
Data Heads 
Available Tracks 



EPM 
1. 2or 3 
1. 3or 5 

1, 3or 5 
580 



The MicroDisk's drive mechanics consist of a die cast deck whose 
lower half is devoted to the recording heads, platters, and voice coil 
motor components. This lower half is the closed circuit clean area, 
and air is circulated through it by disk rotation induced flow. The flow 
is directed through a 0.3 micron absolute filter. So there's never any 
reason to expose the MicroDisk's clean area to unsterile air, 

Most other manufacturers violate the rules for sealed "clean" 
areas in their drives. By placing active components inside the clean 
area — components that would require unsealing the area to replace 
or repair faulty parts. 

But we decided it didn't make any sense to offer a clean area that 
wouldn't stay clean. 

So there are no active electronic parts in the MicroDisk's clean 
area. The electrical connection between this area's components and 
the electronics package is made via a PCB which seals the clean area 
from the rest of the casting. The single chip preamps are located in 
sockets accessible without violating the integrity of the clean area. 

So you can depend on it not only to be clean, you can depend on it 
to work. 

The Quartz-locked direct-drive motor. Another lirst from Micropolls. 

In order to increase reliability and capacity of the MicroDisk's 
drive system, we added an element that no one else in the industry 
has: Quartz crystal speed control. 

Rotational drive for the MicroDisk is provided by a Quartz-locked, 
direct-drive. brushlessD.C. Micro-Motor'" only %" high. This innova- 
tive combination allows a very low profile, and lets three platters 
reside in an envelope only 4.62" high. 

It also makes the design of the Micropolis (or your) controller very 
simple, and lets us put a full 5% more data on the drive itself by 
holding the rotation to an accuracy of 0.5%. 

And the simplicity of the Quartz-locked MicroMotor gives the drive 
something else; a very long life. 

The MicroDisk lets you put the brakes on. 

We've included something on the MicroDisk that some other drive 
manufacturers curiously omit — a braking mechanism. They claim 
that a brake is unnecessary and superfluous. And no threat to your 
disk. 

They're wrong. 

Some manufacturers use the head to stop the disk from rotating 
when power is cut. This means that the head stows the disk by 
friction, letting the disk rotate many times before it stops. 

That's why we gave the MicroDisk a brake. It extends the life of the 
disk by not allowing the head to act as the braking mechanism. 
That's longer disk life for you, and a higher MTBF in the critical clean 
area. 

Quite frankly, it makes us wonder why people do it any other way 



The MicroDisk rotary voice coll positioner. A truly balanced system. 



In keeping with the Micropolis policy of not skimping on quality, 
we gave the MicroDisk a rotary voice coil positioner. It's a balanced 
swing arm mechanism supported on two pre-loaded bearings. 

The voice coil is attached to the system on the opposite side of the 
bearings from the heads, and the whole mechanism is statically 
balanced. 



The innovative Quartz-locked, direct-drive, brushless DC. 
Micro-Motor, shown with braking mechanism. 



Environmental 

Ambient Temp. Range 50-104°F (10-40°C) 
Relative Humidity 10-80% non condensing 

Power Requirements 
110V 60Hz. 3.5A (max.) 
220V 50Hz. 1.5A(max.) 



Specifications subject to change without notice. 



The Micropolis MicroDisk 8-inch drive |left|. and 
Industry standard 8-inch floppy disk drive, shown side by side. 









Other manufacturers try and cut costs by using either a stepper 
motor or a linear voice coil. There's only one drawback to both of 
them — they can never be balanced. 

This means that their drives are vulnerable to unexpected jolts, 
bumps, and shocks during operation. With an unbalanced positioner, 
a random elbow or push to the drive unit will cause small movements 
of the head relative to the disk. 

Imagine your stereo turntable. What happens when someone 
nudges it while a record is playing 7 The unbalanced pick-up arm 
skips over your record. In a disk system even very small movements 
are serious during a write operation. 

There's yet another disadvantage to using a stepper motor instead 
of a rotary voice coil. It's slower. For multi-user system applications 
it's unacceptably slow. And. during the "power-down 1 ' sequence, or 
in case ot power failure, it can't move the head to a neutral area. So 
the head lands in your data area on the disk, and may destroy the 
data. Forever, The MicroDisk's rotary voice coil, however, always 
lands the head in a neutral area. So data is never threatened. 

The MicroDisk has a Dedicated Servo Surface. This is the bottom 
surface of the bottom disk, and is not used for data. Rather, it's used 
for positioner information that allows the heads to know where they 
are. The positioner contains feedback that tells the heads continually 
when they're on track, so they won't ever write off track even in a 
severe vibration environment. With a stepper motor, the head never 
knows where it is — it's like driving in the dark. 

But with the MicroDisk's rotary voice coil, you know just where 
you are. 

Think ot it as the end of flying blind. 



Capacity 
Model Nos. 
Unformatted Capacity 
M Bytes Per Drive 
Formatted Capacity 
M Bytes Per Drive 

Mechanical Dimensions 
Height 

Width 
Depth 
Weight 

Access Time 

Track to Track 
Average (1/3 stroke) 
Settling 

Average Latency 
Transfer Rate 



1262-1 
1252-1 



26.7 



1263-1 
1253-1 



44.5 



7.00" (177.80 mm) 
19.00" (482,60 mm) 
18.40" (467.30 mm) 
45 lbs. (20.50 Kg) 

4 milliseconds 
34 milliseconds 
8 milliseconds 
8.33 milliseconds 
7.375 M Bits Sec. 




The Micropolis Intelligent Controller, whose board fits 
inside the drive, providing optional error correction. 



80 — 8 



BYTE November 1980 



VISIT OUR RETAIL STORE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



THE MICROPHLIS MICRflDISK™ 
8" RIGID DISK SUBSYSTEM WITH OSM. 
MULTI-USER, MULTI-TASKING AND INCREASED 
CAPACITY FOR YOUR S-100 MICRO-COMPUTER. 

The Micropolis Microdisk is an 8" 
Winchester disk storage subsystem de- 
signed tor an S-100 Bus minicomputer using 
an 8080, 8085, or Z-80 microprocessor with 
a clock frequency of 2-4 MHz. The sub- 
system, including the OSM software pack- 
age, provides you with a true multi-user, 
multi-tasking system. 

The Microdisk subsystem consists of the 
OSM multi-user multi-tasking, multi-access 
software package, full documentation. In- 
telligent Disk Adapter board, interface ca- 
ble, and from one to eight Microdisk storage 
modules, depending on your needs. 

The Microdisk subsystem offers upward 
expansion of existing program and data 
files previously created for Micropolis, Mac- 
rofloppy and Metafloppy subsystems. 

The Microdisk delivers high capacity, file 
sizes up to 65,000 records in length, fast 
access, and excellent data reliability. 




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Micropolis OSM. Another first lor Microdisk. 

Micropolis OSM is a set of operating system modules which 
requires a Microdisk subsystem as the primary file device. It relies on 
the Intelligent Disk Adapter in the subsystem to perform the File 
Management for the Microdisk. I/O interface cards with appropriate 
interrupt capability are necessary to support multiple terminals. 
Bank switchable memory may be used in the host computer to 
expand memory capacity, although it is not required. 

OSM uses techniques of processor control. I/O handling, memory. 
task and resource management to create a true multi-user environ- 
ment. Using the OSM Executive, users at several terminals can 
invoke and interact with different application programs written in 
assembly language or BASIC. The system provides an assembler, a 
source text editor, and a Disk Extended BASIC Interpreter to support 
the development, execution, and maintenance of application pro- 
grams. General system management is provided by Filecopy. Disk 
Archiving, and other utilities. 

The main OSM module is loaded into the host computer memory by 
the Microdisk bootstrap process, and is permanently resident during 
system operation. The bootstrap process also loads the Microdisk 
File Management programs into the Intelligent Disk Adapter. 
Included in the resident module are programs for Interrupt Servicing, 
Processor Conrol, Physical Device Drivers. Logical Device Handlers, 
Memory Management, Task Management, the system Supervisor, 
the OSM Executive, and the DEBUG Executive. 



Nonresident OSM Modules. 

Some of the OSM modules are separate programs which are 
loaded from the disk when required, and run under the controls and 
management of the main OSM resident module. These include an 
8080/8085 assembler, a source text editor, a FILECOPY utility, a Disk 
Archiving utility, and the Micropolis Disk Extended BASIC 
Interpreter, 



OSM Disk Archiving Utility. 

The Disk Archiving program is an optimized utility that can be usei 
to back-up copy the contents of a Microdisk unit onto multiple flopp' 
disk volumes. 



OSM Memory Management. 

The Microdisk Memory Manager controls the allocation of 
memory blocks to tasks, provides dynamic program demand alloca- 
tion for assembly language programs, and specifiable partition sizes 
for user BASIC programs. Programs can also be allocated portions of 
memory from different bank switchable memory boards, if the 
address ranges do not overlap. For assembly language programs, 
the address ranges may be noncontiguous. (A BASIC program uses 
an address-contiguous memory area.) 



MICRODISK SUBSYSTEMS 

FORMATTED 
MEMORY 
NO. OF SPACE (M LIST OUR 

PART NO. PLATTERS BYTE) PRICE PRICE 

MCP12611 1 6~1 $4923.00 $4190.00 

MCP12621 2 18.2 $5148.00 $4435.00 

MCP12631 3 31.1 $5673.00 $4935.00 

For S-100 bus Systems, you must order controller and OSM 
Software Package to the right 



OSM Executive. 

The OSM Executive lets you control the normal operation of your 
computer system with dialogue through interactive terminals, and 
offers command dialogue access to the Supervisor facilities. 
Included in the OSM Executive are controls and commands to initiate 
a task, name and set the execution priority for a task, load a program 
as a task, suspend a program, resume a program, place a program in 
background execution mode, cancel a program, terminate a task, 
transfer a terminal to another task, view the system status, and view 
the logical device status. 

Access is also provided to the Microdisk and the floppy disk File 
Managers by commands to re-name a disk file, change the filetype, 
filemode or password of a disk file, change the Microdisk master 
password, view the directory of a disk drive unit, and view the 
amount of free space on a disk drive unit. 



OSM Disk File Management. 

Important elements of the Microdisk Fife Management design 
include the following: named file access with password protection, 
dynamically expandable files, sequential record access, direct 
record access, alphanumeric keyed sequential access, alphanumeric 
keyed random access, separate key files, multiple key files, user 
definable file types, multiple open files with four level access mode 
locks, automatic read-after-write verification, and re-try logic for 
maximum data integrity. 

There is also a common interface scheme between the floppy disk 
and the Microdisk File Managers. All the preceding features (except 
passwords and keyed access modes) apply to the floppy as well. 
Floppy disk formatting is compatible with the Micropolis PDS 4.0 
format. 



OSM BASIC File Management. 

Micropolis OSM BASIC'S file management capabilities are per- 
formed through the Microdisk and floppy disk File Managers in OSM. 
Each file stored on a disk is identified by a file name which may be up 
to ten characters long, and the files may have an optional password. 
Files can be BASIC program files, assembly language object files, or 
data files, and the Microdisk will support index files. Also, permanent 
and write protect attributes may be assigned on a per file basis. 

There are statements to RENAME files, modify the end-of-file 
MARKER (EOF), and change file attributes (ATTR), Functions are also 
available to find the name, size, and attributes of a file, as well as to 
find out how much space is free on a given disk unit. 

The File Managers automatically maintain placement of files on 
the disk, with initial space for a new file allocated by the system at 
the time of creation. Existing files are automatically extended as 
necessary without any required preallocation. When a file is 
SCRATCHed, its space returns automatically to available status. 



S-100 BUS CONTROLLER AND OSM SOFTWARE 

PACKAGE ON W METAFLOPPY SINGLE (M2), 

OR DOUBLE (M4) DISKETTES 

PART NO. MEDIA TYPE LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 



OSM BASIC. 

When BASIC is loaded, you have a powerful set of tools for devel- 
oping, testing, executing, and maintaining BASIC programs. 

OSM BASIC program lines can be as long as 250 characters, and 
may include multiple statements, the maximum line number being 
65,529. 

Micropolis OSM BASIC has 11 immediate mode commands, which 
are as follows: SAVE a file, LOAD a file, SCRATCH a file. LIST a 
program. DELETE lines from a program, RUN a program. CNTL/C to 
interrupt a running program, CONT to continue an interrupted pro- 
gram, CNTL/X to cancel an input line, and FLOW and NOFLOW to 
enable and disable the flow trace debugging aid. 

OSM BASIC File Programming. 

Micropolis OSM BASIC data file programming is easy to use. You 
can open files simultaneously for sequential and random (direct) 
access in both read and write modes — with only one OPEN state- 
ment. Up to ten files may be open at one time — with no special 
buffering provisions necessary. 

The CLEAR option lets you open a file for rewrite instead of append, 
while END option provides you with an on-endfile-goto- 
capability. And the ERROR option gives you an on-error-goto- 
capability. 

You can also open Microdisk files for keyed sequential and keyed 
direct access. One or more index key files may be associated with a 
given data file. Index files may be handled separately or they may be 
automatically coupled to an open data file. Data is written to, and 
read from, files using PUT and GET statements with variable lists. 
This allows a mixture of numeric and string variables. Files must be 
CLOSEd after use. 

This file I/O structure also extends to your printer and terminal 
output files, to afford you a high degree of device independence. And 
additional options on the OPEN statement (PAGESIZE and ENOPAGE) 
facilitate the pagination of output reports. In fact, print files may be 
easily diverted to terminal or disk simply by changing a file name in 
the OPEN statement. 

The Microdisk subsystem. A timely arrival from Micropolis. 

The Microdisk's hardware is available in one, two or three platter 
configurations, with delivery of formatted storage capacities of 6.2, 
187, and 31.2 megabytes. 

Winchester technology is incorporated in the Microdisk design, 
which is packaged in two sections. The lower half, which contains 
the platters, disk heads, and positioner, is completely sealed. The 
upper half, which is accessible for maintenance, contains four circuit 
boards, including the Micropolis intelligent controller. 

When you get right down to it. the Microdisk subsystem is a 
much-needed, timely solution for capacity-starved microcomputer 
users. 

Maybe that's one reason why, in just four years. Micropolis is 
already the second-largest producer of 5'A-inch floppy disk drives — 
for both OEMs and end-users. 

And we won't be number two forever. 



PART NO. 



MICRODISK ADD-ON DRIVES 

FORMATTED 
NO. OF MEMORY LIST OUR 

PLATTERS SPACE (M 
____^ BYTE) PRICE PRICE 



MCPOSM1002 5'/4" M2 Diskette $660.00 $560.00 

MCPOSM1004 5 V M4 Diskette $660.00 $560.00 

PREREQUISITE: To install your Microdisk subsystem, you must 
have access to a Metafloppy (M2, or M4) subsystem. 



MCP12511 
MCP12521 
MCP12531 



6.1 


$4458.00 


$3995.00 


18.2 


$4683.00 


$4250.00 


31.1 


$5208.00 


$4695.00 






PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



BYTE November 1980 



80- 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



MICROPOLIS DISK DRIVE SUBSYSTEMS 



NOW DOUBLE SIDED 



At Micropolis, complete means complete. 

Some suppliers offer only hardware and call 
that complete. At Micropolis complete 
means everything: hardware and software 
and documentation. 

The hardware set is complete with 
S-100/8080/Z-80 compatible controller, 
drive(s), cable-even a built-in Autoload 
bootstrap ROM to eliminate tiresome button 
pushing. 

Our full Disk Extended BASIC and DOS, 
assembler and editor software comes com- 
plete, too. On its own diskette, ready to go. 
Software from Micropolis includes a DOS 
and Disk Extended Basic designed for 
8080/Z80-based microcomputers. 

DOS is a complete package, including an 
assembler, editor, file management func- 
tions and utilities, which provides total sup- 
port for 8080 programming. BASIC is a self- 
contained package which provides a powerful set of tools for developing, testing, executing, and maintaining BASIC programs. 

BASIC is designed for microcomputers with at least 24K bytes of RAM and a Micropolis MetaFloppy disk system. DOS can be used 
alone in a 16K bytes memory system. 

Activating the built-in Auto load ROM brings up the system under control of the DOS executive. BASIC can be accessed by issuing a 
simple DOS command. 

Both packages are designed for flexible, efficient programming. Both packages use the same file structure and file management 
scheme for total compatibility. 8080 programs created under DOS can be loaded and accessed from BASIC. Data files created under 
BASIC can be processed by user written application programs running under the DOS. 

At Micropolis, complete means COMPLETE. 

Imagine getting all the capacity of an 8-inch floppy in a 5 'A -inch format. 

MetaFloppy can give you this higher capacity because it packs more data into every disk. You get the capacity of larger 8-inch drives with the lower price and smaller packaging 
of 5V.i-inch drives. 

An ordinary 5'/4-incn floppy provides just 35 tracks/drive and stores only 70K bytes. Not nearly enough for anything useful. So instead, we use 77 tracks— each with 16 sectors of 
256 bytes/sector— to yield a capacity of 315K bytes per side. That's more than four times an ordinary 5 V4-inch floppy! And why we call this one "quad density." 

Combine two of these drives in a compact dual module and you can copy diskettes from one drive to the other, or rearrange data files, or whatever. The dual unit stores 630K 
bytes. Enough for almost anything. But just in case that isn't enough, our controller can handle two duals {or four singles). That means your micro can have more than a million 
bytes of formatted disk storage. 

If that still isn't enough, on special order you can add a second controller with up to four more drives. That will give you a grand total of over 2,500,000 bytes of storage on-line. 

This means, if your application keeps growing, we've got you covered in easy steps. And you get all these bytes at surprisingly low cost. 

Faster than a speeding bullet. 

At Micropolis, we don't skimp on performance to deliver 
maximum capacity. So you can expect professional operating 
speed and efficiency. Like checks and balances, such as 
automatic read verification after writing, that you would ex- 
pect in a sophisticated data processing system. 

Like fast track-to-track positioning time of only 30 
milliseconds. And a data transfer rate of 250,000 bits per sec- 
ond. 

Up, Up, and away! 

Metafloppy gets along well with almost 
everyone. 

So choose the microcomputer you want. MetaFloppy's con- 
troller is completely compatible with the S-100/8080/Z-80 buss. 
It just plugs Into your MITS 8800, IMSAI 8080, COMPAL-80. 
SOL-20, Polymorphic 88, CBOMEMCO, TDL, or similar micro 
and it's ready to go. The memory mapped controller/bootstrap 
may be origined at any 1 K byte boundary in the 48K to 64K byte 
region of memory. 

For small businesses, for engineers who want to develop 
their own software, or for the advanced hobbyist, MetaFIODpy 

ADD-ON STORAGE MODULES 

The MetaFloppy Add-On Storage Modules provide additional storage by adding more 
drives to the controller supplied with the subsystems A maximum of four drives can be 
attached to each controller by use of the daisy chain cafjies 
Add-On modules do not include Controller. User's Manual or diskettes. 

DOUBLE SIDED 

PART H DESCRIPTION LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 





METAFLOPPY DISK SUBSYSTEMS 



Subsystems complete with BASIC. DOS, Assembler/Editor. Users Manual, S-100 Con- 
troller, complete Calling, Cabinet, and Power Supply 



DOUBLE SIDED 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 



MCP-10S4-4 


Four-disk system with 2,520.000 
bytes (formatted) on-line storage 
capacity 50 lbs 


S4.622 00 


$3,995 00 


MCP-1 053-4 


Two-disk sysiem with 1,260.000 
bytes (formaltedl of on-line storage 
capacity 25 lbs 


S2.605.00 


S2.295.00 


MC PI 043 4 


One disk system with 630,000 
bytes (formatted) of on-line storage 
capacity 16 lbs 

SINGLE SIDED 


S1.50l.00 


SI. 298.00 


PART* 


DESCRIPTION 


LIST PRICE 


OUR PRICE 



Subsystems complete with BASIC. DOS. Assembler/Editor, Users Manual, S-100 Con- 
troller. Cabinet and Data Cable. 

Requires DC Regulator Kit (Parts MCP-1091011. to converl raw S-100 Suss 0C supplies 
to voltages necessary for the Drive Module 



DOUBLE SIDED 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 



One-dtsk sysiem with 630 000 
bytes Iformattedl of on-line storage 
capacity 

SINGLE SIDED 



SI. 41900 S1.250.00 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 



Two-dtsk 1,260.000 byte add-on wilt- 
enclosure and power supply Re- 
quires daisy chain cable 25 lbs 
One-disk 630.000 byte add-on with 
enclosure and power supply Re- 
quires daisy chain cable 16 lbs 
One-disk 630.000 byte add-on with 
enclosure Requires daisy chain 
cable and regulator kit 8 lbs 



DESCRIPTION 



SINGLE SIDE0 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 



Four-disk system with 1.260.000 S3.290 (X 

bytes (formalledl on-line storage 

capacity 50 lbs 

Two-disk sysiem with 630 000 51 895 (X 

byles i formatted) of on-line storage 

capacity 25 lbs 

One disk system with 315,000 $1,14501 

bytes Iformattedl of on-line storage capacity 16 lbs 



One-disk system with 315.000 
byles (formaltedl of on-line storage 
capacity 



Two-disk 630.000 byte add-on with 
enclosure and power supply Re- 
quires daisy chain cable 25 lbs 
One-disk 315,000 byte add-on with 
enclosure and power supply Re- 
quires daisy chain cable 16 lbs 
One disk 315,000 byle add-on with 
enclosure Requires daisy chain 
cable and regulator kit 8 lbs 



$1,395 00 Jl .279.00 



80 — 10 



BYTE November 1980 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



MICROPOLIS" DISC DRIVE SUB SYSTEMS 




MACROFLOPPY DISC SUBSYSTEMS 



DESCRIPTION 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 



One-disk system with 143,000 
bytes capacity. 16 lbs. 



$795.00 



$698.00 



MCP-1041-l One-disk system with 143,000 

bytes capacity. Requires d.c. 
regulator kit, part number 1091-01, 
to convert raw S-100 bus d.c. sup- 
plies to voltages necessary for the 
drive module. 10 lbs. 



$695.00 



MACROFLOPPY ADDON STORAGE MODULES 
The two versions of the MacroFloppy add-on storage modules are: 

LIST PRICE 

MCP-1021-l One-disk 143,000 byte add-on with $445.00 

enclosure. Requires daisy chain 
cable and regulator kit. 8 lbs. 



OUR PRICE 
$410.00 



MCP-1022-l One-disk 143,000 byte add-on with 

enclosure and power supply. Re- 
quires daisy chain cable. 15 lbs. 



$545.00 



NOTE: Add-on modules do not include Controller, User's Manual or Diskettes. 




At Micropolis, we pack 100% more capacity into a 5% -inch floppy. 

Meet the Micropolis MacroFloppy. From the Greek "macro," meaning "large, 
great." 

The MacroFloppy: 1041 and :1042 disk drive subsystems give you up to two times 
greater storage capacity than ordinary 5 1 /4-inch floppy disks. 143K bytes, to be ex- 
act. For less money than you'd think possible. Both subststems, in fact, are the 
lowest cost approaches to adding the capabilities of a floppy to your S-100 system. 

The 70K (or thereabouts) bytes provided by most 5% -inch floppies have never 
been enough. Expecially today, when you need more high-speed random access 
storage than ever. To help you work with larger data files. And use programs bigger 
than your computer's memory. 

MacroFloppy provides you with that needed extra storage. And so economically. 

Two complete subsystems. Ready to go. 

Both the MacroFloppy: 1041 and :1042 are fully assembled, tested, burned-in, and 
tested again. For zero start-up pain and long term reliability. They're also backed up 
by our famous Micropolis factory warranty. 

They both come complete with the powerful, field-proven Micropolis extended 
disk BASIC. And both subsystems allow upward capability of BASIC programs with 
the high-capacity MetaFloppy quad density floppy subsystems. 

So you can use the low-cost MacroFloppy for program development, and upgrade 
later to the high capacity MetaFloppy. 

In other words, if your application keeps growing, we've got you covered. 

At Micropolis, you get it all. From a single source- 
Some suppliers offer only hardware and call that everything. At Micropolis, 
everything means everything: hardware, software, and documentation. 

The MacroFloppy: 1041 comes packaged inside a protective enclosure (without 
power supply). And includes an S-100 controller. Interconnect cable. And 2 disket- 
tes, one of them the Micropolis BASIC, a compatible DOS, assembler and editor. 
The:1041 is even designed to be used either on your desk top, or to be integrated 
right into your S-100 chassis. A d.c. voltage regulator kit, 1091-01, is available to 
convert your S-100 chassis raw supplies to levels suitable for the :1041, at small ad- 
ditional cost. 

The MacroFloppy: 1042 comes with everything the :1041 has, and more. Such as 
d.c. regulators, its own line voltage power supply, and to top it off, a striking cover. 
Making it look right at home just about anywhere. 

To complete the package, we even include a comprehensive User's Manual in- 
cluding software descriptions, that tells you just what to do, and how to do it. 
Because we know that you need it all. 

CABLES (1 lb.) 



MCP-1083-01 


Standard interface cable A, with 2 connectors for 
use with 1 storage module attached to controller. 


$25.00 


MCP-1083-02 


Daisy chain interface cable B, with 3 connectors 
for use with 2 storage modules attached to 
controller. 


$35.00 


MCP-1083-03 


Daisy chain interface cable C, with 4 connectors 
for use with 3 storage modules attached to 
controller. 


$50.00 


MCP- 1083-04 


Daisy chain interface cable D. with 5 connectors 
for use with 4 storage modules attached to 
controller. 


$65.00 


MCP- 1092-06 


Power cable A, to be used in conjunction with 
1015/1016 series drives. 


$8.00 


MCP-1092-07 


Power cable B, to be used in conjunction with 
1021/1041 series systems. 


$8.00 


AnrFSSORIFS 


MCP-1091-01 


Regulator kit for 1041, 1021, 1015 and 1016. 


$20.00 


MCP-1092-01 


Relocatable bootstrap kit. 


$25.00 


MCP-1 093-03 


Poly 88 kit (relocated BASIC MDOS) 


$25.00 




Ordinary Micropolis 
b% " floppy MetaFloppy™ 

Each one of our floppy disks has a remarkable storage capacity, 
eliminating the need to keep bothersome stacks of paper. 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 11 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




CK-017 ACTIVE TERMINATOR 

Active termination promotes reliable and accurate data 
transfer by minimizing the ringing, cross-talk, overshoot, 
noise and other gremlins that can occur with unterminated 
lines. Also saves considerable energy compared to passive 
termination systems, thereby putting less strain on your 
power supply and keeping heat out of the enclosure. All lines 
(except power & ground) terminated to 2.7 V through 270 
ohms. 
GBT-I06U Kit 1 lb $34.95 




Extender/Terminator 

• Active and/or dynamic termination 

• All power lines fused for protection 

• All S-100 lines labeled and numbered 

• Can be used as an extender and/or terminator 

• Solder mask both sides of board 

• Silkscreened reference designations 

• Gold plated fingers 

CCS-2520AK Kit 1 lb $39.95 




S-100 Extender Board 

Includes built-in logic probe, great instructions. Allows you 
to troubleshoot and work on boards outside of the system. 
Ideal for taking measurements; makes probing the board 
easy. Includes non-slip type probe. Logic probe indicates H, 
L, & pulse train w/3 different colored LEDs. Kit form. 
MUL-CK004 $59.00 




MUL-CK011 
S-100 Relay/Opto-isolator Kit 

S-100 compatible, 8 fast reed relays respond to an 8 bit 
word. Also, 8 opto-isolators accept an 8 bit word from 
outside and send it to your computer for handshaking or 
further control purposes. Good for model railroad, burglar 
alarm, audio switching, automated display, ham radio 
and other uses. 

MUL CK0I1K Kit $129.00 

MUL-CK011 AST S179.0D 




S-100 
MOTHERBOARDS 




S-100 MOTHERBOARDS 

WITH ACTIVE TERMINATION & SHIELDING 

6, 12, or 20 slot 

Active termination for buffering to 2.7 volts at 280 ohms 

Standby current, a low 15-20 MA 

Shielding further reduces noise factor 

All power is brought out to a block connector for 

convenience. 

S-100 connectors are .125" pin to pin on 3/4" centers. 

Assembled and tested. 



GBT-153U 
GBT-153A 
GBT-154U 
GBT-154A 
GBT-155U 
GBT-155A 



UNKIT6SL0T 
A&T 6 SLOT 
UNKIT 12 SLOT 
AST 12 SLOT 
UNKIT 20 SLOT 
AST 20 SLOT 



LIST PRICE 



$129.00 
$169.00 
$214.00 



OUR PRICE 
$ 89.00 
$119.00 
$129.00 
$149.00 
$174.00 
$189.00 




THE WUNDERBUSS with Noiseguard" 
High-performance S-100 bussboards 

shown WUNDERBUSS720 

Capacity: 20 positions 
Dimensions: 17'A"x8 1 /2" 



Specifications: 

• Edge Connectors: S-100 type, .125" spacing on 3/4" 
centers. 

• Shielding: Every signal fully shielded by both intercon- 
nected ground lines, 2nd cross-coupled ground planes. 

• Termination: Active termination of each line. Termina- 
tion network includes LM 201 op amp and 2 PNP/NPN 
pairs for buffering to 2.4 volts at 180 ohms. 

• Mounting: Holes at each edge connector position, plus 
auxiliary holes to fit IMSAI cabinet. 

• Power Connectors: "Fast on" connectors at all 10 
positions. 

• Power Required: 7 to 10 volts; 14 to 20 volts; —14 to —20 
volts. 

• Peripheral Power Outputs: 5 volts at 1 amp, 12 volts at 
500ma; — 12 volts at 500ma. 

• Circuit Board: Double-sided glass epoxy with plated 
through holes. Solder mask on both sides and part 
legend 

KITS (less S-100 connectors) 



THT-WB8K 


$54.00 




THT-WB12K 


$65.00 




THT-WB20K 


$76.00 
A&T (with connectors) 






LIST PBICE 


OUR PRICE 


THT-WB8A 


$144.00 


$136.00 


THT-WB12A 


$175.00 


$165.00 


THT-WB20A 


$226.00 


$209.00 




SILENCE + 
MOTHERBOARDS 

♦ No Need for Termination ♦ Very High Crosstalk Rejection 
+ LED Power Indicator + Fits in Most Mainframes ♦ 6. 12, 
and 18 Slots Available ♦ Has Operated in 14 MHz Quietly. 



QTC-MB6BB 

QTC-MB6K 

QTC-MB6A 

QTC-MB12BB 

QTC-MB12K 

QTC-MB12A 

QTC-MB1BBB 

QTC-MB1BK 

QTC-MB18A 



6 SLOT BARE BOARD 

6 SLOT KIT 

6 SLOT A&T 

12 SLOT BARE BOARD 

12 SLOT KIT 

12 SLOT A&T 

18 SLOT BARE BOARD 

18 SLOT KIT 

18 SLOT A&T 



$ 25.00 
$ 40.00 
$ 50.00 
$ 30.00 
$ 70.00 
$ 90.00 
$ 50.00 
$100.00 
$140.00 




MOTHERBOARD 

WITH ACTIVE TERMINATION 

• Twelve-slot capability using standard S-100 connectors 

• Low-reactance pin connectors to eliminate ringing and 
data error 

• "Double path" trace pattern which halves the line 
inductance 

• On-board voltage regulator 

• Active termination to regulate signal line voltages 

• Wide spacing of bus lines 

• Criss-cross bus lines to minimize signal noise 

• Distributed by-passing of all power lines 

• Capability of supporting CPUs at 4 MHz and above 

• Solder mask on both sides of board 

• Simple, strong mounting 



CCS-2501A 



$119.95 




VCT-8803 Motherboard for 
S-100 Bus Microcomputer 

Mounts 11 receptacles with 100 contacts or 10 receptacles 
plus interconnectors to smaller boards for expansion. 
Connectors mount with tabs protruding through .038 inch 
(1 mm) diameter holes in rows spaced .250 inch (6.4 mm) 
on each connector position and 0.75 inch (19 mm) between 
connector positions. Includes etched circuit and instruc- 
tions for active or passive terminations plus 12 tantalum 
capacitors for +5, *12, —12 volt buses, and spacers for 
mounting in Vector VP1 or VP2 cases. G-10 epoxy glass 
board with 2 ounce copper, solder plated circuitry plus 
solder mask to avoid accidental short circuits. Large 
buses: +5 V and GND (10 amps), +12 V or 16 V (7 amps). 
Current ratings are per MIL-STD-275 with 10° rise. 
Shipping weight 2 pounds (.9 kg) $29.50 



80 — 12 



BYTE November 1980 



ORDER TOLL FREE (800) 423 5633 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



MAINFRAMES 
THE BMW OF S-100 MAINFRAMES 

From the power supply through the sturdy chassis, TEI 
constructs and assembles each mainframe with great 
care. Every TEI mainframe utilizes a constant voltage 
transformer (CVT) which delivers clean, regulated power 
at the proper level, reducing the heat in the computer 
cards. The output voltage on the transformer remains 
nearly even with the input voltage varying from approx- 
imately 85V to 140V, This means the mainframe will never 
notice voltage variations or even a brownout. It also pro- 
vides 100 dB noise rejection to protect the computer from 
voltage spikes and line noise. 



TEI 22 slot and 12 slot mainframes offer a S-100 mother- 
board which is grounded, shielded and actively terminated 
for high speed operation now or for later upgrading. Each 
mainframe is shipped completely assembled, tested and 
burned in, with fan, washable filter, all connectors and card 
guides, Rackmount models are available in both22 and 12 
slot mainframes. The combination of the lowest noise bus, 
a regulated CVT power system and a rugged chassis 
produces a mainframe without equal. 



LIST 
S-100 MAINFRAMES PRICE 

TEI-MCS112 12 Slot Desk $685.00 

TEI-MCS122 22 Slot Desk S84S.00 

TEI-RM12 12 Slot Rackmount $800.00 

TEI-RM22 22 Slot Rackmount $945.00 

Shipping Weight: On 12 Slot Mainframes 35 Lbs. 
On 22 Slot Mainframes 50 Lbs 
S-100 MAINFRAMES 
WITH 3 CUTOUTS 
F0R5V4" 
FLOPPY DISK DRIVES 
INTERNAL CABLING IS PROVIDED 
TEI-TF12 12 Slot $695.00 

TEI-RM12 12 Slot $795.00 

Shipping Weight: 40 Lbs. 



OUR 
PRICE 
$615.00 
$760.00 
$720.00 
$850.00 



$625.00 
$715.00 




• S-100 compatible 

• Industrial/commercial quality construction 

• Flip-top cover 

• Excellent cooling capability 

• 12 slot capability (uses model 2501A) 

• Input 105, 115, or 125 VAC 

■ Output +8 VDC20A, + 16VDC4A 

• Active termination of all bus lines 

• Fan and circuit breaker included 

• Rugged construction 



CCS-2200A Assembled «. Tested 35 lbs 



List Our Price 
$399.00 $369.95 



CCS-2200AK Kit 35 lbs $349.95 




THINKER TOYS 
8" DISK DRIVE CABINET 

George Morrow is recognized as a pioneer and an industry 
leader because of his innovative designs and participation 
on the S1000 IEEE Standards Committee, George has 
designed these floppy disc enclosures with power supply, 
which incorporates the following features: 

• Internal data cable and power cables 

• Data signals are terminated at the back of the cabinet 
with a socket/header connector 

• Regulated power supply with protection circuitry 

• Clean, attractive appearance 

• Stackable 

• Accommodates Shugart SA801R, SA800R, SA581R, 
SA850R. Siemans FDD120/200 Series. Demex 2000, 
Remex 4000 

• Vented chassis for cool, reliable operation 

• Color Beige 

• Shipping weight: 20 lbs. (single drive cabinet) 

30 lbs. (dual drive cabinet) 



THT-DC1 
THT-DC2 



Single Drive Cabinet 
Dual Drive Cabinet 



$ 250.00 
$ 375.00 



BUY CABINET AND SHUGART 
801R DRIVES AND SAVE 

SINGLE CABINET 

THT-S801R1P $ 720.00 

DUAL CABINET 

WITH ONE DRIVE WITH TWO DRIVES 

THT-0801R1P $825.00 THT-D801R2P $1250.00 

Shipping Weight: Add 15 lbs per drive 

EXTERNAL DATA CABLES 



PRI-50SKSK 
PRI-50CESK 
PRI-50CECE 



Socketto Socket 
Cardedge to Socket 
Cardedge to Carded 




(Accepts 2 each 5V Disk Drives) 

MF + MD 

Includes cabinet, 18 amp power supply, IEEE S-100 Moth- 
erboard (6-12 slot) and dual-mim-disk provision with disk 
drive power supply. The QT + MF + MD is fan-cooled, has 
AC line filter to eliminate EMI, and is fully assembled and 
factory tested. Power and reset switches are located on 
the front panel. 

OTC-MF+MD12 S50O.00 QTC-MF+MD6 $450.00 

QTC-MF+MD Without Mother Board S400. 




QT MAINFRAME + MF + 



Includes cabinet, 30 amp power supply, and the IEEE 
S-100 motherboard (12 or 18-slot). The QT MF+ is fan- 
cooled, has AC line filter to eliminate EMI, and is fully 
assembled and factory tested. Power and reset switches 
are located on front panel, 

QTC-MF+12 $450.00 QTC-MFf18 $500.00 

QTC-MF+ Without Mother Board S350.00 




SHUGART SA801R 



2 OR MORE 




$470.00 


Capacity 


Single Density 


Double Density 


Unformatted 






Per Disk 


3.2 megabits 


6-4 megabits 


Per Track 


41.7 kilobits 


83.4 kilobits 


IBM Format 






Per Disk 


2.0 megabits 


n/a 


Per Track 


26.6 kilobits 


n/a 


Transfer Rate 


250 kilobits/sec. 


500 kilobits/sec. 


Latency (average) 


83 ms 


83 ms 


Access Time 






Track to Track 


8 ms 


8 ms 


Average 


260 ms 


260 ms 


Setting Time 


8 ms 


8 ms 


Head Load Time 


35 ms 


35 ms 



Shugarts SA801 standard floppy disk drive is the estab- 
lished industry leader with over 85,000 units installed 
around the world. This floppy disk drive application leader- 
ship is backed by 17 patents and a technical staff with 
hundreds of man-years of disk drive engineering 
experience. 

the SA801R floppy disk drive is mechanically and elec- 
tronically the same as the SA801 except it has a narrower 
chassis width pius side and bottom mounting posts to 
facilitate installation of two drives side-by-side in a stan- 
dard 19" RETMArack. 



Shipping Weight 15 I 




SHUGART SA400 



ACTIVITY LIGHT 

WRITE PROTECT CIRCUITRY 

CAPACITY 

TRACKS 

HEADS 

BIT TRANSFER RATE 

RECORDING DENSITY 

AVERAGE ACCESS TIME 

DRIVE DIMENSIONS 

SHIPPING WEIGHT 



110KB 

35 

1 

125K bits/sec. 

2600BPImax. 

550 msec. 

3.25"Hx575"Wx8"L 

4 LBS. 



SHUGART SA400 5%" 

110 KB, 35 tracks 

SHU-SA400 $295.00 

IN A CABINET 

WITH POWER SUPPLY 

LBO-SA400 PC „-, $395.00 




GODBOUT 
S-100 MAINFRAMES 

• Rugged metal frame 

• Line cord 

• Line filter 

fan 

• Fuse holder 

• 2 Convenience outlets 

• Cardguides 

• Base is drilled to accept all vector 
& Godbout motherboards 

• Desk and rack mount 

• Back panel has cutouts for 
12-DB25. 3-DA15. & 2-DD50 
connectors 

GBT-B0X DESK $289.00 

GBT-B0X RACK $329.00 

SHIPPING WEIGHT: 23 LBS 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



BYTE November 1980 80 — 13 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




HAZ141 

Shipping Weight 48 lbs. 
STANDARD FEATURES: 

• Separate integral 12-key Numeric Pad 

• All 128 ASCII Codes 

• 64 Displayable Characters 

• 24 x 80 Screen Configuration 

• High Resolution using a 5 x 7 Dot Matrix 

• TTY-Style Keyboard Layout 

• Cursor Addressing and Sensing 

• EIA Interface 

• Eight Selectable Transmission Rates up to 9600 Baud 

• Microprocessor Based 

• Remote Commands 

• Attractive Styling for Contemporary Environments 

LIST PRICE: $850.00 
OUR PRICE: $798.00 




HAZ1420 

Shipping Weight 4b lbs. 
ALL THE FEATURES OF THE "1410 "PLUS . . . 

• 94 Displayable Characters including lower case 

• 15 key Numeric Pad including (*),(-) and Enter 

• User-Defined Video Presentation — Hi/Lo 
Intensity Blink, or Non-Display 

• Cursor Control Keys 

• Typematic 

• Typewriter-Style Keyboard 

• Field Tab 

• Column Tab 

• Twelve Operator Function Keys 

• Non-Glare Screen 

• Audible Alarm 

• Remotely-Controlled Auxiliary EIA Input/Output 
Interface (Option) 

LIST PRICE: $995.00 
OUR PRICE: $949.00 

HAZ1421 

Shipping Weight 48 lbs. 

• All 128 ASCII Codes 

• 95 Displayable Characters including Lower Case 

• High Resolution using a 5 x 9 Dot Matrix including 
two Lower Case Descenders 

• Typewriter-Style Keyboard Layout 

• User-defined Video Presentation 

• Cursor Addressing and Sensing 

• EIA Interface 

• Eight Transmission Rates up to 9600 Baud 

• Non-Glare Screen 

• Self Test 

• 12-Key Numeric Pad 

• Switch-Selectable Emulation: 

ADM 3A/Consul 580/HAZELTINE 1400 Series 
LIST PRICE: $895.00 
OUR PRICE: $859.00 




SANYO 



HAZ1500 

Shipping Weight 48 lbs. 
STANDARD FEATURES: 

• All 128 ASCII Codes 

• 94 Displayable Characters Including Lower Case 

• 24 x 80 Screen Configuration 

• High-Resolution Characters Using a 7 x 10 Dot Matrix 

• ANSI standard Keyboard Layout including Numeric 
Pad 

• Cursor Addressing and Sensing 

• Dual Intensity 

• EIA and 20MA Interface 

• Nine Selectable Transmission Rates Up to 19.2 KB 

• Auxiliary EIA Output 

• Remote Editing Commands 

• Standard or Reverse Video 

• Microprocessor Based 

LIST PRICE: $1095.00 OUR PRICE: $1050.45 

HAZ1510 

Shipping Weight 48 lbs. 
ALL THE FEATURES OF THE "1500 "PLUS . . . 

• Cursor Control Keys 

• Protected/Unprotected Data 

• Transmit Page, Line or batches of information 

• Function Keys — up to 127 

• Tab/Back Tab/Auto Tab 

• Format Mode with Insert and Delete Line Keys 

• 31 Remote Commands including "Terminal Status" 
LIST PRICE: $1195.00 OUR PRICE: $1125.00 

HAZ1520 

ALL THE FEATURES OF THE "1510 "PLUS . . . 

Separate Microprocessor-Controlled Printer Interface 
which allows: 

• Interfacing of both serial and parallel printers 

• Printerspeed independent of communications baud 
rate 

• Printer control codes to be sent by the CPU and 
received by the printer without restriction or alter- 
ation of the terminal (especially useful for wide 
carriage applications) 

• Information to be transmitted directly to either the 
printer or the terminal, or to both 

• Operating Modes/Remote Commands: Remote/ 
Local Print: Printer On-Line with/without Display; 
Printer Off-Line Shipping Weight 48 lbs. 

LIST PRICE: $1450.00 OUR PRICE: $1395.00 




SYQVMC6013 „_ .„ 

COLOR DATA DISPLAY • - 1 r 
MONITOR, 13 INCH DIAGONAL 

LIST PRICE: $495.00 OUR PRICE: $475.00 

High performance color data display monitor for use 
with color capable computer systems. Features an 
in-line gun, slotted black matrix CRT with 90 sq. inch 
viewing area; up front controls and easy care steel 
cabinet. Standard EIA timing provides a 16 line x 64 
character display format. Requires 1.0 volt p-p com- 
posite video input. Shipping Weight 37 lbs. 




SYOVM450 

DATA DISPLAY MONITOR, 
9 INCH DIAGONAL 

Shipping Weight 15 lbs. 
LIST PRICE: $220.00 
OUR PRICE: $198.00 

Compact, affordably priced data display monitor is 
ideal for personal use or where space is limited. Fea- 
tures a 44 sq. inch viewing screen; white data display; 
up-front controls and easy care steel cabinet. Stand- 
ard EIA timing provides a 16 line x 64 character display 
format. Requires 1.0 volt p-p composite video input. 




SYODM501 

HIGH PERFORMANCE DATA DISPLAY 
MONITOR, 12 INCH DIAGONAL 

Shipping Weight 24 lbs. 
LIST PRICE: $315.00 OUR PRICE: $298.00 

Designed for use with advanced level computer sys- 
tems. Features an anti-reflective, 75 sq. inch viewing 
screen; white, high resolution data display; up-front 
controls and easy care steel cabinet. Computer com- 
patible timing provides a 24 1 inex 80 character display 
format. Requires 1.0 volt p-p composite video input. 




SYO DM5112 

PROFESSIONAL DATA DISPLAY 
MONITOR, 12 INCH DIAGONAL 

Shipping Weight 24 lbs. 
LIST PRICE: $325.00 OUR PRICE: $310.00 

This professional data display monitor features an 
anti-reflective, 75 sq. inch viewing screen and green, 
high resolution data display for maximum viewing 
comfort. Also featured are up-front controls and easy 
care steel cabinet. Computer compatible timing pro- 
vides a 24 line x 80 character display format. Requires 
1.0 volt p-p composite video input. 



80 — 14 



BYTE November 1980 



VISIT OUR RETAIL STORE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



CENTRONICS® 
737 DOT MATRIX 
PRINTER 



LETTER QUALITY 




ode 



Standard Features: 

• 80 cps— proportional spaced mo 

• 50 cps — monospaced mode 

• proportional spacing, plus 10 cpi and 16.7cpi 

• Nx9 (proportional) or 7x8 (monospaced) dot matrix 

• 3 way paper handling system 

• 96 character ASCII 

• microprocessor electronics 

• expanded print 

• right margin justification 

• print underlining 

• 9-wire free flight print head 

• bidirectional stepper motor paper drive 

• full one line buffer 

• 21 Ipm with 80 columns printed 

• 58 Ipm with 20 columns printed 

• 6 lines per inch vertical spacing 

• paper tear bar 

• parallel or serial interface 

• 50 to 9600 baud switch selectable 



CEN-7371 Parallel 
CEN-7373 Serial . 



List Price Our Price 
. $ 995.00 $895.00 
. . .$1045.00 $950.00 




CENTRONICS 
730 DOT MATRIX PRINTER 

Standard Features: 

• 100 characters/second 

• 80 characters/line 

• 10 characters/inch 

• 3-way paper handling system 

• 7x7 dot matrix 

• 96 character ASCII 

• microprocessor electronics 

• unidirectional print at 5.0 ips 

• high speed return approximately 10 ips 

• 21 Ipm with 80 columns printed 

• 58 Ipm with 30 columns printed 

• 80 character buffer 

• 6 Ipi vertical 

• Parallel or serial interface 



CEN-7301 Parallel 
CEN-7303 Serial . 



List Price Our Price 
. . $795.00 $725.00 
. . $845.00 $775.00 




CENTRONICS® 

MICROPRINTER 

Nonimpact Desk-Top Printers 

Features: 

• 150 Lines Per Minute • 96 Characters— Upper and Lower 
Case • 5/10/20 Characters/Inch — Software Selectable ■ 
Elongated characters • Underlining • Simplified Operation 

• Quiet • Audio alarm • Long Life— Only 4 Moving Parts • 
Small Size and Light Weight • No Toners/Ribbons Re- 
quired • 

The paper requires no toners or ribbons. Instead, it 
carries a conductive aluminized coating which is vaporized 
by a low voltage discharge from the print head to produce 
highly readable characters. 
CEN-P1 $349.00 

CONDUCTIVE ALUMINIZED PAPER FOR 

THE CENTRONICS P1 AND S1 PRINTER 

CEN-P1S1 PAP-CASE OF 5 ROLLS $29.95 

Shipping Weight: 4 lbs. 



MODEMS 




THE STAR 

MODEM 

from LIVERMORE 



FEATURE 

FITS GTE HANDSETS! 



2 YEAR WARRANTY 



EXCLUSIVE ACOUSTIC CHAMBERS 

The exclusive triple seal of Livermore's new flat mounted 
cups locks the handset mto the acoustic chamber yielding 
superior acoustic isolation and mechanical cushioning. 
Designed to adapt to most common handsets used 
throughout the world, the STAR offers the utmost in flex- 
ibility and transmission reliability. 

Specifications: 

• Data Rate: to 300 baud 

• Compatibility: Bell 103 and 113; CCITT 

• Frequency Stability: ±0.3 percent. Crystal controlled 

• Receiver Sensitivity: —50 dBm ON. -53 dBm OFF 

• Modulation: Frequency shift keyed (FSK) 

• Carrier Detect Delay: 1.2 seconds ON: 120 msec OFF 

• EIA Terminal Interface: Compatible with RS 232 
specifications 

• Teletype Interface: 20 milliampere current loop 

• Optional Interfaces: IEEE 488; TTL; TTY43 

• International (CCITT) frequencies available 

• Switches: Originate/Off/Answer; Full Duplex/Test/Half 
Duplex 

• Indicators: Transmit Data, Receive Data, Carrier 
Ready, Test 

• Power: Supplied by 24 VAC/150 MA UL/CSA listed wall- 
mount transformer. Input 115 VAC, 2.5 watts. (A 220 
VAC, 50 Hz adaptor is available upon request.) 

• Dimensions: 10" x 4" x 2" 

• Weight: 1.74 lbs. (3 lbs. shipping weight including AC 
adaptor.) 

• Warranty: Two years on parts and labor, excluding the 
AC adaptor which carries the manufacturers warranty 



List Our 

Price Price 

$199.00 $149.00 

$199.00 $149.00 

$229.00 $219.00 

$395.00 $298.00 

$465.00 $398.00 



Part No. Description 

LIV-$TAR RS232.TTL Modem 

LIV-STAR20M RS232, 20MACurrent Loop 

LIV-STAR-V21 CCITT European Standard 

LIV-IEEE IEEE 488 Standard 

LIV-IEEE-V21 IEEE 488, CCITT Standard 



CABLES 

Part No. Description Price 

CND-RS2328F RS232 8Cond 8 ft $19.95 

LIV-I2I IEEE to IEEE 2 Meter $59.95 

LIV-I2PET IEEE to Pet 2 Meter $59.95 




NOVATION CAT MODEM 



• 0-300 Baud 

• Bell 103 

• Answer, Originate 

Part No. 

NOV-CAT 



List Price Our Price 
$198.00 $175.00 



Shipping weight: 3 lbs. 




NOVATION 
D-CAT 

Data Rate: 0-300 Baud. Compatibility: Bell 100 series. 
Interface: EIS RS232 C. Modes: Data. Talk, Monitor, 
Normal and Test. Duplex: Half, Full. Indicators: Ready, 
Power 

Novation proudly announces a worthy complement to the 
famous CAT'". It's the D-CAT. The first directly coupled 
modem with the portability, ease of use and low cost of an 
acoustic. D-CAT is the only direct modem that is FCC 
approved for handset jack connection with any modular 
phone. It operates with either single or multi-line tele- 
phones without the need of adapters. 

Part No. List Price Our Price 
NOV-DCAT $199 00 $195.00 

YOU MUST HAVE A PHONE 
WITH MODULAR CONNECTORS. 

Shipping weight: 3 lbs. 



PRINTERS 




ANACOM 150 
DOT MATRIX PRINTER 

Features: 

• 150 Characters per second 

• Bidirectional printing, logic seeking 
•9x9 Dot matrix 

• Upper and lower case with descenders 

■ Double width characters 

• 10 characters per inch — horizontal 

• 6 or 8 lines per inch— vertical 

• Uses a snap-in cartridge ribbon 

• Adjustable tractors 

• Original and 4 copies 

• Paper out sensor 

• 90 day factory warranted 

■ Parallel or serial interface 

Printers List Price Our Price 

ANA-150P Parallel $1350.00 $1095.00 

ANA-150S Serial $1350.00 $1095.00 

REPLACEMENT PERSONALITY MODULES 

ANA-PC Parallel Module $75.00 

ANA-SC Serial Module $75.00 

ANA-RIBBON Cartridge Nylon $15.00 

OPTIONS 
Options must be ordered with printer 
ANA-600ELH600 Million 

Impact Extended Life Head $150.00 

ANA-BELL Programmable Bell Circuit $75.00 

ANA-240V50C 240VAC 50 Cycle Power Supply . $30.00 



Novation 



A NEW BREED OF MODULAR 
MODEMS FROM NOVATION 

NOV-4102D Originate Only $340.00 

NOV-4103B Auto Answer/Manual Originate . . .$399.00 
NOV-4113B Auto Answer Only .$365.00 

Novation presents the first fully integrated modern system 
for the future. 

Their new line of 300 baud direct connect modems are 
the best for reliability, economy and convenience. 

Novation's direct connect modems meet all require- 
ments for the FCC ruling on Part 68, eliminating the cost 
and need for a Bell DAA (data access arrangement). It 
saves even more through a simplified, economical installa- 
tion procedure, using a modular T-adapter— a Novation 
excl usive 

MODULATION: FSK, phase coherent. OPERATING 
MODE: 4102 Originate, 4103B Auto Answer/Manual Origi- 
nate, 4113B Auto Answer Only. COMMUNICATION 
MODE: Full, Half duplex. PHONE LINE INTERFACE: Di- 
rect-connect per FCC Part 68. Modular Plug mates with 
standard telephone Modular Jack (USOC-RJ11C). FCC 
registration No. AU492X-70157-PC-N. Ringer equivalence 
0.3A, 1.0B. BELL COMPATIBILITY: 4102D 103A, 4103B 
103A, 4113B 113B, CARRIER DETECT: Sensitivity: 
-50dBm On delay: 150 ms ( + , -15ms) Off Delay: 50 ms 
( + , -5ms) Noise Rejection OdBm TRANSMITTER: 4102D 
On Delay: Coincident with carrier detect— Off Delay: Coin- 
cident with carrier loss—Level -9dBm 4103B On Delay: 
Originate: Coincident with carrier in originate Answer: 2.5 
sec ( + , -.5 sec) after automatic answer. Off Delay: Origi- 
nate: Coincident with carrier loss. Answer: Coincident with 
line disconnect. Level -9dBm (factory fixed) 4113B On 
Delay: Originate: Coincident with carrier in originate. An- 
swer: 2.5 sec ( + , -.5 sec) after automatic answer. Off 
Delay: Originate: Coincident with carrier loss. Answer: 
Coincident with line disconnect. Level: -9dBm {factory 
fixed) INTERNAL SWITCH OPTIONS: 4102D: None 
4103B Abort Timer 1 8 Sec. Abort Timer: 6 sec. Carrier Loss 
Disconnect: 1 sec. Disconnect Enable: On/Off. Tone Ring- 
er: On/Off. Force DTR: On/Off 41138 Abort Timer: 18 sec. 
Abort Timer: 6 sec. Carrier Loss Disconnect: 1 sec. Dis- 
connect Enable: On/Off. Tone Ringer: On/Off. Force DTR: 
On/Off. ADDITIONAL FEATURES: 4102D: None. 4103B: 
None, 4103B, 4113B: Built in audio ringer with level adjust- 
ment. TERMINAL INTERFACE: EIA RS232C Outputs: 
Mark (Off): -8v, Space (On): + 8V Inputs Mark (Off): -3 to 
-25V, Space (On): + to +25V, TTY, 20MA active current 
loop: Mark: 20MA, Space: no current. Pin Connects: (Write 
for additional specifications) POWER REQUIREMENTS: 
117VAC +. -10%, 60Hz, 16 W STANDARD CABLES AND 
ACCESSORIES: UL listed wall-mount 24VAC power 
transformer. Plug-to-plug 6-foot telephone modular cable. 
OPTIONAL CABLES: EIA RS232C 6-foot, 8-wire cable. 
TTY 6-foot, 4-wire cable. EIA RS232C/TTY Y-cable, Mocf- 
ular T-adapter (connects modem and telephone to phone 
line) SIZE: 12"L, 5%"W, 2</4"H WEIGHT: 1 Lb SHIPPING 
WEIGHT: 3 Lbs 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 15 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



TRS-80* 
MEMORY EXPANSION KITS 

You're busy writing programs. Suddenly, in the middle of 

a line you run out of memory space! 

In the words of a famous San Francisco detective, 

"What will you do? What will YOU do?'' 

Now that you have discovered some of the things your 
TRS-80* can do for you games, business, education-you 
want to do more. You want to go beyond the simple 
program, but when you type in the PRINT MEM command, 
there is no memory space left. What will you do? 

If you're smart, you will do what thousands of other 
TRS-80* owners have done. You will dash off an order to 
Priority 1 Electronics for our 16K Memory Expansion Kits. 
Don't pay a penny more or settle for anything less. Our 
Memory Expansion Kits come complete with eight factory 
prime 16K dynamic RAM chips, easy to follow step-by- 
step instructions, and a 100% guarantee. What more 
could you ask for? 

TRS-16KEXP This kit allows you to expand from 16K to 
32K or from 32K to 48K in your Expansion Interface 

$50.00 

TRS-16KEY This kit includes the programming jumpers 
necessary to expand from 4K to 16K in your TRS-80* 

Keyboard $53.00 

NOTE: Apple owners, this terrible fate can happen to you, 
too. Order our Apple II** Memory Expansion Kit. 
APL-16K $50.00 

THE PRIORITY 1 ELECTRONICS 
MEMORY EXPANSION KIT 
Don't program without it. 

•TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 
"Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer 
Corp. 



MODEL T2400AA 

The Mini-8100S is an S-100 size card providing a compact 
S-100 adapter for the TRS-80 ,W computer. Designed for 
those who possess or will possess an S-100 mainframe. It 
has the same adapter circuitry as the Mini-8100, but plugs 
exactly into an S-100 motherboard. 

Features: 

• S-100 Bus Interface 
■ Fully Socketed 

• Solder Mask and Silk Screened Component Legend 

• Not Recommended for Use With Expansion Interface 

Ordering Information: List Our Price 

CCS-T2400AA Mini-8100S $125.00 $112.61 



MODEL T5400AA 

The Mini-8100 opens up the vast world of S-100 products 
for your TRS-80™ Computer, providing an S-100 Bus 
adapter/motherboard for memory expansion and ex- 
tended I/O capabilities. This combination four-slot moth- 
erboard and S-100 interface connects to the TRS-80 or 
expansion interface. 

Features: 

■ S-100 Bus Interface 

• 4-Slot Motherboard 

• Fully Socketed 

• Solder Mask and Silk Screened Component Legend 



Ordering Information: 
CCS-T5400AA Mini-8100 

Assembled & Tested 



List Our Price 
$155.00 $139.60 



MODEL T5416ABA 

The 8100 allows a Radio Shack TRS-80 computer to be 
interfaced to the popular S-100 Bus for memory expansion 
and extended I/O capabilities. 

The 8100 opens up a whole new world of peripheral 
devices to the TRS-80 owner. For example, you can now 
easily add more memory, floppy disc systems, PRCK 
boards, printer interfaces, multi-purpose I/O boards, AC 
device controllers, and a whole host of other varied 
peripherals. 

The 8100 has its own built-in 6-slot motherboard which 
includes our unigue card guide system which keeps the 
boards in their places. 

The 8100 is designed to sit on a table top next to your 
TRS-80 and connects to it via a ribbon cable. A second 
TRS-80 connector allows other TRS-80 devices to be 
connected at the same time. 

Not only do you get an S-100 bus interface and mother- 
board, but the 8100 has more on-board options. 

Features: 

• S-100 Bus Interface 

• 6-Slot Motherboard 

• Accepts 8, 16K or4K Dynamic RAMs 

• Programmable Baud Rate Selection 

• Selectable Even, Odd or No Parity 

t. Serial RS-232-C/20 ma Current Loop 
+• Parallel Input and Output 

• Addressable in 4K Blocks Via Dip Switches 

• DCE or DTE Jumper Selectable 

• 5-, 6-, 7- or 8-Bit Word Length with 1-, t%- or 2-Stop 
Bits 

Ordering Information: List Our Price 

CCS-T5416ABA Complete 8100 

Assembled & Tested $375.00 $337.00 



NEWDOS/80 

A NEW ENHANCED NEWDOS FOR 
THE TRS-80® MODEL 1 FOR THE 1980s 

Apparat Inc. announces the most powerful Disk Operating 
System for the TRS-80. S It has been designed for the 
sophisticated user and professional programmer who de- 
mands the ultimate in disk operating systems. 

NEWDOS/80 is not meant to replace the present version 
of NEWDOS 2.1 which satisfies most users, but is a care- 
fully planned upward enhancement, which significantly 
extends NEWDOS 2. 1s capabilities. This new member to 
the Apparat NEWDOS family is upward compatible with 
present NEWDOS 2.1 and is supplied on Diskette, com- 
plete with enhanced NEWDOS+ utility programs and doc- 
umentation. Some of the NEWDOS/80 features are: 
■ New BASIC commands that support files with variable 
record lengths up to 4095 Bytes long. 

• Mix or match disk drives. Supports and track count from 
18 to 80. Use 35, 40 or 77 track 5" mini disk drives or 8" 
disk drives, or any combination 

• A security boot-up for BASIC or machine code 
application programs. User never sees "DOS READY" 
or "READY" and is unable to "BREAK," clear screen, or 
issue any direct BASIC statement including "LIST." 

• New editing commands that allow program lines to be 
deleted from one location and moved to another to allow 
the duplication of a program line with the deletion of the 
original. 

• Enhanced and powerful RENUMBER that allows 
relocation of subroutines. 

• Powerful program chaining, & enhanced debug. 

• Device handling for routing to display and printer 
simultaneously. 

• CDE function; simultaneous striking of the C, D and E 
keys will allow user to enter a mini-DOS to perform some 
DOS commands without disturbing the resident 
program. 

• Upward compatible with NEWDOS 2.1 andTRSDOS2.3 

• Includes Superzap 3.0 and all Apparat 2.1 utilities. 

Shipping weight: 3 lbs. 

APP395 $1 49.00 

APP395M NEWDOS/80 when purchased 

with any Micropolis Drive on the same order $100.00 



NEW FROM SAMS BOOKS 
NOW IN TWO VOLUMES 

TRS-80 ^^jfe 

INTERFACING \ '\$P < f0> 




& 



\\^" 



B00K1 

AND 

BOOK 2 

SHIPPING WEIGHT 1 LB. 



INTRODUCTION, BOOK I 

The Radio Shack TRS-80 computer provides abundant 
computer power at moderate cost, allowing broad ver- 
satility. Like many TRS-80 users, you, perhaps, are con- 
tent to apply your computer to home, business, or per- 
sonal uses where standard peripherals, such as key- 
board, display, cassette recorder, etc., are appropriate. 
Or, maybe, you are like a growing number of others who 
desire to have their TRS-80 actually control external 
devices, sense external events, and perhaps, even 
transfer information between the computer and pe- 
ripheral circuits of their own design. If you are among the 
latter group, then TRS-80 interfacing will introduce you to 
the internally generated signals available and show you 
how each can be used under BASIC language program 
control. The book is for the reader with a good under- 
standing of commands in Level II BASIC and would be 
found midway between the beginning computer user and 
the advanced programmer/hardware designer. 190 
pages. 
SAM 21633 $8.95 

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES, BOOK 2 

This book will introduce you to some of the advanced 
interfacing techniques that will allow you to do real things 
with your Radio Shack TRS-80 computer. You will find 
that these techniques can be applied to computer appli- 
cations in your home, research laboratory, or school 
laboratory. You will learn how the computer can be used 
to drive high-current and high-voltage loads, to generate 
voltage and current signals, and to measure unknown 
voltages and currents. Since many computers are being 
used to control devices that are located some distance 
from the central processing unit, the author has included 
a chapter on serial communication and remote control. 
Remote control circuits are provided that allow you to 
control Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter 
(UART) chips, analog-to-digital converters, digital-to- 
analog converters, and other devices that can be located 
from several feet from the computer to several thousand 
feet from it. 
SAM 21739 $9-95 



MICROPOLIS DISK DRIVES 
FOR THE TRS-80 COMPUTER 

• Plug-In Compatible with the TRS-80 Disk Drive 
■ 35 Tracks 

• Faster Than a Speeding Bullet (30ms) 

• Available in 77 Track 

• Soft Sector 

• Metallic Gray and Black Cabinet 

• Power Supply, Fuse, and Line Cord 

• Single- or Dual-Drive Configuration 

LIST OUR 

SINGLE DRIVES PRICE PRICE 

MCP10271 35TRACK $ 545.00 CALL 

MCP 10272 77 TRACK $ 645.00 $ 575.00 

DUAL DRIVES 
MCP10371 35TRACK S1 195-00 CALL 

MCP 1 0372 77 TRACK S1395.00 _ $1195.00 

AS FEATURED IN TRS-80 INTERFACING 



Interface your TRS-80 to 

the "real world" 
the faster and easier way. 



EL 




The Jumper. A 24" 40-conductor flat ribbon cable as- 
sembly with a socket connector on one end, a card-edge 
connector on the other. Its preassembled and every line 
is pretested. 
APP-924150-24 $11.95 



The Header. Copper alloy 770 for instant plug-in access 

to the PC board. 

APP-923875-R $3.49 



The Solderless Breadboard. Its our famous super- 
strip" for unlimited freedom in the layout and implementa- 
tion of your circuits. 
APP-923252-R $17.00 



THE VISTA V-80 
DISK DRIVE SYSTEM 

• 23% more storage 
capacity than TRS-80 

• 120 day warranty 

• 40 track patch at 
NO CHARGE 



THE VISTA V80: 

widen the ability of your TRS-80 

The Vista V80Mini Disk System is the perfect way to widen 
the capabilities of your TRS-80 IM Micro-computer. Quickly 
and inexpensively. Our $395 price tag is about $100 less 
than the Radio Shack equivalent. Our delivery time is 
immediate. And our system is fully interchangeable. That's 
just the start. 

It will give you 23% more storage capacity by increas- 
ing useable storage from 55,000 to 65,000 bytes per drive 
with our new software patch. 

It can work 8 times faster than the TRS-80 Mini-Disk 
system, because track-to-track access is 5ms versus 
40ms for the TRS-80. You can realize this added speed 
once the new double disk expansion interface is available 
without expensive modification of the existing unit. 

It has a better warranty than any comparable unit 
warranty available— a full 120 days on all parts and ser- 
vice. When you consider how much more goes into the 
Vista V80, that shows a lot of faith in our product. 

A full 3 amp power supply means you have 2v 2 times 
the power necessary to operate the V80, and full ventila- 
tion insures that there will be no problems due to 
overheating. 

The Vista V80 Mini Disk System requires Level II Basic 
with 16K RAM Expansion Interface (it operates from the 
Radio Shack interface system). It comes complete with a 
dependable MPI Minifloppy disk drive, power supply, reg- 
ulator board and vented case. It's shipped to you ready to 
run — simply take it out of the box and plug it in. You're in 
business. From the company that means business— Vista 
Computer Company. 

y K y DISKETTES 

Part No. Sectoring Application Box of 10 

VRB-M0 525-01 Soft Sector TRS-80, Apple $ 29.95 

VIS-V-80 Single drive system $395.00 

VIS-V-80-2 Two drive system $770.00 

VIS-V-80-4 Four drive system $1450.00 

PRI-34CEEE-2 Two drive cable $29.95 

PRI-34CEEE-4 Four drive cable $39.95 

Four Drive and Two Drive Systems come 
complete with Data Cable. 



80 — 16 



BYTE November 1980 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




PARALLEL INTERFACE 

• Two bi-direction 8 bit buses for interface to periferals 

• Two programmable control registers 

• Two programmable data direction registers 

• Four individually controlled interrupt input lines; two 
useable as peripheral control outputs 

• Handshake control logic for input and output peripheral 
operation 

• High impedance 3 state and direct transistor drive 
peripheral lines 

• Programmable interrupts 

• CMOS drive capability on side 
A peripheral lines 

• 2 TTL drive capability on all A and B side buffers 

• Power down ROM 

• Supports interrupt daisy chain 

• Allows DMA daisy chain 

• 256 bytes firmware (ROM) or softwares (RAM) space 
available 

List Our Price 
CCS-7720A Assembled 

(with cable and Software) 1 LB $119.95 $107.95 

CCS-7325A Cable Assembly, 

25 P"D"" to dual 13P header $24.95 

CCS-7620A A Firmware ROM, General purpose . .$24.95 

CENTRONICS 
PARALLEL INTERFACE 

The Model 7728 interfaces high-speed Centronics-type 
parallel interface printers to the Apple II* computer. The 
7728 provides eight-bit parallel data output bus, four-bit 
status input, Data Strobe and Acknowledge handshake 
signals, and printer Reset signal to ensure compatibility 
with a wide selection of printers. 

Driver firmware is provided in an on-board 256-byte 
ROM. 

• Pin-for-pin compatibility with Centronics printers 

• Handshaking provided with Data Strobe and 
Acknowledge signals 

• ASCII character output controlled by on-board ROM 

• Eight-bit parallel output bus 

• Four-bit status input 

• Printer Reset signal 

• Compatibility with standard Apple II printer command 

• Flexible character/line format 

• Auto line feed and video echo are under software control 

• Interrupt daisy chain supported with arbitration logic 

• DMA daisy chain pass-through provided 

• Software-programmable interrupts 

• Jumper-selectable IRQ signal 

• Berg plug jumpers provided for all jumper-selectable 
features 

List Our Price 

CCS7728 Assembled $119.95 $107.95 

CCS-7340A Cable for the Integral Data 

IDS-440 Paper Tiger Call 

CCS-7379A Cable for Centronics printers, the 

Okidata Microline 80, or the Microtek MT-88T $31.95 

CCS-7388A Cable for the MPI 88T $29.95 

CCS-7001A RAM pack for ROM replacement $19.95 

CCS-7601A Unburned ROM pack $19.95 

SYNCHRONOUS 
SERIAL INTERFACE 

• Conforms to RS-232-C (configuration A thru E) 

• Supports half or full duplex operation 

• DTE type configuration 

• Failsafe RS-232-C operation 

. 14 STD CLK rates 50-19. 2K BAUD plus EXT CLK 

• BAUD rates dip switch selectable 

• All BAUD rates crystal controlled 

• Programmable interrupts from transmitter, receiver, and 
error detection logic 

• Programmable SYNC code register 

• Standard synchronous signaling rate per RS-269/ANSI 
X3. 1-1975 

• Peripheral/modem control functions 

• Three bytes of fifo buffering on both transmit and 
receive date 

• 7, 8, or 9 bit transmission 

• Optional odd, even, or no parity bit 

• Parity, overrun, and overflow status checks 

• Power down prom 

• 256 bytes firmware (ROM) or software (RAM) space 
available 

• Supports interrupt daisy chain 

• Allows DMA daisy chain 

List Our Price 
CCS-7712A Assembled 

(with cable & software) 1 LB $1 79.95 $159.00 

CCS-7325A Cable Assembly, 

25P "D" to dual BP header $24.95 

CCS-7001A RAM (for ROM replacement) $19.95 

CCS-7601A ROM (unburned. empty) $19.95 

CCS-7610A Firmware ROM General Purpose . . . $24.95 

APPLE II® EXTENDER BOARD 

A handy tool when debugging or testing modules in the 
APPLE II* computer. 

VCCS-7520A Assembled $24.95 



APPLE 
PERIPHERALS 




arithmetic Processor 

• Based on AMD AM9511 device 

• Fixed point 16 and 32 bit operation 

• Floating point 32 bit operation 

• Binary data formats 

• Add, subtract, multiply, and divide 

• Trigonometric and inverse trignometric functions 

• Square roots, logarithms, exponentiation 

• Float to fixed and fixed to float conversions 

• Stack oriented operand storage 

• Programmed I/O data transfer 

• End signal selectable interrupt 

• Supports interrupt daisy chain 

• Allows DMA daisy chain 

• Powered down ROM 

• 256 Bytes firmware (ROM or software (RAM) space 
available 

List Our Price 

CCS-7811B For use with Apple II $399.95 $359.00 

CCS-7001A RAM (for ROM replacement) $19.95 

CCS-7601A ROM (unburned, empty) $19.95 

CCS-7811C For use with Apple II plus $359.00 



ASYNCHRONOUS 
SERIAL INTERFACE 

• Parity, overrun, and framing error checks 

• Optional divide by 16 clock mode 

• False start bit detection 

• Software programmable interrupts 

• Data double buffered 

• One or two stop bit operation 

• Power down PROM 

• 256 bytes firmware (ROM) or software (RAM) space 
available 

• Supports interrupt daisy chain 

• Allows DMA daisy chain 

• 134.5 BAUD.available for selectric interface 

• Conforms to RS-232-C (configuration A thru E) 
■ Supports half or full duplex operation 

• DCR type interface 

• Failsafe RS-232-C operation 

. 14 STD CLK rates 50-19. 2K BAUD plus EXT CLK 

• BAUD rates dip switch selectable 

• All BAUD rates crystal controlled except EXT 

• 8 and 9 bit transmission 

• Optional even, odd, and no parity bit 

• Programmable control register L | S( Q ur p nce 
CCS-7710A Assembled 

(with cable & software) 1 LB $159.95 $159.00 

CCS-7325A Cable assembly, 

25P "D" to dual 13P header $24.95 

CCS-7001A RAM (for ROM replacement) $19.95 

CCS-7601 ROM (unburned, empty) $19.95 

CCS-7610A Firmware ROM General Purpose . . . .$24.95 



GPIB INTERFACE 

With the Model 7490 General Purpose Instrument Bus 

Interface, your Apple II*' computer can operate with instru- 
ments which fall under the IEEE 488-1978 communication 
bus standards. Up to fifteen inter-connected controllers, 
talkers, and/or listeners can be interfaced on the bus. 
Such devices include counters, signal generators, digital 
multimeters, and color graphics output devices. 

• Controller/talker/listener functions of IEEE 488 
standards implemented 

• Capability of handling up to 15 interconnected devices 
on the bus 

■ Five bus management lines and three data-byte-transfer 
lines provided 

• Full buffering of all 16 signal lines 

• Bi-directional 8-bit data bus 

• An on-board parallel interface adapter which contains 
control, data direction, and data output registers for 
reliable operation 

• Data transferring performed asynchronously 

• Full handshaking with peripherals 

• DMA daisy chain pass-through support 

• Allowance for interrupt daisy chain 

• Software-programmable interrupts 

• Operation in a paging mode with eight 256-byte pages of 
firmware 

■ Controller firmware stored in a 2K x 8-bit EPROM 
(preprogrammed at the factory) 

■ 3 foot GPIB-compatible cable provided 

List Our Price 
CCS-7490A Assembled $300.00 $269.00 

APPLE MEMORY EXPANSION KITS 
4116's RAMS 

from Leading Manufacturers. 1,000'sof sets sold! 100% 
guaranteed. (16K x 1 200/250ns) 

APL-16K 8 for $50.00 




PROGRAMMABLE 
TIMER MODULE 

• Flexible external interface patch area for custom 
interface applications 

• Selectable prescaler on timer 3 capable of 4mhz input 

• Programmable interrupts 

• Readable down counter indicates counts to go 
to time-out 

• Selectable gating for frequency or pulse width 
comparison 

• Three asynchronous external clock and gate/trigger 
inputs internally synchronized 

• Three maskable outputs to patch area 

• Power down ROM 

• Supports interrupt daisy chain 

• Allows DMA daisy chain 

• 256 byte firmware (ROM) or software (RAM) 
space available 

List Our Price 

CCS-7440A Assembled 1 LB $114.95 $103.00 

CCS-7001A RAM (for ROM replacement) $19.95 

CCS-7601A ROM (Unburned, empty) $19.95 

PROM MODULE 

The 7114A PROM MODULE permits the addition or 
replacement of the Apple II firmware without the physical 
removal of the Appie II ROMS. This allows soft- 
ware/firmware replacement, change, and/or patch to be 
made on a ROM or BYTE BASIS. An on-board enab- 
le/disable toggle switch is also availale. 

• BYTE oriented program overlay 

• Selectable prom overlay 

• Power down of PROMS 

• 14K PROM space available 

• Uses +5 volt 2716 type proms 

• Allows use of DMA/interrupt daisy chains 
CCS-7114A Assembled List Our Price 
(without PROMS) 1 LB $79.95 $75.00 

33/4 DIGIT BCD 
A/D CONVERTER 

The 7470 allows conversion of a DC voltage to a BCD 
number for computer monitoring and analysis. Typical 
inputs would be DC inputs from temperature or pressure 
transducers. 

• Selectable interrupt on end of conversion 

• 200US per conversion 
. -4 to +4 VDCfull scale 

• Plus or minus .05% non-linearity 

• Plus or minus 1 count quantization 

• Corrective offset error 

• Temperature coefficient adjustment 

• Calibration adjustment 

• Input offset adjustment 

• Floating inputs 

• Overange and sign indicators 

• Input filter 

• Power down ROM 

• Supports interrupt daisy chain 

• Allows DMA daisy chain 

• 256 bytefirmware (ROM) or software (RAM) SDace 
available List Our Price 

CCS-7470A Assembled and 

Calibrated 1 LB $111.95 $99.95 

CCS-7001A RAM $19.95 CCS-7601 ROM $19.95 

CALENDAR/ CLOCK 
MODULE 

The Model 7424 Calendar/Clock Module for the Apple 
II* computer provides accurate real time counting for a 
wide variety of applications. The 7424 can be software- 
programmed for either a 12-hour or 24-hour format, and 
automatically adjusts February to 29 days for leap years. 
Each decimal digit of data is separately addressed, allow- 
ing the user complete freedom of data format. An optional 
back-up battery maintains accurate time counting when 
the Apple is powered down or during power outages. To 
prevent accidental setting of the clock, the time-setting 
signal to the clock can be jumper-disabled. 

• MSM5832 Clock to count seconds, minutes, hours, days 
of week and month, months, and years 

• Berg plug jumpers provided for all user-selected 
features 

• Optional back-up battery provided for maintaining time 
during power-down of the Apple or during power outage 

• 12 hour or 24 hour format 

■ Automatic adjustment of February to 29 days for leap 
years 

• Jumper-enabled time setting to prevent accidental 
timing setting 

• BASIC program listing provided for setting time, day, 
month, and year 

• Interrupt daisy chain arbitration 

• DMA daisy chain pass-through 

• Jumper-selectable IRQ generation at hour, minute, 
second, or millisecond intervals 

• Low-power Schottky devices 

• Jumper-selectable 256-byte ROM or RAM logic 

• 3 jumper-selectable CCS drivers and space for user- 
burned driver on 1K EPROM 

List Our Price 
CCS-7424A Assembled $125.00 $109.95 



ORDER TOLL FREE (800) 423-5633 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 17 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




BRAND 



If it's worth remembering, 

it's worth Scotch 
Data Recording Products. 





\ferbatim 

™ .TnmrxiDle Tatjvft; storage rrtrXi 



DISKETTES 



Sides/ 
Density 



Sectoring 



List 

Price 

Box of 10 



Price 
Box of 10 



MMM-740-OP 

MMM-740/2-OP 
MMM 740-32P 
MMM-740/2-32P 
MMM-741-0 

MMM -743-0 



MMM-744-OK 



MMM-744-10K 

MMM-744-16K 



1/single 
2/single 
1/single 
2/single 
1/double 
2/double 
(2 head) 

1/single 

1/single 
1/single 



Soft-IBM 
Soft-IBM 
32-ShugartB01 
32-Shugart801 
Soft-Shugart Dbl 

Soft-IBM 

5" 
Soft-Shugart 
SA400(TRS-80) 
Soft/10 SA400 
Soft/1 6 Micropolis 



$50.00 
$88.00 
$50.00 
$88.00 
$70.00 

$100.00 



$50.00 
$50.00 
$50.00 



$39.95 
$75.00 
$39.95 
$75.00 
$59.00 

$88.00 



$39.95 
$39.95 
$39.95 



VRB- 
VRB- 

VRB 
VRB 
VRB- 
VRB- 
VRB- 
VRB 
VRB 
VRB- 
VRB 
VRB- 



5V4 DISKETTES 

Sectoring Application # of Heads Box of 10 

MD 525-01 Soft Sector TRS-80 Apple 

MD 525-10 Hard 1 Sector North Star 

MD 525-1 6 Hard 16 Sector Micropolis 

MD 540-01 Soft Sector 40 Track Cert. 

M D 540-1 Hard 1 Sector 40 Track Cert. 

MD 540-1 6 Hard 16 Sector 40 Track Cert. 

MD 550-01 Soft Sector 40 Track Cert. 

MD550-10 HardlOSector 40 Track Cert. 

MD 550-16 Hard 16 Sector 40 Track Cert. 

MD 577-01 Soft Sector 77 Track Cert. 

MD577-10 HardlOSector 77TrackCert. 

MD577-16 Hard16Sector 77TrackCert 

VRB-MD 577 Series comes with reinforced hub ring mounted 



1 


$29.95 


1 


$29.95 


1 


$29.95 


1 


$38.95 


1 


$38.95 


1 


$38.95 


2 


$55.00 


2 


$55.00 


2 


$55.00 


1 


$48.00 


1 


$48.00 


1 


$48.00 



VRB-FD32-1000 
VRB-FD34-1000 

VRB-FD32-2000 
VRB-FD34-2000 



Hard Sector 
Soft Sector 
Hard Sector 
Soft Sector 



8" DISKETTES 

Shugart801R 
IBM 3740 
Flippy 
Flippy 



$37.00 
$37.00 
$66.00 
$66.00 



BE SURE TO ORDER YOUR KASSETTE/10 
LIBRARY CASE BELOW 



ALL VERBATIM DISKETTES ARE DOUBLE DENSITY 
CERTIFIED 



HOUSINGS FOR 
MAGNETIC MEDIA 




ttc 



• Capacity: 50 diskettes 

• Vinyl dust cover 

• 5 pressboard dividers 
■ 3 metal dividers 

• Will cross-file in a standard 
letter-size file drawer 



Shipping weight: MM-1 5 lbs. FM-2 9 lbs. 
MMM-MM1 (for 5VV diskettes) $28.50 

MMM-FM-2 (for 8" diskettes) $37.00 




3M CRASHGUARD 14" HARD DISKS 

SOMETHING YOU CAN DEPEND ON 

Each "Scotch" brand top loading and front loading cart- 
ridge is coated with CRASHGUARD"— 3Ms exclusive pro- 
tective disk coating which guards against oxide build-up on 
the read/write heads and the hazards of head-to-disk 
interference. You can depend on CRASHGUARD to pro- 
tect you from data checks (phantom errors), damaged 
heads, computer downtime and data loss. 
Shipping weight: 10 lbs 
Part No. Sectoring Application Price 



MMM-910-12 
MMM-910-16 
MMM-910-24 
MMM-920-12 
MMM-920-24 
MMM-9331-48 



12 Sector 
16 Sector 
24 Sector 
12 Sector 
24 Sector 
48 Sector 



DEC PDP-11 

DECPDP-8 

TI980 

CDC HAWK 

Microdata2754 

Datapoint10/MB 



$100.00 
$100.00 
$100.00 
$120.00 
$120.00 
$160.00 



THE PROTECTOR. 

• Capacity: 50 Diskettes 

• Sizes for 8" and 5V.»" Diskettes 

• Rugged, smoked plexiglass construction 

• Helps keep dust, dirt and grime from contaminating 
valuable diskettes 

Shipping Weight: VRBPRT5 3 lbs. VRBPRT8 5 lbs. 



Part Number 

VRB-PRT5 

VRB-PRT8 



Description 
For 5V4" Diskettes 
For 8" 



Price 
$29.95 
$39.95 



DON'T LET DUST OR SCRATCHES 
DIRTY YOUR DATA! 



PREVENT THE USE OF DAMAGED DISK 
CARTRIDGES WITH 

SHOCKWATCH 

Media equipped with Shockwatch give an immediate 
signal that a shock great enough to cause a malfunction 
has been experienced. 

The dramatic change from clear to vivid red attracts the 
attention of all operating personnel and assures its re- 
moval from service before significant financial loss. 

The Shockwatch impact detector is a length of precision- 
bore capillary tubing, containing a precise thread of red 
liquid. Mechanical shock or acceleration exceeding a pre- 
determined level disrupts the relationship between the 
liquid and the tube. Immediately, vivid red liquid fills the 
tube. This simple change in appearance, from clear to 
brilliant red, is a positive indicator that the cartridge or pack 
has received a shock sufficient to cause probable damage. 

MMM-SWCART $8.95 

Shipping weight: 1 lb. 

HARDHOLE 

HUB 

REINFORCING 

DISK 
PROTECTORS 

• Protects disks and diskettes from wear! 

• Repairs damaged disks! 

Now you can save those "ruined" disks with simple 
insertion of our DISK PROTECTOR! Inserting a protector 
on a new disk will increase its life times over! Easy to 
install, just slip a protector ring onto the precision tool, then 
slip on the disk! No glueing, no drying time, no heat! One 
tool lasts indefinitly, each disk requires one protector ring. 

Part No. Description Price 

VRB HDHL5 5V Diskette Protector Ring (pkg. 50) $3.50 

VRB HDHL5A 5V4" Applicator Tool $5.00 

VRB HDHL8 8" Diskette Protector Rings (pkg. 50) .$7.00 

VRD HDHL8A 8" Applicator Tool $10.00 

Shipping Weight: 4 oz. 




KASETTE/10 

LIBRARY CASE 

Shipping Weight: 8" 2 lbs. 
5V>" 1 lb. 



Part Number 



Color 



Price 



MMM-KS10GY 
MMM-KS10BK 
MMM-KS10BU 
MMM-KS10BG 
MMM-KM10GY 
MMM-KM10BK 
MMM-KM10BU 
MMM-KM10BG 



B" 
8" 
8" 
8" 

5 'A" 
5'A" 

5'/4" 
5'/4" 



Grey 
Black 
Blue 
Beige 
Grey 
Black 
Blue 
Beiqe 



$4.50 
$4.50 
$4.50 
$4.50 
$4.25 
$4.25 
$4.25 
$4.25 



PREVENT HEAD CRASHES 

A one year supply of disk cleaning supplies cost 
$29.95— What is a diskette with one of your programs 
worth? 




Diskette drive heads, like your cassette heads, need 
periodic mantenance to assure efficient and error-free 
operation. Unlike other peripheral devices, the read/write 
head(s) on diskette drives are extremely difficult to clean 
without partially disassembling the drive. The unique con- 
cept of the diskette head cleaning kit allows the user to 
clean the drive heads without diassembly in jus! minutes. 
Available for 8" or5 1 /4", both single and double sided disk 
drives. Kit contains 2 cleaning diskettes, a 4 oz. bottle of 
CS-85 cleaning solution and easy-pour dispenser. Wt. 12 
oz. A 1 year supply if you clean your disk once a week. 

Catalog No. Description 

VRB-FD088" Disk Drive Cleaning Kit $29.95 

VRB-FD05 BH" Disk Drive Cleaning Kit $29.95 




3M SCOTCH® BRAND PERSONAL 
COMPUTING TAPE WITH LEADER 

MMM-PCC-10 10 Minute $1.30 

MMM-PCC-20 20 Minute $1.40 

MMM-PCC-30 30 Minute $1.50 



80 — 18 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



PART NO. 



INS B08AN 

DPB212N 

DP82I4N 

DP82I6N 

DP8224N 

DP8224-4N 

0P8226N 

DPB228N 

DP8238N 

INS8250N 

INS825IN 

INS8253N 

INS8255N 

INS8257N 

INS8259N 



PART NO. 



Z80A 

Z80PI0 

Z80API0 

Z80CTC 

Z80ACTC 

Z800MA 

Z80A0MA 

Z80SIOO 

Z80ASI00 

Z80SI0I 

Z80ASI0I 

Z80SI02 

Z80ASI02 



PART NO. 



6502 

6502A 

6520 

6522 

6530002 

6530-003 

6530-004 

6530-005 

6532M 

655 1 M 



PART NO. 



MC6800P 

MC6802P 

MC6808P 

MC6809P 

MC6821P 

MC6828P 

MC6840P 

MC6845P 

MC6847P 

MC6850P 

MC6852P 

MC6854P 

MC6860P 

MC6862P 

MC6875L 

MC66710P 

MC66750P 



STOCK 
NUMBER 



NI0T-B0412 
M0TB0421 
M0T-B0422 
M0T-B0427 
MOT-B0428 
M0T-B0435 
M0T-B0436 
M0T-B0437 
MOT-B0438 
M0T-B0439 
MOT-B0440 
M0TB0441 
M0T-CTG12 



8080 SERIES 



DESCRIPTION 



8 BIT CPU 
8 BIT I/O PORT 

PRIORITY INTERUPT CONTROL 
BI-DIRECTIONAL BUS DRIVER 
CLOCK GEN AND DRIVER (2MHz) 
CLOCK GEN AND DRIVER (4MHz) 
INV BI-DIRECTIONAL BUS DRIVER 
SYSTEM CONTROLLER & BUS DRIVER 
SYSTEM CONTROLLER & BUS DRIVER 
ASYNCHCOMM ELEMENT 
PROGRAMMABLE COMM INT. 
PROGRAMMABLE INTERNAL TIMER 
PROG. PERIPHERAL INTERFACE 
PROG. DMA CONTROLLER 
PROG. INTERUPT CONTROLLER 



Z80 SERIES 



DESCRIPTION 



8BITCPU(4MHz) 
PARALLEL INTERFACE (2.5MHz) 
PARALLEL INTERFACE (4MHz) 
CTC (2MHz) 
CTC (4MHz) 

DMA CONTROLLER (2MHz) 
DMA CONTROLLER (4MHz) 
SERIAL INTERFACE (2MHz) 
SERIAL INTERFACE (4MHz) 
SERIAL INTERFACE (2MHz) 
SERIAL INTERFACE (4MHz) 
SERIAL INTERFACE (2MHz) 
SERIAL INTERFACE (4MHz) 



6502 SERIES 



DESCRIPTION 



8 BIT CPU 

8 BIT CPU 

PIA 

PIA 

RAM/ROM I/O TIMER 

RAM/ROM I/O TIMER 

TIM. RAM/ROM 

RAM/ROM I/O TIMER 

RAM/ROM I/O TIMER 



6800 SERIES 



DESCRIPTION 



8 BIT CPU 

MPU, CLK, RAM 

MPU. CLK 

MICROPROCESSOR 

PIA 

PRIOR. INTERUPT ADAPT. 

PTM 

CRT CONTROLLER 

COLOR VIDEO DISPLAY GEN. 

ASYNCH. COMM. INT. ADAPT. 

SYNCH SER. DATA ADAPT. 

ADVANCED DATA LINK CONT. 

0-600 BPS MODEM 

0-2400 BPS MODEM 

MPU CLOCK GEN. 

CHAR GEN ASCII SHFTD W/GRK 

CHAR. GEN ALPHA. NUM. CTRL CHAR 

MOTOROLA, Semiconductors 
BOOKS AND LITERATURE 

TITLE 



CMOS 

VOLT REG. 

LO POWER SCHOTTKY 

M6800 REF. MANUAL 

UNDERSTAND MICRO 

POWER DATA 

MICRO DATA LIB 

BASIC MICRO AND THE M68O0 

PROG. THE M6800 MICRO 

BASIC l/CENGR AND THE 6800 

LINEAR INTERFACE 

LINEAR CIRCUIT 

MASTER SEL. GUIDE 



PRICE 



S6.50 
S2.95 
S5.25 
$2.95 
$3.25 
$9.95 
$3.50 
$5.55 
$5.55 

$15.00 
$7.50 

$17.95 
$6.80 

$16.45 

$18.00 



PRICE 



$14.95 

$9.95 
$14.95 

$9.95 
$13.95 
$39.95 
$45.00 
$56.00 
$59.95 
$56.00 
$59.95 
$56.00 
$59.95 



PRICE 



$12.95 
$18.95 
$8.95 
$10.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 



PRICE 



$11.95 
$17.95 

$9.95 
$34.95 

$5.95 
$14.95 
$14.95 
$31.00 
$14.95 

$5.41 

$5.79 
$24.95 
$10.89 
$12.00 

$7,40 
SI 2.50 
$12.50 



PRICE 



$5.95 

$3.95 
$3.95 
$3.95 
$3.95 
$6.50 
$8.95 

$15.95 
$8.95 

$29.95 
$5.95 
$6.50 
$3.95 



OPTO-ISOLATORS 

VISO ICO(MA) VCEO 



4N27 


NPN 


1500V 


2.0 


30V 


$1.10 


$ .92 


4N28 


NPN 


500V 


2.0 


30V 


$1.10 


$.92 


4N30 


NDL 


1500V 


30 


30V 


$1.40 


$7.10 


4N31 


NDL 


1500 V 


10 


30V 


$1.25 


$1.00 



ER 


PRODUCTS 

(U\ MOTOROLA 






xZy Semiconductors 






STATIC RAMS 






PART NO. 


DESCRIPTION 1-7 8-24 


25-99 


100* 


2I02AN-L 


1024x1 450NS LP $1.60 $1.40 


$1.15 


$1.00 


2102AN-2L 


1024 x 1 250NS LP $1.75 $1.60 


$1.25 


$1.10 


2114N-3L 


1024x4 300NS LP $6.95 $5.65 


$5.00 


$4.50 


5257N-3L 


4096 x 1 300NS LP $9.50 $6.90 


CALL 


CALL 


7489 


16x4 60NS TTL $2.99 $ 

DYNAMIC RAMS 


$2.25 


$1.75 


PART NO. 


DESCRIPTION 1-7 B-24 


25-99 


100* 


4U6AC20 


16K x 1 200NS $7.95 $6.25 
CALL FOR VOLUME PRICING ON 4116 DYNAMIC RAMS 


$ 


$5.20 


5290J-2 


16Kx1 150NS (4116) CALL CALL 

E PROMS 


CALL 


CALL 


PART NO. 


DESCRIPTION 17 


8-24 


25-99 


I702A 


256 x 1 US UV ERASABLE $6.95 


t 6.00 


CALL 


2708 


1024 x 8 450NS UV ERASABLE $ 9.00 


! 8.50 


CALL 


TNIS2716 


3 SUPPLY 2K x 8 EPROM $19.95 


CALL 


CALL 


2716 


5V ONLY 2K x 8 EPROM $20.00 


18 00 


SI 5.00 


2732 


5V ONLY 4K x 8 EPROM CALL 

BUS DRIVERS & RECEIVERS 


CALL 


CALL 


PART NO. 


DESCRIPTION 




PRICE 


8T26N 


QUAD BUS DRV/RCVR EXT 




$2.75 


8T28N 


QUAD 3 STATE BUS DRV/RCVR 




$2.75 


BT96N 


HEX INVERTER TRI-STATE 




$1.95 


BT97N 


HEX BUFFER TRI-STATE 




$1.95 


BT98N 


HEX INVERTER TRI-STATE 




$1.95 


B13IN 


QUAD TRI-STATE LINE RECEIVER 




$3.00 


MC14B8P 


RS232 QUAD LINE DRIVER 




$1.18 


MC1489P 


RS232 QUAD LINE RECEIVER 

UARTS 




$1.18 


PART NO. 


DESCRIPTION 




PRICE 


AY51013A 


UART30KBAUD(-12V*5V) 




$5.95 


TR1602B 


UART20KBAUD(-12V*5V) 




$5.95 




MEK6800 MICROCOMPUTER MODULES 




PART NO. 


DESCRIPTION 




PRICE 


MEK680904A 


6809 MPU BOARD. CASS INT. 1K RAM. DEBUG MONITOR (MOKEP) 


$490.00 


MEK6809D4B 


SAME AS ABOVE. WITH ADDR & DATA BUFFERS 








AND RS-232 INTERFACE 




$528.00 


MEK68KPD 


KEYPAD/DISPLAY WITH PWR. SUPPLY FOR MEK6809D4A 




$275.00 


MEK6802D5 


6802 SBC, 25 KEY KEYPAD, 2K MONITOR 








WITH DEBUG, PWR SUPPLY 




$305.00 


MEK68I0E 


I/O MODULE, CASS INT., RS-232C INT, DIA PORT (MOKEP) 




$325.00 


MEK6BRRE 


RAM/ROM MODULE, 1K RAM EXPAN, TO 8K, 








EDITOR/ASSEMBLER ON ROM (MOKEP) 




$469.00 


MEK6B00ABC 


ADAPTER/MOTHERBOARD FOR MEK6800 








D2 AND MOKEP PRODUCTS 




$215.00 


MEK6809EAC 


EDITOR/ASSEMBLER FOR THE MEK6809EAC (CASS, 300 BAUD) 


$110.00 


MEK6800D2A 


6800 EVALUATION KIT II. PIA I/O, CASS INT, 256 BIT RAM 




$409.00 


MEK6802D3 


6802 SBC HEX KEYPAD, PARALLEL I/O. 








MONITOR. 16 BIT TIMER COUNTER 




$305.00 


MEK6B02D3C 


SAME AS ABOVE WITHOUT KEYPAD & LED DISPLAYS (MOKEP) 


$269.00 


MEK68I0 


SAME AS MEK68I0 LESS RS-232 DRIVER ROM 




$305.00 


MEK6800AB 


SAME AS MEK6800ABC LESS EDITOR/ASSEM CASSETTE 




$169.00 


MEK68MB5 


MOTHERBOARD FOR MOKEP PRODUCTS 




$139.00 


MEK68MM16 


16K RAM FOR THE MOKEP FAMILY 




$359.00 


MU6BMM32 


32K RAM FOR THE MOKEP FAMILY 




$479.00 


MEK68R2 


PROGRAMMABLE CRT INTERFACE FOR THE MEK6800AB (MOKEP) 


$359.00 


MEK68R2IYI 


PROGRAMMABLE CRT INTERFACE FOR THE MEK6802D3 




$359.00 


MEK68CC 


CARD CAGE FOR THE MEK68MB5 MOTHERBOARD 




$ 85.00 


MEK6BRR 


SAME AS MEK68RRE LESS EDITOR ASSEMBLER ON ROM 




$359.00 


MEK6BWW 


WIRE WRAP MODULE FOR THE MEK6800AB 




$ 69.00 


MEK6BWW01 


WIRE WRAP MODULE FOR THE MEK68MB 




$ 69.00 


MEK68EP 


EPROM PROGRAMMER FOR THE MOKEP FAMILY 




$419.00 


MEK68CMB 


10 SLOT MOTHERBOARD AND CARD CAGE 








FOR THE MOKEP FAMILY 




$209.00 


CHR0MA68 


6808 SBC WITH COLOR GRAPHICS 




$149.00 




SPST DIP SWITCHES 


PRICE 




PART NO. 


NO. OF POSITIONS 1-9 


10-24 


25-99 


0IP-SW4 


f-&mm^ 4 J,5 ° 


$1.40 


$1.28 


DIPSW5 


4jU7^&*. si60 


$1.49 


$1.36 


DIP-SW6 


afcu/7*ni $170 


$1.59 


$1.45 


DIP-SW7 


IHJ 


$1.68 


$1.53 


0IP-SW8 


^^B MIV 


$1.86 


$1.70 


D1P-SW9 


^^^^r 


$2.10 


$1.92 


DIP-SW10 


10 $2.50 


$2.33 


$2.12 



CALL FOR QUANTITY PRICING 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 19 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



f 


74LS TTL 






74LS TTL 






74LS TTL 




> 


PART# 


DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 


PART* 


DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 








74LS00 


QUAD 2-IN NAND GATE 


S .40 


74LS7B 


DUAL J-F F/F W/PRESET. COMM 










74LS0I 
741S02 


QUAD 2-IN NAND GATE (OC) 
QUAD MN NOR GATE (OC) 


.40 
.40 


74LS83 


CLK ♦ CLR 
4-BIT FULL ADD 


S .63 
1.37 


PARTS 


DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 


74LS03 


QUAD 2-IN NAND GATE (OC) 


.40 


74LS85 


4-BIT MAG COMP 


1.58 


74LS173 


QUAD "D" REG (TS) 


SI. 89 


74LS04 


HEX INV 


.42 


74LS86 


QUAD EX-OR GATE 


.58 


74LSI74 


HEX "D" F/F 


2.05 


74LS0S 

74LS08 


HEX INV 

QUAD 2-IN AND GATE 


.42 

.40 


74LS90 
74LS93 


BINARY COUNTER 
BINARY COUNTER 


.95 
.95 


74LSI75 
74LS190 
74LS19I 


QUAD "D" F/F 
U/D DECADE CTR 
U/D BINARY CTR 


1.95 
1.20 
1.43 


74LS09 
74LSI0 


OUAD 2-IN NAND GATE (OC) 
TRIP 3-IN NAND 


.40 
.40 


74LS107 
74LS109 


DUAL J-K F/F W/CORNER PWR PINS 
DUAL J-K F/F POS EDGE 




.60 


74LS192 


U/D DECADE BINARY 


3.05 


74LSI1 


TRIP 3-IN AND 


.42 


74LS112 


DUAL J-K F/F NEG EDGE 


.62 


74LS193 


U/D BINARY CTR 


3.05 


74LS12 
74LS13 
74LS14 


TRIP 3-IN NAND GATE (OC) 
DUAL SCHMITT TRIG 
HEX SCHMITT TRIG 


.42 
.78 
2.20 


74LS113 
74LS114 
74LS122 


DUAL J-K F/F NEG EDGE 
DUAL J-K F/F NEG EDGE 
RETRIGGERABLE MON MULTIVIBRATOR 


.62 
.62 
1.55 


74LS196 
74LS197 
74LS221 


PRESET DECADE CTR 
PRESET BINARY CTR 
DUAL MONO. MULTIVIBRATOR (SCH TRG) 


1.98 
1.98 
1.70 


74LS15 


TRIP 3-IN NAND 


.42 


74LS123 


DUAL RETRIG. MONO. MULTIVIBRATOR 


1.70 


74LS240 


OCTAL INV BUS/LINE DRVR 


2.81 


74LSZ0 


DUAL 4-IN NAND GATE 


.40 


74LS125 


QUAD BUFF (TS) 


.74 


74LS24I 


OCTAL BUS/LINE DRVR 


2J31 


74LS21 
74LS22 


DUAL 4-IN NAND GATE 
DUAL 4-IN NAND GATE (OC) 


.40 
.40 


74LS126 
74LS132 


QUAD BUFF (TS) 
QUAD SCHMITT TRIG 


.74 
1.20 


74LS242 
74LS243 
74LS244 


QUAD BUSTRSCVR/INV 
QUAD BUS TRSCVR 
OCTAL 3 STAT DRVR 


2.BI 
2.B1 


74LS26 
74LS27 


QUAD 2-IN NAND GATE (HV) 
TRIP 3-IN NOR GATE 




74LS136 
74LSI38 


QUAD EX-OR GATE 
EXP. SNGL 3/8 DECODER 




.42 


.95 


74LS245 


OCTAL BUS TRSCVR 


2.53 


74LS30 


SNGL8-IN NAND GATE 


.40 


74LSI39 


EXP. DUAL 2/4 DECODER 


.95 


74LS247 


BCD-7 SEGMT DECODER/DRIVER 


1.68 


74LS32 
74LS37 


QUAD 2-IN OR GATE 
QUAD 2-IN NAND BUFF 


.46 
.46 


74LSI5I 
74LSI53 


SNGL 8-1 MUX 
DUAL 4-1 MUX 


84 
.84 


74LS253 
74LS2S7 
74LS258 


DUAL 4-IN MUX (TS) 
QUAD 2-IN MUX 
QUAD 2/1 MUX 


IBS 

1.95 
1.95 


74LS3B 

74LS40 


QUAD 2-IN NAND BUFF (OC) 
DUAL 4-IN NAND BUFF 




74LS154 
74LSI55 


SNGL 4-16 DECODER 
DUAL 2-4 DEMUX 




.42 


1.55 


74LS266 


QUAD EX-NOR GATE 


.66 


74LS42 


BCD-DECIMAL DECODER/DRIVER 


.92 


74LSI56 


DUAL 2-4 DEMUX (OC) 


1.55 


74LS279 


QUAD SET/ RESET LATCH 


J38 


74LS47 
74LS48 


BCD-7 SEGMT DECODER/DRIVER 
BCD-7 SEGMT DECODER/DRIVER 


1.7B 
1.78 


74LS157 
74LS158 


QUAD 2-1 MUX 

QUAD 2-1 MUX (INV OUT) 


.84 
.95 


74LS283 
74LS299 

74LS365 


4-BIT FULL ADD 

FOUR BIT BINARY COUNTER 

HEX BUFF (TS) 


1.76 
2.20 

.88 


74LS49 
74LS51 


BCD-7 SEGMT DECODER/DRIVER 
QUAD 2-IN AND-OR-INV GATE 




HUM 

74LS161 


PRESET DECADE CTR 
PRESET BINARY CTR 




.40 


1.20 


74LS366 


HEX INV (TS) 


88 


74LS54 


QUAD 2-IN AND-OR-INV GATE 


.40 


74LS162 


PRESET DECADE CTR (SYN CLR) 


2.20 


74LS367 


HEX BUFF (4-2) (TS) 


J38 


74LSSS 

74LS73 
74LS74 


DUAL 4-IN AND-OR-INV GATE 
DUAL J-F F/F W/PRESET* CLR 
DUAL "D" F/F 


.40 
.60 
.58 


74LS163 
74LS164 
74LSI68 


PRESET DECADE CTR (SYN CLR) 

8-BIT S/R 

SYN DECADE U/D CTR 


1.20 
2.20 
3.75 


74LS368 
74LS373 
74LS374 


HEX INV (4-2) TS 

TRI-STATE OCTAL D-FLIP-FLOP 

TRI-STATE OCTAL D-FLIP-FLOP 


88 
2.00 

2.00 


74LS75 


QUAD LATCH 


.82 


74LS169 


SYN BINARY U/D CTR 


3.75 


74LS386 


QUAD EX-OR GATE 


.69 


LMLS76 


DUAL J-K F/F W/PRESET* CLR 


.62 


7.4LS170 


4x4 REG FILE 


3.15 


74LS670 


4x4 REG FILE (TS) 


3.5 


< 


r 


74 TTL 






74TTL 




PART* 


DESCRIPTION ' ' 


PRIC 


PART# 


DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 


PART* 


DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 


74157 


QUAD 2-INPUT MULTIPLEXER (9322) 


1.10 


7400 


QUAD TWO-INPUT GATE 


S .32 


7454 


ANO-OR-INVERT GATE 


S .32 


74160 


PRESETTABLE DECADE COUNTER (9310) 


1.32 


7401 


QUAD TWO-INPUT GATE (OPEN COLL.) 


.32 


7460 


DUAL FOUR-INPUT EXPANDER 


.32 


74161 


PRESET. DECADE BINARY COUNTER (9316) 


1.32 


7402 


QUAD TWO-INPUT NOR GATE 


32 


7470 


EDGE-TRIGGERED J-K FLIP-FLOP 


.50 


74162 


PRESET. DECADE CTR (SYNCH CLEAR) 


1.32 


7403 


QUAD TWO-INPUT GATE (OPEN COLL) 


32 


7472 


J-K MASTER SLAVE FLIP-FLOP 


.45 


74163 


PRESET. BINARY CTR (SYNCH CLEAR) 


1.32 


7404 


HEX INVERTER 


3t 


7473 


DUAL J-K FLIP-FLOP 


.45 


74164 


SERIAL-IN. PARA-OUT 8-BIT SHIFT REG. 


1.43 


7405 


HEX INVERTER (OPEN COLLECTOR) 


.36 


7474 


DUAL D FLIP-FLOP 


.45 


74165 


PARA-IN, SERIAL-OUT 8-BIT SHIFT REG 


1.43 


7406 


30V-40MA HEX INVERTER 


.45 


7475 


QUAD LATCH 


.73 


74166 


8-BIT SHIFT REGISTER 


1.43 


7407 


30V-40MA HEX BUFFER 


.45 


7476 


DUAL J-K FLIP-FLOP 


.45 


74170 


4 x 4 REGISTER FILE 


2.42 


7408 


QUAD 2-INPUT POSITIVE AND GATE 


.32 


7483 


4-BIT BINARY FULL ADDER 


.99 


74173 


TRI ST. QUAD K F.-FLOP (DM8551N) 


1.80 


7409 


QUAD 2-INPUT AND GATE (OC) 


.32 


7485 


FOUR-BIT MAGNITUDE COMPARATOR 


1.30 


74174 


HEX D FLIP-FLOP 


1.21 


7410 


TRIPLE THREE -INPUT GATE 


.32 


7486 


QUAD EXCLUSIVE-OR GATE 


.40 


74175 


QUAD D FLIP-FLOP 


1.21 


7411 


TRIPLE THREE-INPUT AND GATE 


32 


7489 


64 BIT RAM OC 


2.98 


74176 


PRESET. DECADE COUNTER (DM8280) 


1.32 


7413 


DUAL SCHMITT TRIGGER 


.54 


7490 


DECADE COUNTER 


.73 


74177 


PRESET. BINARY COUNTER (DM8281) 


1.32 


7414 


HEX SCHMITT TRIGGER 


1.26 


7491 


SERIAL-IN. SERIAL-OUT 8-BIT SHIFT REG 


.99 


74180 


PARITY GENERATOR/CHECKER 


1.21 


7416 


15V-40MA HEX INVERTER 


.45 


7492 


DIVIDE-BY-TWELVE COUNTER 


.73 


74181 


ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT 


2.75 


7417 


15V-40MA HEX BUFFER 


.45 


7493 


FOUR-BIT BINARY COUNTER 


.73 


74182 


CARRY LOOK AHEAD 


1.10 


7420 


DUAL FOUR-INPUT GATE 


.32 


7495 


4-BIT RIGHT-SHIFT, LEFT-SHIFT REGIST 


.88 


74184 


BCD-TO-BINARY COUNTER 


2.10 


7423 


EXPAND DUAL FOUR-INPUT NOR GATE 


.36 


7496 


5-BIT SHIFT REG. (PARA-IN. PARA-OUT) 


.99 


74185 


BINARY-TO-BCO CONVERTER 


2.10 


7425 


DUAL FOUR-INPUT NOR GATE 


.36 


74107 


DUAL J-K FLIP-FLOP 


.99 


74189 


64-BIT RAM (TRI-STATE) 


3.65 


7426 


QUAD 2-INPUT INTERFACE NAND GATE 


.36 


74109 


DUAL J-K FLIP-FLOP (FSC 9024) 


.50 


74190 


SYNCH. DECADE UP/DOWN COUNTER 


1.43 


7427 


TRIPLE THREE-INPUT NOR GATE 


.36 


74121 


ONE SHOT 


.50 


74191 


SYNCH. BINARY UP/DOWN COUNTER 


1.43 


7430 


EIGHT-INPUT GATE 


.32 


74123 


DUAL ONE SHOT 


.77 


74192 


DECADE UP/DOWN COUNTER (DM8560N) 


1.43 


7432 


QUAD 2-INPUT OR GATE 


.36 


74126 


TRI STATE QUAD BUFFER (DM8093) 


.59 


74193 


BINARY UP/DOWN COUNTER (DM8563N) 


1.43 


7437 


QUAD TWO-INPUT NAND BUFFER 


.42 


74126 


TRI STATE QUAD BUFFER (DM8094) 


.59 


74194 


4-BIT. BI-DIREC UNIV SHIFT REG 


1.10 


7438 

7440 


QUAD 2-INPUT NAND BUFFER (OC) 
DUAL FOUR-INPUT BUFFER 


.42 
.32 


74132 


QUAD SCHMITT TRIGGER 


.99 


74195 
74194 


4-BIT PARALLEL SHIFT REG 
PRESET. DECADE COUNT. (DM8290N0 


1.10 


74141 


NIXIE DRIVER 


1.35 


1.21 


7441 


BCD-DECIMAL DECODER/DRIVER (NIXIE) 


1.30 


74145 


BCD TO DECIMAL DECODER DRIVER 


1.21 


74198 


PARA-IN, PARA-OUT 8-BIT SHIFT REG 


2.20 


7442 


BCD-TO-DECIMAL DECODER 


.77 


74147 


10/4 PRIORITY ENCODER 


1.98 


74199 


PARA-IN, PARA-OUT. 8-BIT SHIFT REG 


2.20 


7445 


BCD-TO-DECIMAL DECODER/DRIVER 


1.43 


74148 


8/3 PRIORITY ENCODER (9318) 


1.98 


74251 


TRI STATE DM74151 (DM8121) 


1.10 


7446 


BCD-7 SEG DECODER/DRIVER (30 VOLT) 


1.32 


74150 


SIXTEEN LINE MULTIPLEXER 


1.50 


74284 


4 x 4 MULT. (MOST SIG BIT) TS. 


4.95 


7447 


BCD-7 SEG DECODER/DRIVER (15 VOLT) 


1.32 


74151 


EIGHT LINE MULTIPLEXER 


1.10 


74285 


4x4MULT. (LEAST SIG BIT) TS 


49 


1 


7448 


BCD-7 SEG DECODER/DRIVER (ACTIVEHI) 


1.32 


74153 


DUAL FOUR-INPUT MULTIPLEXER 


1.10 


74365 


TRI STATE HEX BUFFER (DM8095) 


a 


i 


7450 


EXPAN. DUAL AND-OR-INVERT GATE 


.32 


74154 


4T0 16LINEDEC0DE/DEMUX 


1.65 


74366 


TRI STATE HEX INVERT, (DM8096) 


.9 


i 


7461 


DUAL AND-OR-INVERT GATE 


.32 


74155 


DUAL 2 TO 4 DEMULTIPLEXER 


.99 


74367 


TRI STATE HEX BUFFER (4-2) 


J 


b 


7453 


EXPANDABLE AND-OR-INVERT GATE 


.32 


74156 


DUAL 2 TO 4 DEMUX (OC) 


1.21 


74368 


TRI STATE HEX INVERT. (4-2) 


.9 


b 

4 


^ 






LM741CN/10 G.P. OP AMP (10 PAK) (MC1741CPI) 


3.99 








% 








LM741CH 


G.P. 0PAMP(MC1741CG) 


.79 




LINEAR 






LINEAR 




LM747CN 


DUAL 741 (MC1747CP2) 


1.00 














LM747CH 


DUAL 741 (MC1747CG) 


1.25 


MC3403P 


QUAD DIFF. OP AMP 


1.20 


PART* 


DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 


LM746CN 


NON-COMP OP AMP (MC1748CP1) 


.56 


MC3423PI 


OVR/VOLT PROT CIRCUIT 


'I 


LM301AN 


IMPROVED 709 OP AMP 


$ .49 


LM748CU 


N0N-C0MP0PAMP(MC1748CG) 


.90 


LM3900 


QUAD OP AMP 


JJU 


LM307N 


IMPROVED 741 OP AMP 


.69 


MC1330AP 


LOW LEVEL VIDEO DET. 


1.83 


RC4136 


QUAD 741 


1.79 


LM308N 


PRECISION OP AMP LOW POWER 


.79 


MC1349P 


HI GAIN VIDEO IF AMP 


1.49 


WC474ICP 


QUAD 741 


1.40 


LM311N 


VOLTAGE COMPARATOR (DIP) 


.84 


MCI350P 


VIDEO IF AMP 


1.29 








LM3IIH 


VOLTAGE COMPARATOR (TO-5I 


1.42 


MC1352P 


VIDEO IF AMP WITH AGC 


1.69 


1C8038 
MC75450P 


DUAL PERIPH DRIVER (AND) 


4.50 










LM324N 


LOW POWER OUAD OP AMP 


1.19 


MC1358P 


SOUND IF AMP 


1.90 


MC75451P 


DUAL PERIPH. DRIVER (AND) 


1.25 


LM339N 


LOW POWER & OFFSET VOLTAGE OP AMP 


.80 


MCI408LS 


8-BIT D/A CONVERTER 


4.69 


MC75452P 


DUAL PERIPH. DRIVER (NAND) 


1.25 


LM348N 


LOW POWER QUAD 741 OP AMP 


1.31 


MCI436CG 


HI VOLT OP AMP 


4.41 


MC75453P 


DUAL PERIPH DRIVER (OR) 


1.25 


LM358N 


SINGLE ENDED LOW POWER DUAL OP AMP 


84 


MCI439P1 


HI SLEW RATE OP AMP 


2.84 








LM380N 


2.5 WATT POWER AUDIO AMP 


1.49 


MC1445L 


HI FREQ OP AMP 


2.97 


MC75454P 
MC7549IP 


QUAD LED SEGMENT DRIVER 


1.25 
.91 


NE555V 


TIMER I.C. 


.55 


MC1456CP 


LINEAR OP AMP 


1.20 


MC75492P 


HEX LED DIGIT DRIVER 


1.31 


NE555I//II 


TIMER IX. 10PAK 


4.50 


MC1458CG 


DUAL 741 


.98 








NE556A 


DUAL 555 TIMER 


1.00 


MC1458CP 


DUAL 741 


.69 








NE565A 


PHASE LOCKED LOOP 


1.49 


MC1488P 


RS-232 DRIVER 


1.18 








LM710CN 


HI SPEED VOLT COMP. (MC1710CP) 


1.18 


MCI 489 


RS-232 RECEIVER 


1.18 




FET LINEAR 




LM710CH 


HI SPEED VOLT COMP. (MC1710CG) 


1.20 


MCI496P 


BAL. MOD-DEMOD 


1.31 






PRICE 


LM711CN 


DUAL V/COMP W/COMM OUTPUT (MC1711CP 


.64 


MC3302P 


L/PWRL/OFST QUAD COMP 


.80 






LM711CH 


DUAL V/COMP W/COMM OUTPUT (MC1711CG 


1.18 


MC3310P 


WIDE BAND AMP 


.98 


LF355N 


JFETOPAMPL/CURRENT 


SI. 49 


LM733CN 


DIFF VIDEO AMP (MC1733CP) 


1.00 


MC3340P 


ELECTRONIC ATTENUATOR 


1.50 


LF356N 


JFET OP AMP WIDEBAND 


1.49 


LM741CN 


G.P. OPAMP(MC1741CPI) 


.49 


MC3410P 


QUAD OP AMP 


.89 


LF357N 


JFET OP AMP HI-SPEED 


149 



80 — 20 



BYTE November 1980 



CA, AK, HI, CALL (213) 894-8171 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



r 








™"X 


4000 Series CMOS 


1 




PRICE 






PRICE 


PART # PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 1-24 
4000 DUAL 3-INPUT NOR GATE ♦ HUT. S .40 


25-99 
$ .33 


PART# 


PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 


1-24 25-99 


4414 


PCM FILTER 


23.76 19.80 


4001 QUAD 2-INPUT NOR GATE 40 


.33 


4408 


BIN TO PHONE PLS CONV. 


10.04 8.37 


4002 DUAL 4-INPUT NOR GATE .40 


.33 


4409 


BIN TO PHONE PLS CONV. 


10.04 8.37 


4006 18-BIT STATIC SHIFT REGISTER 1.42 


1.18 


4410 


2 0F8T0NEENCDR 


9.28 7 73 


4007 DUAL COMPLEMENTARY PAIR PLUS INV. .40 

4008 4-BIT FULL ADDER WITH PAR. CARRY 1.75 


.33 
1.04 


4411 


BIT RATE FEQ. GEN. 


11.68 9.73 


4412 


UNIV. LW-SPEED MODEM 


14.11 11.76 


4011 QUAD 2-INPUT NAND GATE .40 


.33 


4415 


QUAD PREC TIMER/DRIVER 


5.65 4.71 


4012 DUAL 4-INPUT NAND GATE .40 


.33 


4419 


2 0F8KYPDT0BINENC0R 


3.30 2.75 


4013 DUAL D FLIP/FLOP .72 


.60 


4443 


uPA/D CONVERTER 


2.85 2.38 


4014 8-BIT STATIC SHIFT REGISTER 1.25 

4015 DUAL 4-BIT STATIC SHIFT REGISTER 1.47 


1.04 
1.22 


4457 


R/C TRANSMITTER 


4.50 3.75 


4458 


R/C TRANSMITTER 


9.36 7.80 


4016 QUAD BILATERAL SWITCH 72 


.60 


4469 


ADDRESS ASYN RECEIVER/TRANSMITTER 


13.37 11.14 


4017 DECADE COUNTER/DIVIDER 1.25 


1.04 


4490 


HEX CONTACT DE-BOUNCER 


2.89 2.40 


4018 PRESETTABLE DIVIDE BY "N" COUNTER 1.14 


.95 


4495 


HEX TO 7 SEG DECODER/DRIVER 


2.70 2.25 


4020 14-STAGE RIP-CARRY BINARY COUNTER 1.47 


1.22 


4500 


1-BIT CPU IND. CONT UNIT 


5.46 4.55 


4021 8-BIT STATIC SHIFT REGISTER 1.25 


1.04 


4501 


TRIPLE GATE 


40 .33 


4022 DIVIDE BY 8 COUNTER/DIVIDER 1.25 


1.04 


4502 


STROBE HEX INV-BUFFER 


1.73 1.44 


4023 TRIPLE 3-INPUT NAND GATE .40 


.33 


4503 


TRI-STATE HEX BUFFER 


.64 .70 


4024 7-BIT BINARY COUNTER 1 06 


.89 


4506 


DUAL EXP AOI GATE 


1 .00 .83 


4025 TRIPLE 3-INPUT NOR .40 
4027 DUAL J-K FLIP/FLOP .72 


.33 
.60 


4508 


DUAL 4-BIT LATCH 


4.53 .83 


4510 


BCD UP/DOWN COUNTER 


1.47 1.22 


4028 BCD-TO-DECIMAL DECODER 1.02 


IS 


4511 


BCD-TO-SEVEN SEGMENT DECODER DRIVER 


1.44 1.20 


4029 PRESETTABLE UP/DOWN COUNTER 1.42 


1.19 


4512 


8-CHANNEL DATA SELECTOR 


1.42 1.18 


4032 TRIPLE SER ADDER 219 


1.83 


4513 


BCD-7 SEG LTCH/DEC/DRVR RIP-BL 


1.91 1.59 


4034 8-BIT SHIFT REGISTER 3.50 

4035 4-BIT SHIFT REGISTER 1.86 


2.91 
1.55 


4514 


4-BIT LATCH 4 TO 16 LINE DECODER HI 


2.91 2.43 


4515 


4-BIT LATCH 4 TO 16 LINE DECODER 


2.91 2.43 


4040 12-BIT BINARY RIPPLE COUNTER 1.47 


1.22 


4516 


BINARY UP/DOWN COUNTER 


1.59 1.32 


4042 QUAD D. LATCH 1.06 


m 


4517 


DUAL 64-BIT STATIC SHIFT REG 


7.03 5.86 


4043 QUAD TRI-STATE NOR R/S LATCH .99 


J33 


4518 


DUAL BCO UP COUNTER 


1.47 1.22 


4044 QUAD TRI-STATE NAND R/S LATCH .99 


.83 


4519 


4-BIT AND/OR SELECTOR 


.80 .66 


4046 PHASE LOCKED LOOP 1.57 


1.31 


4520 


DUAL BINARY UP COUNTER 


1.47 1.22 


4049 HEX INVERTING BUFFER .72 


.60 


4521 


24 STG FREO DIVIDER 


3.56 2.97 


4050 HEX BUFFER .72 


.60 


4522 


DIVIDE-BY-N COUNTER (BCD) 


1.81 ' 1.51 


4051 SINGLE 8-CHANNEL MULTIPLEXER 1.30 


1.08 


4526 


DIVIDE-BY-COUNTER (BINARY) 


1.81 1.51 


4052 DIFFERENTIAL 4-CHANNEL MULTIPLEXER 1.30 


1.08 


4527 


BCD RATE MULTIPLIER 


1.59 1.33 


4053 TRIPLE 2-CHANNEL MULTIPLEXER 1 30 


1.08 


4528 


DUAL MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 


1.81 1.51 


4066 QUAD BILATERAL SWITCH .80 


.66 


4529 


DUAL 4-CHANNEL ANALOG DATA SELECTOR 


1.96 1.63 


4068 8-INPUT NAND GATE .40 


.33 


4530 


DUAL 5 IN. MAJORITY LOG-GATE 


1.22 1.02 


4069 HEX INVERTER .40 


.33 


4532 


8-BIT PRIOR ENCODER 


3.01 2.51 


4070 QUAD EXCLUSIVE OR GATE .40 

4071 BUFFERED QUAD 2-INPUT OR GATE .40 


.33 
.33 


4534 


REAL TIME 5 DEC CNTR 


9.16 7.63 


4536 


PROG. TIMER 


4.86 4.05 


4072 DUAL 4-INPUT OR GATE 40 


.33 


4538 


DUAL PREC MONO-MLTVB 


1.81 1.51 


4073 TRIPLE 3-INPUT AND GATE .40 


.33 


4539 


DUAL 4-CHANNEL DATA SEL/MUX 


1.44 1.20 


4075 TRIPLE 3-INPUT OR GATE .40 


.33 


4541 


PROG OSC-TIMER 


1.80 1.50 


4076 TRI-STATE QUAD LATCH 1.57 

4077 QUAD ECLSV NOR GATE 40 


1.31 
.33 


4543 


BCD TO SEVEN SEGMENT DECODER (LCD) 


2.63 2.19 


4547 


HI-CURRENT BCD/7 SEG DEC/DRVR 


1.65 1.38 


4078 8-INPUT NOR GATE .40 


.33 


4551 


QUAD 2 IN. ANALOG MUX 


1.44 1.20 


4081 BUFFERED QUAD 2-INPUT AND GATE .40 


.33 


4553 


3 DIGIT BCD CNTR 


3.95 3.29 


4082 DUAL 4-INPUT GATE .40 


.33 


4556 


DUAL BIN TO 1 OF 4 DEC (INV.) 


1.15 .96 


4093 QUAD 2-INPUT NAND SCHMITT TRIGGER .78 

4094 8-BIT BUS-COMP SHFT STR LATCH 3.01 


.65 
2.51 


4557 


1 TO 64-BIT VARIABLE SHIFT REG 


3.95 3.29 


4558 


BCDT0 7SEGDCDR 


1.77 1.47 


4099 8-BIT ADDRESSABLE LATCH 1.73 


1.44 


4560 


NBCD ADDER 


3.80 3.17 


4160 DEC CNTR ASYNC CLR 1.28 


1.06 


4566 


IND TIME BASE GEN. 


3.28 1.98 


4161 BIN CNTR ASYNC CLR 128 


1.06 


4568 


PHASE COMPARATOR/PROG. TIMER 


6.49 5.41 


4162 DEC CNTR SYNC CLR 128 


1.06 


4569 


HIGH SPEED DUAL PROG. CTR 


2.48 2.07 


4163 BIN CNTR SYNC CLR 1.28 


1.06 


4582 


LOOK AHEAD CARRY BLOCK 


1.37 1.14 


4174 HEX D FLIP FLOP J 1.28 


$ 1.06 


4583 


DUAL SCHMITT TRIG 


1.69 1.41 


4175 QUAD D FLIP FLOP 128 


1.06 


4584 


EX RPL MM74C14N 


.85 .71 


4194 4-BIT UNIV. SHIFT REG. 1.42 


1.18 


4565 


4-BIT MAG COMP 


1.80 1.50 


4404 PULSE CODE MOD/DEMOD (CODEC) 34.40 
4406 PULSE CODE MOD/DEMOD (CODEC) 43.00 


32.48 


4597 


8-BIT BUS COMPAT CNTR-LATCH 


3.72 3.10 


35.83 


4598 


8-BIT BUS COMPAT ADDRS-LATCH 


4.33 3.61 


PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS supplies only "B" type, 
Buffered, CMOS devices if manufactured by Motorola 


4599 


8-BIT ADDRESSABLE LATCH 


3.72 3.10 


45100 


4 x 4 CROSS POINT SW W/CONT MEM 


4.44 3.70 








Semiconductor. 












^W=^ 


78H05 
| 309K 


POSITIVE 

5V 

5V 1 


5A $8.95 
5A $2.09 




NEGATIVE 

5V 1.5A $2,50 


6 Amps 125 VAC 

7 Amps 30 VDC 


mMs 


VOLTAGE REGUL/ 
CASE 


VTOR 

7905CK 


C^^tfi/Jl 


31 7K 


1.2-37V 1 


5A $4.50 


STYLE -_^ 


7906CK 


6V 1.5A $3.69 


v- "^ -\Lr — n=> 


323K 


5V 


3A $7.70 


ff*- ^-^ 


7908CK 


8V 1.5A $3.69 


DPDT STANDARD TOGGLE N ' ' 


7805CR 
7806ck 
7808CK 
781 2CK 
7815CK 


5V 1 
6V 1 
8V 1 
12V 1 
15V 1 


5A $2.50 
5A $2.50 
5A $2.50 
5A $2.50 
5A $2,50 


TO-3 


791 2CK 
7915CK 
7918CK 
7924CK 
7905CT 


12V 1.5A $250 
15V 1.5A $250 
18V 1.5A $3.69 
24V l 5A $3 69 
5V 1.5A $1,75 


CAL-ST2I (ON-NONE-ON) $3.50 $3.25 $3.10 
CALST22 (ON-OFF-ON) 3.80 3.50 3.25 
CAL-ST23 (MOM ONOFF-MOM ON) 3.80 3.50 3.25 


CAL-ST24 (ONOFF-MOM ON) 3.95 3.60 3.40 


7B18CK 


18V 1 


5A $2.50 


•dMnyife 


7906CT 


6V 1.5A $1.75 


CAL-ST25 (ON-NONE-MOMON) 3.95 3.60 3.40 








CT^^ 


7908CT 


BV 1.5A $1.75 


CAL-ST26 (0N-0N-ON) 3.95 3.60 3.40 


317T 


1.2-37V 1 


5A $2.95 


791 2CT 


12V 1.5A $1.75 


filament transformers 


7805CT 
7806CT 
7808CT 
7812CT 


5V 1 
6V 1 
8V 1 
12V 1 


5A $1.25 
5A $1,25 
5A $1 25 
5A $1.25 


TO-220 


791 5CT 
7918CT 
7924CT 


15V 1.5A $1.75 
18V 1.5A $175 
24V 1.5A $1.75 


,«%rF^~?^~ — :.-^ r ~* — r. 


7815CT 


15V 1 


5A $1.25 


— — ^» 


79L05CP 


5V 1A SI. 10 








7818CT 


18V 1 


5A $1.25 


■~ ==:== ^o 


79L12CP 


12V 1A 11.10 


High quality low voltage fila- 






7824CT 


24V 1 


4A $1.25 


CP 


79L15CP 


15V 1A $1.10 


ment transformers Conserva- 












TO-92 


79L18CP 


18V 1A $1,10 


tively rated. Individually 






78L05CP 


5V 


1A $ .49 


79L24CP 


24V ,1A $1.10 


boxed 


IE c <Xtreii<ci9: 1 




78L08CP 
78L12CP 


8V 
12V 


1A $ .49 
1A $ .49 


, 


We wi 


II be pleased 


jj^j 








78L15CP 


15V 


1A S ,49 


'"JZ ■jl^^ 








^rt.i.u» Ml 1 




78L18CP 


18V 


1A $ 49 




to give yoi iaiion 








78L24CP 


24V 


1A $ .49 








Pan No. Primary Secondary Rating Sh.Wt. Price 


LM305H 4.5V - 40V VOLT REG 


11 89 


H Package 


on your 


large quantity 


CAL-T631 117 VAC 6.3V 1 AMP 5 lbs $3.39 
CAL-TI26I 117 VAC 12.6 V 1 AMP .5 lbs. $4.39 
CAL-T126C05 117 VAC 12.6 V CT 500 MA .5 lbs. $3.39 


LM723CN 2-37V VOLT RED. 
LM723CH 2-37V VOLT REG 
MC3423PI OVER/VOLT PROT 


S .59 

$1 06 
$1.31 


jlnfrwwm 


requirements. 

WE ARE PROUD TO FEATURE MOTOROLA, NATIONAL, AND 1 


CAL-T126C3 117 VAC 12 6 V CT 3 AMP 2 lbs. $7.59 






"Tlllfli 


OTHER LEADING MANUFACTURES OF SEMICONDUCTORS 1 


CAL-T241 117 VAC 24 V 1 AMP 11b. $4.79 






M D o /■* L/ o /i /!* 


EXACT PART NUMBER OF DEVICES MAY VARY DEPENDING 1 


^ 






IN rdOlxdUC UIN MAMUhrtUIUMt 






ORDER TOLL 


FRE 


E(8C 


)Q\ 423~5S33 BYTENovemberi98 ° 80—21 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



CARBON FILM 

1 A WATT 5% 
FIXED RESISTORS 

ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS: 
V* watt resistors must be ordered in exact 
multiples of 4, 50(L) or 1,000(M) pes. per 
value. 



Resistor Element 

(Deposited Pure Carbon Film) 



CONSTRUCTION: 



Conformal Multi-Coating 



EIA Standard Color Coding 




Solder , 
Coated Leadwire 



PART* 


VALUE 


RCO-100 


10 ohm 


RCQ-110 


11 ohm 


RCO-120 


12 ohm 


RCQ-130 


13 ohm 


RCO-150 


15 ohm 


RCQ-160 


16 ohm 


RCO-180 


18 ohm 


RCO-200 


20 ohm 


RCQ-220 


22 ohm 


RCQ-240 


24 ohm 


RCQ-270 


27 ohm 


RCQ-300 


30 ohm 


RCO-330 


33 ohm 


RCQ-360 


36 ohm 


RCQ-390 


39 ohm 


RCQ-430 


43 ohm 


RCO-470 


47 ohm 


RCQ-510 


51 ohm 


RCO-560 


56 ohm 


RCQ-620 


62 ohm 


RCQ-680 


68 ohm 


RCO-750 


75 ohm 


RCO-820 


82 ohm 



PARTS 

RCQ-101 

RCQ-111 

RCO-121 

RCQ-131 

RCQ-151 

RCQ-161 

RCQ-181 

RCO-201 

RCO-221 

RCO-241 

RCQ-271 

RCQ-301 

RCQ-331 

RCQ-361 

RCO-391 

RCQ-431 

RCQ-471 

RCQ-511 

RCQ-561 

RCO-621 

RCO-681 

RCQ-751 

RCO-821 

RCQ-911 



VALUE 
100 ohm 
110 ohm 
120 ohm 
130 ohm 
150 ohm 
160 ohm 
180 ohm 
200 ohm 
220 ohm 
240 ohm 
270 ohm 
300 ohm 
330 ohm 
360 ohm 
390 ohm 
430 ohm 
470 ohm 
510 ohm 
560 ohm 
620 ohm 
680 ohm 
750 ohm 
820 ohm 
910 ohm 



PARTS 

RCQ-102 

RCQ-112 

RCQ-122 

RCO-132 

RCO-152 

RCQ-162 

RCO-182 

RCQ-202 

RCQ-222 

RCO-242 

RCO-272 

RCQ-302 

RCQ-332 

RCO-362 

RCO-392 

RCO-432 

RCO-472 

RCO-512 

RCQ-562 

RCQ-622 

RC 0-682 

RCQ-752 

RCQ-822 

RCO-912 



VALUE 

1.0 K 

1.1 K 

1.2 K 

1.3 K 

1.5 K 

1.6 K 

1.8 K 
2.0 K 

2.2 K 

2.4 K 

2.7 K 

3.0 K 

3.3 K 

3.6 K 

3.9 K 
4.3 K 

4.7 K 

5.1 K 
5.6 K 

6.2 K 

6.8 K 

7.5 K 
8.2 K 
9.1 K 



Welded End 



PARTS 

RCQ-103 

RCQ-113 

RCQ-123 

RCO-133 

RCQ-153 

RCQ-163 

RCO-183 

RCQ-203 

RCQ-223 

RCO-243 

RCQ-273 

RCQ-303 

RCO-333 

RCO-363 

RCO-393 

RCQ-433 

RCQ-473 

RCQ-513 

RCO-563 

RCQ-673 

RCQ-683 

RCQ-753 

RCO-823 

RCO-913 



Helical 
VALUE 

10 K 

11 K 

12 K 

13 K 

15 K 

16 K 
18 K 
20 K 
22 K 
24 K 
27 K 
30 K 
33 K 
36 K 
39 K 
43 K 
47 K 
51 K 
56 K 

67 K 

68 K 
75 K 
82 K 
91 K 



Exacting Contami 
Cuttinq Ceramic 
PART* 
RCQ-104 
RCQ-114 
RCO-124 
RCQ-134 
RCQ-154 
RCQ-164 
RCQ-184 
RCQ-204 
RCQ-224 
RCQ-244 
RCO-274 
RCO-304 
RCO-334 
RCO-364 
RCO-394 
RCQ-434 
RCQ-474 
RCQ-514 
RCQ-564 
RCO-624 
RCQ-684 
RCQ-754 
RCO-824 



nation Free 
Rod 
VALUE 
100 K 
110 K 
120 K 
130 K 
150 K 
160 K 
180 K 
200 K 
220 K 
240 K 
270 K 
300 K 
330 K 
360 K 
390 K 
430 K 
470 K 
510 K 
560 K 
620 K 
680 K 
750 K 
820 K 



PARTS 

RCQ-105 

RCQ-115 

RCO-125 

RCQ-135 

RCQ-155 

RCO-165 

RCQ-185 

RCQ-205 

RCQ-225 

RCQ-245 

RCQ-275 

RCO-305 

RCO-335 

RCQ-365 

RCQ-395 

RCQ-435 

RCQ-475 

RCQ-S15 

RCO-565 

RCQ-625 

RCQ-685 

RCQ-755 

RCO-825 



VALUE 

1.0 M 

1.1 M 

1.2 M 

1.3 M 

1.5 M 

1.6 M 

1.8 M 
2.0 M 

2.2 M 

2.4 M 

2.7 M 

3.0 M 

3.3 M 

3.6 M 

3.9 M 
4.3 M 

4.7 M 

5.1 M 
5.6 M 

6.2 M 

6.8 M 

7.5 M 
8.2 M 
9.1 M 

10 M 



RCO-914 910 K RCQ-915 

TO ORDER, YOU MUST ADD A QUANTITY CODE TO THE PART # 

"BLANK" = PACKAGE OF 4 "L" = PACKAGE OF 50 "M" = PACKAGE OF 1,000 

SHIPPING WT. 1 OZ. SHIPPING WT. 1 OZ. i_ 4 SHIPPING WT. 1 LB. $14.00 

on* 1-19 $1.00 5-9 $13.00 



20+ 



$ .80 



IF YOU WISH: 

8 PCS. OF A 47 K RESISTOR .... 
150 PCS. OF A 2.2 M RESISTOR . 



10-24 $12.00 

25+ Call For Price 

EXAMPLE OF HOW TO ORDER 

QTY. ORDERED PART NUMBER UNJT AMOUNT 



RCQ-473 



.29 



.58 



RCQ-225L 



1.00 



3.00 



vs 



2.000 PCS 


. OF A 390 ohm RESISTOR .... 






2 






RCQ-391M 




14.00 28.00 j 






TRANSISTORS 








Sir, , ■■. mo REi 


DIODES 


t£ 




POLARITY 


VCE 


IC(MA) 


HFE 


F(MHZ) 


'ACKAGE OF 


100 + 






PIV 


AMPS 


APPLIC. 


PACKAGE OF 


100 


2N697 


NPN 


40V 


150 


120 


30 


2/$1.18 


$ .50 


IN1183 




50V 


35A 


RECT. 


1/$2.26 


$1.74 


2N2219A 


NPN 


40V 


800 


200 


300 


2/S1.00 


$ .40 


IN4001 




50V 


1A 


RECT. 


5/$1.00 


$10.00 


2N2221A 


NPN 


30V 


800 


120 


250 


2/51.00 


$ .35 


IN4002 




100V 


1A 


RECT. 


5/51.00 


$10.00 


2N2222A 


NPN 


40V 


800 


300 


300 


3/$1.00 


$ .27 


IN 4003 




200V 


1A 


RECT. 


5/51.00 


$10.00 


2N2904A 


PNP 


60V 


600 


40 


3WT 


2/S1.00 


$ .41 


IN4004 




400V 


1A 


RECT. 


S/$1.00 


$12.00 


2N2906A 


PNP 


60V 


600 


40 


1.8WT 


27$1.00 


$ .40 


IN 4005 




600V 


1A 


RECT. 


4I$1.00 


$14.50 


2N2907A 


PNP 


60V 


600 


100 


200 


3/S1.00 


$ .27 


IN 4006 




800V 


1A 


RECT. 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


2N3053 


NPN 


40V 


700 


250 


5WT 


2/$1.40 


$ .50 


IN 4007 




1000V 


1A 


RECT. 


47$1.00 


$18.50 


2N3054 


NPN 


55V 


4A 


100 


75WT 


$1.42 


$1.23 


IN4148 




75V 


10MA 


SIG. 


5/S1.00 


$10.00 


2N3055 


NPN 


60V 


15A 


70 


115WT 


$ .98 


$ .75 


IN5400 




50V 


3A 


RECT. 


3/$1.19 


$30.00 


2N3904 


NPN 


40V 


200 


300 


300 


5/$1.00 


$ .1* 


IN 5402 




200/V 


3A 


RECT. 


3/$1.49 


$40.00 


2N3906 


PNP 


40V 


200 


300 


250 


5/$ 1.00 


$ .14 


IN5404 




400V 


3A 


RECT. 


3/$1.79 


$50.00 


2N4400 


NPN 


40V 


600 


150 


200 


4711.00 


$ .15 


/T 


>. 












2N4401 


NPN 


40V 


600 


300 


250 


4/$1.00 


$ .15 


(k 


k 












2N4402 
2N4403 


PNP 
PNP 


40V 
40V 


600 
600 


150 
300 


150 
200 


4/$1.00 

4/J1.00 


$ .15 
$ .15 


^ 


y 




ZENER DIODES 


/C 


2N5400 
2N5401 


PNP 
PNP 


120V 
150 V 


600 
600 


180 
240 


310MW 
310MW 


2/$1.00 
2/51.00 


$ .40 
$ .40 




Vz 




WATT 


It ma 


PACKAGE OF 100 


2N6028 
2N6282 


PUT 
NDL 


40V 
60V 


375MW 
10A 


PROG 
1.8K 


UJT 

160W 


2711.00 

$4.12 


$ .45 

$3.55 


IN4728A 
IN4729A 


3.3V 
3.6V 




1W 
1W 


76MA 
69MA 


4/J1.00 
4/$1.00 


$16.00 
$16.00 


2N6285 


PDL 


60V 


10A 


1.8K 


160W 


$4.95 


$4.25 


IN4730A 


3.9V 




1W 


64MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


MPF102 


NJFT 


25V 


10 


VHF 


AMP 


2/51.00 


$ .45 


IN4731A 


4.3V 




1W 


58MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 




PJFT 


40V 


10 


GEN 


PRPS 


271.60 


$ .60 


IN4732A 


4.7V 




1W 


53MA 


4I$1.00 


$16.00 




IN4733A 


5.1V 




1W 


49MA 


mi.oo 




MPS2222A 


PNP 


40V 


800 


300 


300 


4/S1-00 


$ .16 


$16.00 


MPS2907 


PNP 


60V 


600 


100 


200 


4/51.00 


$ .16 


IN 4734 A 


5.6V 




1W 


45MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


MPSA13 


NDL 


30V 


300 


5K 


200 


mi.oo 


$ .30 


IN4735A 


6.2V 




1W 


41 MA 


4/51.00 


$16.00 


MPSA63 


PDL 


30V 


300 


5K 


200 


mi.oo 


$ .30 


IN 4736 A 


6.8V 




1W 


37MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


MJE2955 


PNP 


60V 


10A 


90W 


2 


$2.98 


$2.36 


IN4737A 


7.5V 




1W 


34MA 


47$1.00 


$16.00 


MJE2955T 


PNP 


60V 


10A 


75W 


2 


$1.19 


$ .95 


IN4738A 


8.2V 




1W 


31MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


MJE3055 


NPN 


60V 


10A 


90W 


2 


$1.98 


$1.60 


IN4739A 


9.1V 




1W 


28MA 


4/51.00 


$16.00 


MJE3055T 


NPN 


60V 


10A 


75W 


2 


$ .98 


$ .90 


IN4740A 


10V 




1W 


25MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


T1P29A 


NPN 


60V 


3A 


75 


30W 


2/51.40 


$ .55 


IN 4741 A 


11V 




1W 


23MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


TIP30A 


PNP 


60V 


3A 


75 


30W 


2/11.60 


$ .60 


IN4742A 


12V 




1W 


21 MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


TIP31A 


NPN 


60V 


5A 


50 


40W 


2/S1.60 


$ .65 


IN4743A 


13V 




1W 


19MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


TIP32A 


PNP 


60V 


5A 


50 


40W 


2/51.60 


$ .65 


IN4744A 


15V 




1W 


17MA 


4I$1.00 


$16.00 


TIP41A 


NPN 


60V 


10A 


75 


65W 


{.98 


$ .85 


IN4746A 


18V 




1W 


14MA 


4/$1.00 


$16.00 


TIP42C 


PNP 


60V 


10A 


75 


65W 


11.49 


$1.10 


IN4747A 


20V 




1W 


12.5MA 


4/S1.00 


$16.00 


TIP48 


NPN 


300V 


1A 


150 


40W 


$1.10 


$ .90 


IN4751A 
IN4754A 


30V 
39V 




1W 
1W 


8.5MA 
6.5MA 


4/$1.00 
3/$1.00 


$16.00 


TIP49 


NPN 


350V 


1A 


150 


40W 


$1.20 


$ .95 


$20.00 


TIP120 


NDL 


60V 


8A 


1K 


65W 


$1.40 


$1.15 


IN4757A 


51V 




1W 


5MA 


mi.oo 


$20.00 


TIP127 


PDL 


100 V 


6A 


1K 


65W 


$1.98 


$1.55 


IN4759A 


62V 




1W 


4MA 


mi.oo 


$38.00 


2N5060 


SCR 


30V 


.8A 






mi.so 


$ .60 


IN4761A 


75V 




1W 


3.3MA 


mi.oo 


$42.00 


C106B1 


SCR 


250V 


4A 






mi.oo 


$ .39 


IN4763A 


91V 




1W 


2.8MA 


mi.oo 


$42.00 


T2800B 


TRIAC 


200V 


8A 






$1.49 


$1.20 


IN4764A 


100 V 




1W 


2.5MA 


mi.oo 


$42.00 



80 — 22 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 

ALUMINUM 

ELECTROLYTIC 

CAPACITORS 







11 




AXIAL LEAD 

100 PAC 






L. 


1 










1000 PAC 


PART NO. 


SIZE 


PRICE PER 


ADD •C" TO 


ADO "M" TO 


VALVE/VOLTAGE 


(1NCHESI 


PKG. OF: 


END OF PART # 


END OF PART # 


CA-1/50 


.19 x 


.49 


6/1.00 


11.00 


90.00 


CA-Z.Z/50 


.19 x 


.49 


6/1.00 


11.00 


90.00 


CA-3.3/50 


.24 x 


.49 


6/1.00 


11.00 


90.00 


CA-4.7/50 


.24 x 


.49 


6/1.00 


11.00 


90.00 


CA-10/50 


.24 x 


.63 


6/1.00 


11.00 


90.00 


CA-22/16 


.24 x 


.49 


6/1.00 


11.00 


90.00 


CA-ZZ/50 


.32 x 


.63 


4/1.00 


15.00 


120.00 


C A 33/16 


.24 x 


.49 


5/1.00 


14.00 


110.00 


CA-33/35 


.32 x 


.63 


4/1.00 


17.00 


130.00 


CA-47/16 


.24 x 


.63 


4/1.00 


15.00 


115.00 


CA-47/35 


.32 x 


.79 


3/1.00 


20.00 


140.00 


CA 100/16 


.32 x 


.63 


4/1.00 


18.00 


14000 


CA-100/35 


.40 x 


.79 


3/1.20 


27.00 


220.00 


C A 220/16 


.40 x 


.79 


3/1.00 


22.00 


170.00 


CA-220735 


.40 x 


1.24 


2/1.00 


30.00 


230.00 


CA-330/16 


.40 x 


.99 


3/1.20 


25.00 


200.00 


CA-330/35 


.51 x 


1.24 


3/1.20 


36.00 


30000 


CA-470/10 


.40 x 


.99 


3/1.20 


25.00 


200.00 


CA-470/16 


.40 x 


1.24 


2/1.00 


32.00 


240.00 


CA-470/35 


.63 x 


1.24 


2/1.40 


42.00 


340.00 


CA-1 000/10 


.51 x 


.99 


2/1.00 


34.00 


270.00 


CA 1000/16 


.51 x 


1.24 


2/1.20 


38.00 


295.00 


CA 1000/35 


.63 x 


1.58 


.98 


60.00 


520.00 


CA-2200/10 


.63 x 


1.24 


2/1.50 


49.00 


390.00 


CA-2200/25 


.87 x 


1.98 


1.10 


74.00 


605.00 


CA-3300/10 


.63 x 


1.58 


1.00 


65.00 


500.00 


CA-3300/25 


.87 x 


1.98 


1.50 


100.00 


750.00 


CA4700/10 


.71 x 


1.58 


1.20 


80.00 


600.00 


CA-4700/25 


.99 x 


1.98 


2.00 


130.00 


1000.00 



RADIAL LEAD 



PART NO. 

VALVE/VOLTAGE 



SIZE 
[INCHES! 



PRICE PER 
PKG. OF: 



100 PAC 

ADD V TO 

END OF PART # 



1000 PAC 

ADO "M" TO 

END OF PART # 



CR-1/50 


.20 x 


.45 


6/1.00 


CR-2.2/50 


.20 x 


.45 


6/1.00 


CR-3.3/50 


.20 x 


.45 


6/1.00 


CR-4.7/50 


.20 x 


.45 


6/1.00 


CR 10/50 


.24 x 


.45 


6/1.00 


CR-22/16 


.24 x 


.45 


6/1.00 


CR-22/35 


.32 x 


.49 


6/1.00 


CR-33/16 


.24 x 


.45 


6/1.00 


CR-33/35 


.39 x 


.49 


6/1.00 


CR-47/16 


.32 x 


.49 


6/1.00 


CR-47/35 


.39 x 


.49 


5/1.00 


CR-100/16 


.39 x 


.49 


5/1.00 


CR-100/35 


.39 x 


.63 


4/1.00 


CR 220/16 


.39 x 


.63 


4/1.00 


CR-220/35 


.51 x 


.79 


3/1.00 


CR 330/16 


.51 x 


.79 


3/1.00 


CR 330/35 


.63 x 


.99 


2/1.00 


CR-470/16 


.51 x 


.79 


3/1.00 


CR-470/35 


.63 x 


.99 


2/1.20 


CR 1000/10 


.51 x 


.79 


3/1.20 


CR 1000/16 


.63 x 


.99 


3/1.40 


CR 1 000/35 


.71 x 


1.40 


2/1.50 


CR-2200/10 


.63 x 


1.24 


2/1.20 


CR 2200/25 


.87 x 


1.58 


1.00 


CR 3300/10 


.63 x 


1.40 


2/1.60 


CR 4700/10 


.71 x 


1.58 


1.00 



8.00 

8.00 

8.00 

8.00 

9.00 

9.00 

12.00 

9.00 

13.00 

12.00 

14.00 

13.00 

15.00 

15.00 

24.00 

22.00 

32.00 

24.00 

40.00 

25.00 

31.00 

57.00 

44.00 

70.00 

60.00 

70.00 



65.00 

65.00 

65.00 

65.00 

70.00 

70.00 

95.00 

70.00 

103.00 

95.00 

110.00 

103.00 

115.00 

115.00 

180.00 

150.00 

250.00 

180.00 

310.00 

200.00 

230.00 

450.00 

310.00 

550.00 

400.00 

550.00 



"C" = Package of 100 



Volume Discount: C-packages. 1-9 None. 10-24 less 10%. 25 - less 15%. M-packages. 1-4 None. 5-9 
less 10%. 10-up Call for price Axial and Radial Capacitors may be combined in standard packages 
for best price. Other values/voltages available in 1000 (M) packages - Call for price. 

"BLANK" = Package of ( ) 
"M" = Package of 1,000 

Exact size may vary. The dimensions above are for reference 
only. 

CRYSTALS 

PART tf/FBEQ. 



XTL1.OO0MH 


6800CPU. STD. CLOCK 


$4.95 


$4.45 


XTLI.B43MH 


4411 BAUD RATE GEN 


S4.95 


$4.45 


XTL2.000MH 


Z80 CPU. STD. CLOCK 


$4.95 


$4.45 


XTL3.000MH 


STANDARD CLOCK FREO. 


54 95 


$4.45 


XTL3.276MH 


ICM7025.STOPWATCH 


$4.95 


$4.45 


XTL3.579MH 


TV COLOR BURST SM CASE 


$395 


$3.50 


XTL4.0O0MH 


Z80A CPU, STD CLOCK 


$3.95 


$3.50 


XTL6.000MH 


STANDARD CLOCK FREQ. 


$395 


$3.50 


XTL10.00MH 


STANDARD CLOCK FREQ. 


$3.95 


$3.50 


XTLIB.OOMH 


8080, 8008, 8224 


S3.95 


$3.50 


XTL20.00MK 


STANDARD CLOCK FREO. 


$3.95 


$3 50 



Ar« 


J DISC 


Ceramic 






CODE 


VOLT- 




Lead 




Lead 


LETTER 


AGE 


Dtp, 


Spacing 


Thk. 


Dia. 


Inches 


A 


1000V 


.290 


.250 


.156 


.025 


B 


1000V 


.385 


.250 


.156 


.025 


C 


1000V 


.590 


.375 


.156 


.025 


D 


50V 


.276 


.156 


.250 


.025 


E 


50V 


.315 


.156 


.250 


.025 


F 


50V 


.355 


.156 


.375 


.025 


G 


50V 


.473 


.156 


.375 


.025 


H 


25V 


.394 


.157 


.250 


.025 


1 


25V 


.484 


.157 


.250 


.025 


J 


25V 


.532 


.157 


.375 


.025 



ARCO DISC CERAMIC 



Cote 
Lottor 



Prtct |Mf 
Pickigt of 



-C 100 j»c 

Add -C to 

ond of port * 



-M lOOO pic 

Add -M to 

on d of port * 



CCO-3R3 


33pf 


A 


CCD-050 


5pf 


A 


CCD-060 


6 pf 


A 


CCD-6R8 


6.8pf 


A 


CCD-7R5 


75pf 


A 


CCD-080 


8pf 


A 


CCD-100 


10pf 


A 


CCD120 


12pf 


A 


CCD-150 


15pt 


A 


CCD-180 


18pf 


A 


CCD-200 


20pf 


A 


CCO220 


22pf 


A 


CCD-240 


24pf 


A 


CCD-250 


25pf 


A 


CCD270 


27pf 


A 


CCD300 


30pf 


A 


CCD-330 


33pf 


A 


CCD-390 


39pt 


A 


CCD-470 


47pf 


A 


CCD-500 


50pt 


A 


CCD-510 


51pf 


A 


CCD-560 


56pf 


A 


CCD-680 


68pf 


A 


CCD-750 


75pl 


A 


CCD-820 


82pf 


A 


CCD-910 


91pf 


A 


CCD-101 


100pf 


A 


CCD-121 


120pf 


A 


CCD-131 


l30pf 


A 


CCD-151 


150pf 


A 


CCD-181 


180pf 


A 


CCD-201 


200pf 


A 


CCD-221 


220pt 


A 


CCD-241 


240pl 


A 


CCD-251 


250pf 


A 


CCD-271 


270pf 


A 


CCD-301 


300pf 


A 


CCD-331 


330pf 


A 


CCD-351 


350pf 


A 


CCD-361 


360pf 


A 


CCD-391 


390pf 


A 


CCD-401 


400pf 


A 


CCD-471 


470pf 


A 


CCD-501 


500pf 


A 


CCD-511 


510pf 


A 


CCD-561 


seopf 


A 


CCD-601 


eoopf 


A 


CCD-681 


esopf 


A 


CCD-751 


750pf 


A 


CCD-821 


820pf 


A 


CCD-911 


910pf 


A 


CCD-102G 


OOtuf 


A 


CCD-122 


O012uf 


R 


CCD-132 


0013uf 


B 


CCD-152G 


0015uf 


B 


CCD-162 


0O16uf 


B 


CCD-182 


0018uf 


B 


CCD-202G 


002ul 


H 


CCD-222G 


0022uf 


B 


CCD-252G 


0025uf 


B 


CCD-272G 


0027uf 


B 


CCD-302G 


003uf 


B 


CCD-332G 


0033uf 


c: 


CCD-392G 


0O39uf 


c 


CCD-402G 


0O4uf 


<; 


CCD-432G 


0043uf 


c 


CCD-472 


0O47uf 


c 


TCD-502Z 


0O5ul 





TCD-103Z 


01uf 


F 


TCD-203Z 


02uf 


F 


TCD-253Z 


02Suf 


(i 


TCA333Z 


033uf 


H 


TCA-5032 


05uf 


1 


TCA-683Z 


088uf 


J 


TCA-104Z 


1uf 


J 



IF YOU WISH: 

18 PCS. of 2.2 ul/SOV Capacitor (Axial) .... 
200 PCS. oi 100 uf/16V Capacitor (Radial) . 
1000 PCS. of 2,200 U1/25V Capacitor (Axial) 



4/29C $460 


$37,00 


4/29* $460 


$37 00 


4/ 29c $4 60 


$37 00 


4/29* $460 


$37,00 


4/29* $460 


$37 00 


4/29t $460 


$37,00 


4/29C $4.60 


$37.00 


4/29C $460 


$37.00 


4/29t $4.60 


$37.00 


4/29C $460 


$37 00 


4/29* $4.60 


$37 00 


4/29C $4.60 


$37 00 


4/29C $460 


$37 00 


4/29« $460 


$37.00 


4129c $4.60 


$37.00 


4/29C $460 


$37.00 


4/29C $4.60 


$37 00 


4/29C $4.60 


$37 00 


3/29C $5.40 


$43 00 


3/29C $540 


$43 00 


3/29C $540 


$4300 


3/29* $5.40 


$43.00 


3/29* $540 


$43.00 


3/29C $5.40 


$4300 


1'29* $5.40 


$43.00 


3/29* $5.40 


$43.00 


3/29* $540 


$43 00 


3/29* $540 


$43.00 


3/29* $6.80 


$54.00 


3/29* $680 


$54.00 


3<29c $680 


$54 00 


3/29* $6.80 


$54.00 


3/29* $6.80 


$54.00 


4/29* $4.90 


$40.00 


4/29* $4.90 


$40.00 


4/29* $4.90 


$40.00 


4/29* $4.90 


$40.00 


4/29* $5.60 


$45.00 


3/29* $6.00 


$48.00 


2/29* $9.20 


$7400 


2/29* $1060 


$85 00 


U MUST ADD 




= TO THE PART # 




QTY. 




ORDERED PART NUMBER 


UNIT AMOUNT 


3 CA-2.2/50 


1.00 3.00 


2 CR-100/16C 


13.00 26.00 


1 CA-2200/25M 605.00 605.00' 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 23 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



WINCHESTER ELECTRONICS 



m 

Litton 

D-Subminiature Connector 



V 




p = Plug-Male 
S - Socket-Female 
C = Cover-Hood 












PART NO 



NO. OF 
PINS 



1-9 



10-24 25 99 100-249 



IDC-DE9P 
IDC-DE9S 
I0C-DE9C 

IDC-DA15P 
IDC-DA1SS 
IDC-DA15C 

IDC-DB 25P 
IDC-DB 25S 
IDC-DB 25C 



9 
9 
9 

15 
15 
15 

25 
25 
25 



4.20 
4.50 
1.25 

4.35 
5.00 
1.40 

6.25 
6.60 
1.60 



4.00 
4.20 
1.10 

4.20 
4.85 
1.25 

6.00 
6.35 
1.50 



IDC-DC37P 37 8.80 8.00 

IDC-DC37S 37 11.00 10.25 

IDC-DC37C 37 2.25 2.00 

Right Angle D-Sub. Conn 



3.60 
3.80 
1.00 

3.75 
4.35 
1.10 

5.20 
5.60 
1.35 

7.20 
9.20 
1.80 



3.20 
3.40 



3.40 

3.90 
.95 

4.70 
5.00 
1.20 

6.40 
8.20 
1.60 




RIGHT ANGLE D-SUBMINATURE 
CONNECTOR 



PART NO. 



NO. OF 
PINS 



1-9 



10-24 25-99 100-249 



IDCRADE9P 

IDCRADE9S 

IDCRADA15P 

IDCRADA15S 

IDCRADB25P 

IDCRADB25S 

IDCRADC37P 

IDCRADC37S 



9 
9 

15 
15 
25 
25 
37 



4.50 
4.70 
4.80 
5.10 
6.30 
6.75 
9.00 



4.10 
4.30 
4.50 
4.90 
6.00 
6.40 
8.10 



11.50 10.60 



3.70 
3.90 
4.20 
4.70 
5.25 
5.50 
7.30 
9.50 



3.30 

3.50 
3.90 
4.40 
4.75 
5.00 
6.50 
8.50 



subminiature toggle switches 

6 Amps 125 VAC 



7 Amps 


30 VDC 




PRICE 




SPOT STANDARD TOGGLE 


1-9 


10-24 


25-99 


CAL-STH 


(ON-N0NE-0N) 


S2.60 


S2.40 


S2.20 


CAL-STI2 


(0N-0FF-0N) 


2.80 


2.50 


2.30 


CAL-ST13 


IM0M0N-0FF-M0M0N) 


2.80 


2.50 


2.30 


CAL-STI4 


(ON-0FF-MOM ON) 


2.80 


2.50 


2.30 


CAL-ST15 


(0N-N0NE-M0M ON) 


2 80 


2.50 


230 



RS232and "D" SUB-MINIATURE 
CONNECTORS 

P- Plug, Male Type - S - Socket. Female Type - 



PART NO. 



DESCRIPTION 



1-! 



CND-DE9P 9 PIN MALE 

CN0-0E9S 9 PIN FEMALE 

CND-0E9C 9 PIN COVER 

CN0-DA15P 15 PIN MALE 

CND-DA15S 15 PIN FEMALE 

CND-0A15C 15 PIN COVER 

CND-DB25P 25 PIN MALE 

CND-DB25S 25 PIN FEMALE 

CND-DB51212 1 PC. GREY HOOD 

CNDP25H 2 PC. GREY HOOD 

CND-0B51226 2 PC. BLACK HOOD 

CND-DC37P 37 PIN MALE 

CND-DC37S 37 PIN FEMALE 

CND-DC37C 37 PIN COVER 

CND-D050P 50 PIN MALE 

CND-0050S 50 PIN FEMALE 

CND-0050C 50 PIN COVER 

CND-D20418 HARDWARE SET 2 PR. 

RS23? nRP^P FIA 
CND-RS2328FCLASS1CABLE8COKT8FT ««>•* SI7.95 $15.95 

nuu—MM CENT 700 SERIES 

CND-5730360 printer CONNECTOR 



$ 2.10 
S 2.70 
S 1.50 
$ 2.75 
S 3.95 
$ 1.50 
$ 3.50 
$ 4.60 
S 1.60 
S 1.50 
S 1.90 
S 5.80 
S 8.70 
$ 1.80 
S 8.75 
SI 1.65 
S 2.00 
S 1.00 



C = Covet 
PRICE 
10-24 
$ 1.90 
S 2.40 
$ 1.25 
S 2.45 
S 3.60 
S 1.30 
J 3.25 
$ 4.35 
S 1.45 
S 1.25 
S 1.65 



Hood 



25-99 

$ 1.70 

$ 210 

S 1.10 

S 2.15 

S 3.20 

S 1.10 

S 3.00 

S 4.20 

S 1.30 

S 1.10 

S 1.45 



S 5.10 S 4.45 

i 7.70 S 6.70 

S 1.55 S 1.30 

$ 7.75 J 6.70 

S10.25 S 8.90 

S 1.80 S 1.60 

S 0.80 $ 0.70 



S 9.00 S 7.50 S 6.00 



FLEX-COM 

Edgecard Connector 



ffiHBBBBBBBB 



d-i 



HHHfflfflEHSEE 



PART NO 



NO. OF 
PINS 



1-9 



PRICE 
10-24 25-99 100-249 



IDC-20CE 
IDC-26CE 
IDC-34CE 

IDC-40CE 
IDC-50CE 



10/20 
13/26 
17/34 
20/40 
25/50 



4.35 
5.00 
6.00 
6.90 
7.25 



4.15 
4.75 
5.70 
6.50 
7.00 



3.75 

4.30 
5.10 
5.80 

6.30 



3.30 

3.80 
4.50 
5.25 

5.40 



Socket Connector 



rtM W WH — W W MMM 




PART NO. 



NU.OF 
PINS 



1-9 



PRICE 
10-24 25-99 100-249 



IDC-20SKT 
IDC-26SKT 
IDC-34SKT 
IDC-40SKT 
IOC-50SKT 



10/20 
13/26 
17/34 
20/40 
25/50 



2.75 

3.50 
4.50 
5.40 
6.50 



2.50 
3.20 
4.20 
5.00 
6.00 



2.25 
2.85 
3.75 
4.50 
5.40 



2.00 

2.30 
3.30 
3.90 
4.75 



Header Connector 




Right Angle Soldertail GOLD Header 



PART NO. 



1-9 



10-24 25-99 100-249 



IDC-RAH20ST 
IOC-RAH26ST 
IDC-RAH34ST 
IDC-RAH40ST 
IDC-RAH50ST 



1.90 
2.25 
2.95 
3.60 
4.30 



1.60 
2.00 
2.60 
3.00 
3.60 



1.45 
1.80 
2.35 
2.70 

3.25 



1.30 
1.60 
2.10 
2.40 
2.90 



RIGHT ANGLE WIRE WRAP 
GOLD HEADER 



PART NO. 



1-9 



10-24 25-99 100-249 



IDC-RAH20WW 
IDC-RAH26WW 
IDC-RAH34WW 
IDC-RAH40WW 
IDC-RAH50WW 



4.15 
5.30 
5.95 
7.00 
7.95 



3.60 
4.30 
5.00 
6.00 
6.80 



3.25 
3.90 
4.75 
5.40 
6.20 



2.90 
3.50 

4.50 
4.80 
5.50 



STRAIGHT SOLDERTAIL GOLD HEADER 



NO. PINS 1-9 10-24 25-99 100-249 



IDCSTH20ST 


10/20 


1.85 


1.55 


1.40 


1.30 


IDCSTH26ST 


13/26 


2.20 


1.95 


1.75 


1.55 


IDCSTH34ST 


17/34 


2.90 


2.55 


2.30 


2.05 


IDCSTH40ST 


20/40 


3.55 


2.95 


2.65 


2.40 


IDCSTH50ST 


25/50 


4.25 


3.55 


3.20 


2.85 




STRAIGHT WIRE WRAP GOLD HEADER 

PART NO. NO. PINS 1-9 10-24 25-99 100-249 



IOCSTH20WW 
IDCSTH26WW 
IDCSTH34WW 

IDCSTH40WW 
IDCSTH50WW 



10/20 
13/26 
17/34 
20/40 
25/50 



4.20 
5.25 
5.90 
6.95 
7.90 



3.55 
4.25 
4.95 
5.95 
6.75 



3.20 
3.85 
4.70 
5.35 
6.15 



2.65 
3.45 
4.45 
4.75 
5.45 



HEADER CONNECTOR EJECTOR 



The IDCEJ provides an ejector and positive lock for socket 
connectors when used with any of the header connectors listed. 
Easy installation and low cost provide easy extraction, when 
desired, for your IDC socket interconnects. Order 2 for each 
connector. 



QTY. 



PRICE 



IDCEJ5 
IOCEJC 



pkg 5 
pkg 100 



S1.00 
$10.00 



IDC System 

RIBBON CABLE 




PART NO. 



Color Coded Laminated Cable lor insulation 
Displacement 28 Guage. 7 Strand 

NO. OF PRICE PER SPOOL 



CONDUCTORS 



10 Ft. 



100 Ft. 



IDC-09CC 
IDC-14CC 
IDC-16CC 
IOC-20CC 
IDC-25CC 
IDC-26CC 
IDC-34CC 
IDC-40CC 
IDC-50CC 



9 

14 
16 
20 
25 
26 
34 
40 
50 



3.80 

4.75 

5.50 

7.00 

6.50 

8.50 

11.00 

13.00 

16.00 



30.00 
40.00 
45.00 
60.00 
72.00 
72.00 
100.00 
115.00 
145.00 



GRAY LAMINATED CABLE FOR INSULATION DISPLACEMENT 
28 Gauge 7 Strand 



PART NO. 



NO. OF 
CONDUCTORS 



PRICE PER SPOOL 
10 Ft. 100 Ft. 



IDC-09GY 
IDC-14GY 
IDC-16GY 
IDC-20GY 
IDC-25GY 
IDC-26GY 
IDC-34GY 
IDC-40GY 
IDC-50GY 



9 

14 
16 
20 
25 
26 
34 
40 
50 



2.50 
3.50 
4.00 
4.80 
6.00 
6.00 
8.30 
10.00 
12.00 



18.05 
28.00 
32.00 
40.00 
50.00 
50.00 
66.00 
77.00 
95.00 




Dip Plugs 



TTTTT 



NO. OF 
PINS 



1-9 



10-24 25-99 100-249 



IDC-14DP 
IDC-16DP 
IDC-24DP 



14 
16 
24 



1.50 
1.70 
2.50 



1.40 

1.60 
2.20 



1.25 
1.45 
2.00 



1.10 
1.30 
1.80 




TRANSITION CONNECTOR 



PART NO. 



NO. OF 
PINS 



1-9 



PRICE 
10-24 25-99 100-249 




INSTALLATION/ASSEMBLY TOOLS 

IDC-1080 Arbor Press with Ram for all 

connectors except D-Subminiature 

order platens below. 12 LBS. $180.00 
IDC-013031 Platen & Ram for D-Subminiature 

Connectors S 50.00 

IDC-1083 Platen for Edgecard Connector $ 35.00 

IDC-10811 Platen for Socket Connector S 35.00 

IDC-1096 Platen for 24 Pin Dip Plug only $35.00 

IOC-10871 Platen for 14 & 16 Pin Dip Plug only S 35.00 
IDC-1084 Platen for Transition Connector 

SH. WT. 1 LB. $ 35.00 



80 — 24 BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




Texas Instruments 

FACE GRIP LOW PROFILE 

SOLDER TAIL DIP SOCKETS 

C85 SERIES 




• Face grip design provides maximum retention 
force 

•Anti-wicking feature 

• Redundant contact points 
SPECIFICATIONS 
Material 

A Body-91V-0 polyester 

B Contact— copper nickel alloy 

C Finish — 200 microinches tin alloy (mm (stripe 

NOTES 

A Operating temperature— 40°C to + 100°C 

B Contacts have redundant spring elements 

C Accommodates standard IC leads up to 
014 thick and 025 wide 

Contact is designed and oriented to the insulator 
to grasp the broad "face" of the IC lead, allow 
ing tor low insertion and high retention forces 



E Socket is designed to achieve maximum density 
on boards 

F Sockets may be mounted end to end on .100" 
centers continuous line or on .400" centers 
row to row 

G Socket is designed to prevent IC leads from con- 
tacting PC board 

H Closed entry feature - along with chamfered side 
walls - provided to facilitate automatic IC inser- 
tion and protect the IC leads against damage 

I Strengthened socket legs allow tor automatic 
socket insertion into PC board 

J Anti-wicking feature built into contact leg 

K Design to achieve outstanding insertion/with- 
drawal characteristics 



PART 
NO. 



PINS 



1-' 



PRICE 
10-49 50-99 



TIS-08LP 
TIS-14LP 
TIS-16LP 
TIS-18LP 
TIS-20LP 
TIS-22LP 
TIS-24LP 
TIS-28LP 
TIS-40LP 



08 
14 
16 
18 
20 
22 
24 
28 
40 



N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
.30 
.30 
.35 
.40 
45 
50 



.15 

.18 
20 
.25 
.25 
.30 
.35 
.40 
.45 



.10 
.15 
.18 
22 
.23 
.25 
.30 
.35 
.42 



08 
14 
.16 
18 
20 
.22 
.24 
.28 
40 



.07 
.12 
.13 
.15 
.17 
.19 
.20 
.24 
.35 



.06 
.11 
.12 
.13 
.145 
17 
.18 
.21 
.31 



-MINIMUM ORDER SI 00 Per Line item 



DIP PLUGS 



PART NO. 



1-9 



PRICE 
10-24 25-99 100-249 




KNX-0BDP 

KNX-14DP 
KNX-16DP 
KNX-24DP 
KNX-40DP 



14 
16 
24 

40 



.50 

.65 

.70 

1.15 

1.90 



.45 

.60 

.65 

1.05 

1.70 



.43 
.58 
.62 
.90 
1.60 



.40 
.55 
.58 
.95 
1.50 



Sccket and Dip Plug priced based on gold not exceeding $700 per oz. 




ZERO INSERTION 
FORCE TES T SOCKETS 

IrTfrnfTrnfTl ^^ 

yiuyuuu: 



? 



n in 1 1 



1-9 10-24 25-99 

ZIP-16DIP $5.50 5.35 4.95 

ZIP-24DIP $7.50 7.25 6.95 

ZIP-40DIP $10.25 9.85 9.50 



• Zero insertion pressure (ZIP) insertion and extraction . • Wide entry holes to 
accommodate maximum number of device types. • Contact exit on even .100 
spacing for convenience in board mounting. • Built in "stop" for cam handle 
prevents "overthrow" causing plastic damage. • Top mount assy. Screws 
for ease of replacement of worn or damaged internal components • General 
redesign of original ZIP DIP incorporating improvements designed to extend 
life and reliability. 




vaoatMsoat 

N iES GOLD 3 LEVEL WIRE WRAP SOCKETS 



•Deep Chamfered Closed 
Entry Contacts 

•RN Side Wipe Contact Design 

•Terminal Barbs Allow 
Self-lock into PC Board 

•Rugged Socket Body Design 




PART NO. 



1-9 



TRTUE*" 

10-24 



25-99 



100-249 250-999 



RNS-08WWG 
RNS-14WWG 
RNS-16WWG 
RNS-18WWG 
RNS-20WWG 
RNS-22WWG 
RNS-24WWG 
RNS-28WWG 
RNS-40WWG 



14 
16 
18 
20 
22 
24 
28 
40 



.50 

.60 

.65 

.85 

1.00 

1.25 

1.25 

1.60 

1.85 



.42 

.49 

.52 

.75 

.90 

1.15 

1.15 

1.50 

1.65 



.40 

.47 

.50 

.70 

.80 

1.10 

1.10 

1.40 

1.55 



.37 

.45 

.47 

.65 

.75 

1.05 

1.05 

1.30 

1.45 



.33 

.42 

.44 

.60 

.70 

1.00 

1.00 

1.20 

1.35 



Socket prices based on gold npt exceeding $700 per cz 




RN ICA HIGH RELIABILITY WIRE WRAP SOCKET 

• 30 fi inch gold contact • Pin socket contacts for high reliability and high retention 
mounting holes • End and side stackable • 3-Level wrap • Low profile body with. 











PRICE 






PART NO. 


PINS 


1-9 


10-24 


25-99 


100-249 


250-999 


RNH-08HRW 


8 


1.10 


1.00 


.90 


.86 


.77 


RNH-14HRW 


14 


1.65 


1.55 


1.45 


1.30 


1.15 


RNH 16HRW 


16 


1.85 


1.65 


1.55 


1.40 


1.25 


RNH-18HRW 


18 


2.10 


1.90 


1.85 


1.65 


1.60 


RNH-20HRW 


20 


2.45 


2.10 


2.00 


1.80 


1.70 


RNH-22HRW 


22 


2.55 


2.30 


2.10 


2.00 


1.90 


RNH-24HRW 


24 


2.75 


2.50 


2.20 


2.10 


2.00 


RNH-28HRW 


28 


3.25 


3.00 


2.60 


2.50 


2.40 


RNH-40HRW 


40 


4.50 


4.25 


4.00 


3.60 


3.40 



PRECUT WIRE WRAP WIRE 

PRECUT WIRE SAVES TIME AND COSTS LESS THAN 

WIRE ON SPOOLS 

Kynar precut wire. All lengths are overall, including 1" strip on each end. Cdlors and 
lengths cannot be mixed for quantity pricing. Choose from colors Red (R), Blue (U), 
Black (B). and Yellow (Y). 



PRECUT WIRE KIT ASSORTMENTS 



PART NO. 



PRECUT WIRE 100 PACK 

LENGTH 100/Bag PART NO. 



PGP025C* 
PGP030C 
PGP035C* 
PGP040C 
PGP045C" 
PGP050C" 



PART NO. 



2.5" 
3.0" 
3.5" 
4.0" 
4.5" 
5.0" 



$1.25 
1.30 
1.37 
1.42 
1.48 
1.54 



PGP055C 
PGP060C* 
PGP070C* 
PGP080C" 
PGP090C- 
PGP100C* 



Length 100/Bag 



5.5" 
6.0" 
7.0" 
8.0" 
9.0" 
10.0" 



1.58 
1.65 
1.99 
2.14 
2.24 
2.39 



PRECUT WIRE 500 PACK 

LENGTH 500/Bag PART NO. 



LENGTH 500/Bag 



PGP025D* 
PGP030D' 
PGP035D- 
PGP040O' 
PGP045D* 
PGP050D- 



2.5" 
3.0" 
3.5" 
4.0" 
4.5" 
5.0" 



$3.58 
3.86 
4.15 
4.44 
4.74 
5.04 



PGP055D* 
PGP060D' 
PGP070D' 
PGP080D* 
PGP090D- 
PGP100D* 



5.5" 


5.38 


6.0" 


5.66 


7.0" 


6.76 


8.0" 


7.38 


9.0" 


8.11 


10.0" 


8.71 



"Specify color when ordering. Red (R), Blue (U), Black (B), & Yellow (Y). 
Example: If you wish to order (2) pkg. 500. 4", Red: 
~2 PGP0400R 



PGPWKI* $9.95 
CONTAINS 

250 3" 100 4'/2" 

250 3%" 100 5" 

100 4" 100 6" 

PGPWK3* $32.95 

CONTAINS 

500 2%" 500 4'/!" 

500 3" 500 5" 

500 3%" 500 5</2" 

500 4" 500 6" 




PGPWK2* $24.95 

CONTAINS 

250 2V4" 250 5" 

500 3" 100 5V!" 

500 3'/ 2 " 250 



500 4" 
250 4'A" 



100 6'/2" 
100 7" 



PGPWK4" $59.95 

CONTAINS 

1000 2'/2" 1000 4%" 

1000 3" 1000 5" 

1000 3'/2" 1000 5" 

1000 4" 1000 6" 



Wire kit assortments are available in the 4 celors mentioned along with a rainbow 
assortment. Use color code (A) for the rainbow assortment 
Example: If you wish to order one wire kit 3 in blue. 



PGPWK3U 



32.95 32.95 




SPOOLED 30 GAUGE KYNAR 



PART NO. 



SPOOL 
LENGTH 1-4 



5-9 



PGS050* 50 ft. 

PGS100* 100ft. 

PGS250* 250 ft. 

PGS500* 500 ft. 

PGS1000* 1000 ft. 



1.99 
3.65 
5.75 
10.20 
17.95 



1.85 
3.50 
5.50 
9.95 
15.95 



Example: If ybu wish to order 400 ft. of yellow: 



PGS100Y 



3.65 14.60 



•Specify celor when ordering, Red (R), Blue (U), Black (B), Yellow (Y), & for wire kits only 
rainbow assortment (A), j 



ORDER TOLL FREE (800) 423-5633 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 25 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




Texas Instruments 



Gold Plated Edgeboard Connectors 



Standard But Not Ordinary 

The H4 Series standard edgeboard con- 
nectors otter the best value in the edgeboard 
market today. 

To assure reliable electrical connections, our 
cantilever contacts are pre-loaded for optimum 
normal force and bifurcated for redundancy; 
each contact point features from 50 (Wire 
Wrap') to 75 (solder tail) microinches (mini- 
mum) of wrought gold inlay over a nickel dif- 
fusion barrier. The inlay is metallurgically 
bonded to a copper-nickel-tin alloy <CA 725) 



that is suited to both soldered and wire wrapped 
terminations The dielectric contact-housing is 
made df glass-filled thermoplastic polyester, 
meeting UL Flammability Classification 94V-0 

FEATURES 

RELIABLE, COST-EFFICIENT CONTACT DESIGN 

• 50 (Wire Wrap) to 75 (solder tail) microinches 
gold inlay over a nickel diffusion barrier 
(minimum thickness). 

• Copper-nickeMin CA 725 Alloy. 

• Bifurcated contact points 

• Preloaded, cantilever spring design. 

• Contacts are user removable. 



RUGGED BODY 

• Glass-filled thermoplastic pclyester — 
Meets U.L Flammability Classification 94V-0. 
— Resists common cleaning solvents, 

• Solder standoff — Facilitates cleaning — 
Reduces solder wicking 

• Between contact polarization key (snaplock 
for .100" & .125" centers). 

• Generous chamfered card slot. 

• Molded ccntact identification — Alpha- 
numeric (.156" centers) — Numeric (100" & 
125" centers). 

• Location ridges (bottom) and raised dots 
(top) mark every fifth contact position. 

• Entire connector design is U.L. Approved 



Tl EDGE CONNECTORS 
I" Contact Centers: ST Soldertail GOLD: WW - Wire Wrap GOLD 
PRICE 
PART W0. 1-9 10-24 25-99 100-249 




TIC-1 530-1 ST 
TIC-1530-l WW 
TIC-1 836-1 ST 
TIC-1 836-1 WW 
TIC-2244-1 ST 
TIC-2244-1 WW 
TIC-2550-1 ST 
TIC-2550-l WW 
TIC-3060-1 ST 
TIL) 300(1 1 WW 
TIC-3672-1 ST 
TIC-3672-1 WW 
TIC-4080-1 ST 
TIC-40B0 1 WW 
TIC-4386-1 ST 
TIC-4386-1 WW 
TIC-50100-l ST 
TIC-50100-l WW 



1.60 
1.70 
2.00 
2.10 
2.25 
2.40 
2.50 
2.70 
2.95 
3.20 
3.30 
3.90 
3.60 
4.40 
3.90 
4.65 
4.50 
5.40 



1.45 
1.55 
1.80 
1.90 
2.00 
2.15 
2.25 
2.45 
2.60 
2.85 
2.95 
3.50 
3.25 
4.00 
3.50 
4.15 
4.05 
4.90 



1.30 
1.35 
1.60 
1.65 
1.75 
1.90 
2.00 
2.15 
2.30 
2.55 
2.60 
3.10 
2.85 
3.60 
3.10 
3.70 
3.60 
4.30 



1.10 
1.15 
1.40 
1.45 
1.50 
1.60 
1.65 
1.80 
1.90 
2.20 
2.30 
2.60 
2.40 
3.00 
2.60 
3.10 
3.00 
3.60 



.125" Contact Centers: STG - Soldertail GOLD: WWG - Wire Wrap GOLD 



PART NO. 



19 



PRICE 



ABBREVIATIONS: 
ST - Solder Tail Gold 
WW -Wire Wrap Gold 



TIC-2244-2 ST 
TIC-2244-2 WW 
TIC-2856-2 ST 
TIC-2856-2 WW 
TIC-3060-2 ST 
TIC-3060-2 WW 
TIC-3162-2ST 
TIC-3I62-2WW 
TIC-3672-2 ST 
TIC-3672-2 WW 
TIC-4080-2 ST 
TIC-4080-2 WW 
TIC-4488-2 ST 
TIC-4488-2 WW 
TI-S100 ST 
TI-S100 WW 



100 249 



2.30 
2.60 
2.80 
3.20 
2.90 
3.40 
3.05 
3.50 
3.45 
4.00 
3.80 
4.45 
4.20 
4.85 
3.20 
4.00 



2.10 
2.35 
2.55 
2.90 
2.60 
3.06 
2.75 
3.15 
3.10 
3.60 
3.45 
4.00 
3.B0 
4.35 
2.90 
3.75 



1.85 
2.10 
2.25 
2.55 
2.30 
2.70 
2.45 
2.80 
2.75 
3.20 
3.05 
3.55 
3.35 
3.90 
2.50 
3.50 



1.50 
1.75 
1.85 
2.15 
1.95 
2.25 
2.05 
2.35 
2.30 
2.68 
2.55 
2.95 
2.80 
3.20 
2.20 
3.25 



Sullins Gold Plated 
E_Evel w G - ld wire s w7aX TailGold Edgeboard Connectors 

Sullins Eleclonics was the first manufacturer to pioneer the use of Valox,* a polyester, as an insulator 
material. The quality and performance of this material has been a prime reason tor the outstanding 
success of this connector line. Sullins connectors are unique in being recognized by Underwiters 
Laboratories. This is especially important to customers fabricating UL approved devices. 



CAT. PART NO. 



.156" CONTACT CENTER CONNECTORS 

APPLICATION 1-9 10-24 



SUL-6I2S5 


PET, MA1003 


1.95 


1. 80 


1. 55 


SUL-6I2E5 


PET. MA1003 


2.30 


2.00 


1.75 


SUL-1020E5 




2.00 


1. 77 


1.53 


SUL-1224E5 


COMMODORE PET 


3.60 


3.20 


2.B0 


SUL-I224S5 


COMMODORE PET 


3.30 


2.90 


2.50 


SUL-1530E5 


VECTOR PLUGBOARDS. GRI KEYBOARDS 


3.30 


2.90 


2.50 


SUI-1530S5 


VECTOR PLUGBOARDS. GRI KEYBOARDS 


3.50 


3.05 


2.65 


SUL-I530W5 


VECTOR PLUGBOARDS. GRI KEYBOARDS 


2.40 


2.10 


1.85 


SUL-1836E5 




3.70 


3.25 


2.80 


SUL-I836S5 




3.40 


3.00 


2.60 


SUL-2244E5 


VCT3662. VCT-3682. AIM-65 


3.90 


3.45 


3.00 


SUL-2244S5 


SYM, VCT-3677. KIM 


4.10 


3.60 


3.15 


SUL2244W5 


VECTOR PLUGBOARDS. SYM. KIM. AIM-65 


4.20 


3.70 


3.20 


SUL-2550E5 




5.30 


4.65 


4.05 


SUL-3672E5 




8.30 


7.30 


6.35 


SUL-3672S5 




7.25 


6.40 


5.55 


SUL-3672W5 




7.40 


6.55 


5.65 


SUL-4386E5 


M0 1 6800, INTEL MULTIBUSS 


8.25 


7.30 


6.30 


SUL-4386S5 


NSC PACER. VCT-460811) 


8.25 


7.30 


6.30 


SUL4386W5 


VCT-4611[1]|2|. INTEL MULTIDUSS 


B.80 


7.75 


6.75 




.125" CONTACT CENTER CONNECTORS 






CAT. PART NO. 


APPLICATION 


I -9 


1 0-24 


25-99 



Materials & Characteristics 

Insulator: Glass filled thermoplastic polyester, color: Blue, 

Insulation Resistance: 5000 megoms. 

Solvent Resistance: Perchloroethylene, Freon 113. Freon 11, Trichloroethylene. 

Contacts: Phosphor Bronze 

Operating Voltage: .100 (2.54) ,125(3.17) ,150(3.81) .156 (3 96) contact centers 

(At sea level) 600 VDC 800 VDC 1500 VDC 1800 VDC 
Current Rating: 5 amperes 
Voltage Drop: 30 MV at rated current. 
Contact Resistance: 10 milliohms maximum. 
Operating Temperature: -65"C to +125°G 
Board Thickness Accommodated: .062 inch (1.57mm) 
Board Insertion: 2 to 16 ozs per contact pair using .062 (1.57mm) steel test blade. 



CAT. PART NO. 



.1" CONTACT CENTER CONNECTORS 

APPLICATION 1-9 



SUL-2856W2 PROLOG STD BUSS. VCT-4610|1](2| 

SUL-2856S2 PROLOG STD BUSS. VCT-4610[1 1|2| 

SUL-3672W2 

SUL-4080W2 VCT-4380 PLUGBOARD 

SUL-S100ALT .140" SPACED ROWS FOR ALTAIR 

SUL-S100SEG S-100 SOLDER EYELET 

SUL-S100STG .250" SPACED ROWS. IMSAI. VCT-8803. CR0MEMC0 

SUL-S10DWWG S-100 WIRE WRAP 

SULCfil IMSAI STYLE CARD GUIDE 

SULCG1/C IMSAI STYLE CARD GUIDE 



6.60 
5.50 
6.30 
7.00 
7.80 
7.95 
5.95 
6.50 



5.80 
4.85 
5.55 
6.20 
6.90 
7.60 
5.40 
5.75 
1.00 Pkg ol5 
15.00 Pkg ol 100 



5.05 

4.20 
4.80 
5.35 
6.00 
6.60 
4.70 
4.95 



SUL-1020EI 

SUL-1020W1 

SUL 1326b 1 

SUL-1530EI 

SUL-I530S1 

SUL-1530W1 

SUL-2040EI 

SUL-2040S1 

SUL-2040W1 

SUL2244EI 

SUL-2244SI 

SUL-2244WI 

SUL-2550E1 

SUL-2550S1 

SUL-2550WI 

SUL-3060E1 

SUL-3060S1 

SUL3060W1 

SUL-3672E1 

SUL-3672S1 

SUL-3672W1 

SUL-4080EI 

SUL-4080SI 

SUL-4080WI 

SUL-4386E1 

SUL-4386SI 

SUL4386WI 

SUL-50I00E1 

SUL-50I00S1 

SUL-50I00WI 



VCT-4608. SOSSBC-100. IMSAI MI0. S10 



TRS-80. VCT-4609 PLUGBOARD 

TRS-BO. VCT-4609 PLUGBOARD 

TRS-80. VCT-4609 PLUGBOARD 

VECTOR PLUGBOARDS 

VECTOR PLUGBOARDS 

VECTOR PLUGBOARDS 

SOS VERSAFL0PPY. INTEL MULTIBUSS 

SDS VERSAFLOPPY. APPLE II 

VECTOR 4609. IMSAI PI0 

INTEL MULTIBUSS. VCT-4608 11| 

INTEL MULTIBUSS, VCT-4608 11| 

INTEL MULTIBUSS. VCT-4608 |l| 

VCT-3719|1||4|.VCT-4493|11 

VCT-4494IH. VCT-37I9|1||4| 

VCT-4493|1].VCT-4494|I| 

COMMODORE PET 

COMMODORE PET 

C0MM0DDRE PET 

COSMAC ELF 

C0SMAC ELF 

COSMAC ELF 

ELF PRODUCTS 

ELF PRODUCTS 

ELF PRODUCTS 



2.90 


2.55 


2.20 


2.80 


2.45 


2.15 


3.00 


2.65 


2.30 


3.75 


3.30 


2.90 


3.60 


3.20 


2.80 


3.75 


3.3D 


2.90 


4.20 


3.70 


3.20 


3.90 


3.45 


3.00 


4.10 


3.60 


3.15 


5.55 


4.90 


4.25 


4.50 


3.95 


3.45 


5.55 


4.90 


4.25 


6.10 


5.40 


4.70 


5.95 


5.20 


4.55 


6.D0 


5.30 


4.60 


6.60 


5.85 


5.10 


6.35 


5.60 


4.90 


6.20 


5.50 


4.75 


8.00 


7.10 


6.10 


7.40 


6.55 


5.65 


7.95 


7.00 


6.10 


7.40 


6.55 


5.70 


7.40 


6.55 


5.70 


8.35 


7.40 


6.40 


7.80 


6.90 


6.00 


9.30 


8.25 


7.15 


9.60 


8.50 


7.35 


9.40 


8.30 


7.20 


9.45 


8.35 


7.25 


8.50 


7.50 


6.50 




GOLD S-100 CONNECTORS 




PRIORITY ^distributes the Tl S-100 Card Edge 
Connectors at tremendous volume for prices 
others only wish they could duplicate. 



Part No. 



SOLDER TAIL PRICE 
1-9 10-24 25-99 



100-249 Part No. 



WIRE WRAP PRICE 
1-9 10-24 25-99 



100-249 



TI-S100 STG 3.20 2.90 2.50 2.20 TI-S100WWG 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.25 

Connector pricing based on gold not exceeding $700.00 per oz. 



80 — 26 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



WIRE UIRBPPIIIC TOOLS 
ROD WIRE 




' HOBBV ' WIRE lURflPPIIIG 
TOOL BBITERV POWERED 

For .025'' (0.63mm) sq. post 
MODIFIED'' wrap, positive indexing 
anti-overwrapping device. 

0KM-BW2630 TOOL $19.95 

0KM-BC1 BATTERIES 

AND CHARGER $11.00 
0KMBT-30 BITF0RAWG30 $3 95 
OKMBT-2628 BIT FOR AWG 26-28 $7.95 



ISF C S'ZE Nl etc a 




HOBBV UlRflF 
TOOLS 



0KM-WSU-30M 



MODIFIED WRAP 



$7 95 




TRICOLOR DISPEtlSER 



• 3 Rolls ot Wire in one dispenser. 

• 3 Colors Blue White Red 50 ft of each color 

• AWG 30 (0,25mm) KYNAR' Insulated Wire 

• Built-in Plunger cuts wire to desired length 

• Built-in Stripper strips 1" of insulation. 

• Refillable (for refills see below) 



OKM-WD-30-TRI 

TRICOLOR DISPENSER $7.95 

TRICOLOR DISPE0SER 
REPlPtEITIEnT ROLLS 

• AWG 30 (0,25mm) KYNAR" Insulated Wire 

• 3 Colors Blue While, Red, 50 ft each color 

• Silver plated solid conductor, easy stripping 

0KM-R-30-TRI REPLACEMENT ROLLS $5,95 

DIP It inSERTIOR TOOLS UIITH Pin STRRIGHTI1ER 



S1HAIGHTEN PINS RELUSE PICKUP INSERT 



onno 



14-16 PIN DIP/IC INSERTER 



e MOS & CMOS IC's Du'a 



OKM-MQS-1416 14-16 PI N. MPS CMOS SAFE INSERTER $7.95 

OKM-MOS-2428 24-28 PIN. MOS CMOS SAFE_INSERTER_ $7.95 

3G -40 Pill cmbs-SRFE 
U inSERTIOd TOOL 

Unique new insertion lool Also aligns benl- 
oul pms A twist o! the handle compresses 
ihe pins to proper 600 inch spacing and 
locks !he IC into the lool Then simply place 
the tool on the socket and depress the 
plunger (or instant and accurate insertion 
Features heavy chrome plating throughout 
for reliable static dissipation Includes termi- 

GHOUND STRAP NOT INCLUDED 




36-40 PIN CMOS SAFE INSERTION TOOL $7.95 




DIP IC EXTRACTOR TOOL 



EXTRACTOR TOOL $1.49 



WK-7 IC 

INSERTION 




WIRE DISPEH5ER 

• With 50 ft. Roll of AWG 30 KYNAR* wire- 
wrapping wire. 

• Built-in Plunger cuts wire to desired length 

• Built m Stripper strips 1" Of insulation 

• Refillahip 'For refills, see below) 



0KM-WD-30-B 


BLUE WIRE 


$4.95 


0KM-WD-30-Y 


YELLOW WIRE 


$4.95 


0KM-WD-30-W 


WHITE WIRE 


$4 95 



0KM-W0-30-R 



RED WIRE 



$4 95 




DISPEI1SER REPLflCEmEnT ROILS 

Wire for wire-wrapping AWG-30 (0,25mm) 
KYNAR" wire 50 ft roll, silver plated, solid con- 
ductor easy stripping 
OKM-R-308-0050 30-AWG BLUE 50 FT ROLL 
0KM-R-30Y-0Q50 30-AW G VELLO W5 FT ROLL $2. 
0KM-R-30Y-0Q5O 30-AW G WHITE 5 FT ROLL $2 
0KM-R-30R-0050 30-AWG RED 50 FT ROLL $2. 

"(UP RI1D STRIP" TOOL 

A unique new design tor stripping 1" insulation 
from 30AWG wire. Insert wire, squeeze lool 
closed to cut off excess wire, pull wire through 
stripping slot to remove insulation. Handy pocket 
size, only IJi" x 1" x V. Shipping Weight 4 oz 




0KM-CAS-130 

l<i NOT APPHCABLf ro 

TERminnis 



CLIP AND STRIP $1 

MLCNE OR TEHON INSULATION 



025"(0,63mm) Square Post 
3 Level Wire-Wrapping 
Gold Plated. 



?5 Pf fl PACKAG. 



SLOTTED TERMINAL $4.98 



0KM- WWT-3 
OJM-WWT-4 



SINGLE SIDED S2.98 

TERMINAL 

IC SOCKET TERMINAL $4 98 






DOUBLE SIDED t 

TERMINAL 

TERimnni insERTinc tool 

For inserl.ng WWT- 1 WWT-2 WWT-3 and WWT-4 
Terminals info ,040"(1.0mm) Ota Holes. 



0KM-INS-1 INSERTING TOOL $2.49 

P.l.B.TERITIinPL STRI'PS 

The TS strips provide positive scew activated clamping 
action, accommodate wire sizes 14-30 AWG (1 8 - 

0.25mm]. Pins are solder plated copper, .042 inch (1mm) 
■- on 200 inch {St ' 



I0KM-TS-4 


4-POLE 


rSl 


IOKMTS-8 


8-POLE 


$3 


[0KM-TS-12 


12 POLE 


43 




mooumR TERmiriRL strips 

For versatile, economical connections especially in 
bread-boarding and short runs. Two circuit modules 
are dovetaiied together tn various combinations to 
form printed circuit board terminals with the desired 
number o( circuits Waking stable, low-resistance 
connections with only a screwdriver, the space- 
saving terminals lake conductors from 26 through 16 
AWG conforming to 20 inch (5.08mm) hole spac- 
ing on boards up to 126 inch (3,20mm) thicK 




0KM-TS-6MD 



2-P0LE 



$1,79 



asaa, 



PL ERRD GUIDES 



TR-i consists ol 2 guides precision molded with 
unique spring linger aclion that dampens shock 
and vibration, yet permits smooth insertion or ex- 
traction. Guides accommodale any card thick- 
ness Irom 040- 100 inches. 

QUANTITY — OMf PAIR 12 PCS.) 



0KM-TR-1 



CARD GUIDES 




Shipping Weight 4 oz 



PRB-I DIGITAL LOCK PROBE 



Compatible with OTL, TTL. CMOS, MOS and Mico- 
processors using a 4 to !5V power supply Thresholds 
automatically programmed Automatic resetting mem- 
ory No adjustment required. Visual indication ot logic 
levels, using LED's to snow high, low, bad level or open 
circuit logic and pulses Highly sophisticated, shirt 
pocket portable (protective tip cap and removable 
coil cord). 

• DC to > 50 MHZ • Automatic thrcthold 



■ UO K . imp? 
> Automatic: pu 

lo SO Mhc 
t Automatic r* 
. Opm ciTCult 



i Com. 



I 



PL ERRD GUIDES & BRRLHETS 

TRS-2 kit includes 2 TR-1 guides plus 2 mount- 
ing brackets. Support brackets feature unique 
stabilizing post that permits secure mounting 
with only 1 screw 



0KM-TRS-2 GUIDES & BRACKETS 



0KM- PRB-1 DIGITAL LOGIC PROBE 

vacuum vise 



Unique vacuum based light duty vise for precision 
handling of small components and assemblies. Rug- 
ged ABS construction 1H" (38mm) wide jaws, IV 
(32mm) travel for maximum versatility. Also features 
screw lugs for permanent installation, 
(mounting screws included) 



BW928 INDUSTRIAL WRAPPING TOOL 



GREAT FOR 
PRODUCTION! 



OKM-WK-7 COMPLETE IC INSERTER/EXTRACTOR KIT 

INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS 

0KM-M0S-1416 14-16 PIN MOS CMOS SAFE INSERTER 

0KMM0S-2428 24-28 PIN MOS CMOS SAFE INSERTER 

OKM-MOS-40 36-40 PIN MOS CMOS SAFE INSERTER 
0KM-EX-1 14-16 PIN EXTRACTOR TOOL 

KM-EX-2 24-40 PIN CMOS SAFE EXTRACTOR TOOL 



^0K 



$7 95 

il Is 0KM-BW928BF 

J, 49 0KM-BT30I 

$7 95 0KM-BC1 




• Accepts Industrial Bits & Sleeves 
(Gardner Denver or equivalent) 

• Auto-Indexing 
• Modified Wrap 

$29 95 • Back-Force available (Recommended lor #30) 
Part No. Description 

0KM-BW928 Tool 

Tool (with Backforce) 
#30 Bit & Sleeve 
Batteries & Charger 



Contains Hobby Wrap Tool WSU-30M. Wire 
Dispenser WD-30-B. (2) 14 DIP'S, (2) 16 DIP'S 
Hobby Board H-PCB-1 DIP IC Insertion Tool 
INS-1416, DIP IC Extractor Tool EX-1 and PC 
Edoe Connerlor CON-1 

0KM-WK-4B(BLUE) WIRE-WRAPPING KIT $25.99 



CA, AK, HI, CALL (213) 8948171 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 27 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 

Ism S-100 PRODUCTS 



COMPATIBLE PLUGBOARDS FOR INTERFACE, 
MEMORY EXPANSION, EXPERIMENTATION 




VCT- 8800V 

Universal Microcomputer/processor 

plugboard, use with S-100 bus. Complete 

with heat sink & Hardware. 5.3" x 10" x 1/16.' 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$22.48 $20.37 S18.26 




VCT- 8801 

Individual tinned square pads surround most 

holes. Ideal for mounting components by 

"tack" soldering. Top of board pod free for 

mounting I/O connectors. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$23.12 $20.95 $18.78 




ranTranraronmrnni.iHi.Jrr 

VCT- 8801-1 

Plain no etched circuitry except contacts. 

Produces maximum flexibility. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$15.67 $14.24|||||h., $12.82 




VCT- 8802-1 

Pad per 2 holes. Two-noie pads allow tack 

soldering of socket, plus second hole for 

component leads. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$27.21 $24.63 $22.05 




"ANY DIP" has full power and ground planes 

back to back. Boards accommodates 

.3, .4, .6, .9" Dips. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$24.67 $22.34 $20.02 



L. 



'if:."- ■■■•':■ • 
VCT-8800R2 



\ vm'-:<m. 



• Make your own custom S-100-Bus circuit 
board. 

• Just expose, develop and etch in lab or 
home. 

• No camera or dark room needed. 

• Coated both sides with copper and + 
Positive Photoresist. 

• S-100-Bus card size: 5.3" x 10" x .062" 

• Gold plated 50/100 contacts on .125" 
centers, continuous into 

copper fields both sides. 

• Complete step-by-step instructions. 

• Expose with bright sun or G.E. RS 275 watt 
suntan lamp. 

• Two layout papers: 1 clear, 1 with 0.1" grid. 

VCT-8800R2 

1-9 10-49 50-99 

$22.42 $20.32 $18.22 

VCT-0088-21-45 developer for + Positive 

Photoresist, 6 oz. concentrate makes 30 fluid 

ounces, develops 2400 square 

inches. $2.46 




VCT-8803 Motherboard for 
S-100 Bus Microcomputer 

Mounts 11 receptacles with 100 contacts or 10 receptacles 
plus interconnections to smaller boards for expansion. 
Connectors mount with tabs protruding through .038 inch (1 
mm) diameter holes in rows spaced .250 inch (6.4 mm) on 
each connector position and 0.75 inch (19 mm) between 
connector positions. Includes etched circuit and instruc- 
tions for active or passive terminations plus 12 tantalum 
capacitors for +5, +12, -12 volt buses, and spacers for mount- 
ing in Vector VP1 orVP2case. G-10epoxy glass board with 2 
ounce copper, solder plated circuitry plus solder mask to 
avoid accidental short circuits. Large buses: +5V and GND 
(10 amps), +12V or 16V (7 amps). Current ratings are per 
MIL-STD-275with10° rise. 

Shipping weight 2 pounds (.9kg) $29.50 




VCT-3690-12 Card Extender 

Card Extender has 100 contacts — 50 per 

side on .125 centers. Attached connector is 

compatible with S-100 Bus Systems. 

1-4 5-24 

$26.64 $24.18 

VCT-3690 6.5" 22/44 pin .156 ctrs. Extender $15.66 

VCT-3690-4 7.5" 36/72 pin .1 ctrs. Extender $22.76 

VCT-3690-6 1 1 " 22/44 pin .156 ctrs. Extender $18.80 



21 pairs of nylon guides 

furnished for snap-in mounting 

on .25" multiples 




VCT-CCK100 



Shipping 

m. 

10 lbs. 
RACH MOUNTABLE CAGE 

Especially designed to accommodate S100 
size Plugboards, Motorola Exorcisor,™ and 
Micromodule™ Plugboards. Cage has .081" 
thick anodized aluminum side walls. Will 
accommodate Plugboards 4.0" to 8.5" long 
and 10.0" to 1 1 .5" wide by 1/16" thick. Cages 
assemble quickly. 



■'"Registered Motorola trademark 



VECTOR-PAK 

ASSEMBLED 

MICROCOMPUTER 

CASES 



VCT-VPZ- $159.00 




VCT-VP1 -S163.0C 

Same as VP2 except cards oriented 
side to side. 

Adjustauic paun.ay.ng system for S-100 bus 
microcomputers, compatible with Altai r 8800 
and IMSAI 8080 size cards. 

• Smart looking, deluxe cases unmarred by 
unsightly screws or fasteners. 

• Finished in dark blue textured vinyl. 

• Instantly accessible interiors with slip out 
covers. 

• Removable recessed rear and front panels. 

• Fully adjustable interior mounting systems 
for any card or card spacing within size 
limitations. No cutting or drilling 
necessary. 

• Perforated bottom cover for cooler 
operation. 

DESCRIPTION 
Assembled case with perforated bottom 
cover. Installed mounting struts for card 
guides and receptacles or motherboard. 
Cards top loaded, spanning front to back. 
Card guide (12 pair) and chassis plate 

Supplied Uninstalled. Shipping Weight 25 lbs. 




VCT-BPI7/9 

INPUT/OUTPUT CONNECTOR REAR PANEL 

• Ten connector cutouts for ITT Cannon DB25S 
Type 25 pin connector (connectors furnished by 
user). 

• Panel may be installed with cutouts on either 
right or left side. 

• Interchangeable with standard rear panel. 

• Connectors may be slipped through the panel for 
ease of assembly or disassembly. 



80 — 28 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




VCT-3662 6 5" x 4.5" $ 8.69 

VCT-3662-2 9.6" x 4.5" $10.85 

P pattern plugboards for IC's Epoxy Glasss 1/16" 44 pin. 
con. spaced .156 

VCT-3719-1 $9.28 

Same as 3662 except 36/72 con. on .1 centers 
VCT-3719-4 $11.73 

Same as 3662-2 except 36/72 con. on .1 centers 




VCT-3682 9.6" x 4.5" $13.63 

VCT-3682-2 6.5" x 4.5" $11.04 

Hi-Density Dual In-Line Plugboard for Wire Wrap with 
Power and Grd. Bus Epoxy Glass 1/16" 44 pin con. spaced 
.156 




VCT-3677 9 6" x 4.5" $13.33 

VCT-3677-2 6.5" x 4.5" $10.68 

Gen. Purpose DIP Boards with Bus Pattern tor Solder or 
Wire Wrap Epoxy Glass 1/16" 44 pin con. spaced .156 




VCT-4493-1 

4.5" x 9.6" Universal pattern for any .3" .4," .6',' .9',' 
spaced DIPS Holds 63 Dips. Accommodates additional I/ 
O connectors 36/72 con. on .1 centers. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$23.83 $21.55 $19.27 

VCT-4494-1 

Same as 4493 except 22/44 con. on .156 centers. 
1-4 5-9 10-24 

$20.68 $18.67 $16.67 

VCT-4493 

4.5" x 6.5" Universal pattern for any .3" .4" .6" .9," 
spaced DIPS. Accommodates additional I/O connectors 
36/72 con. on .1 centers. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$19.37 $17.59 $15.80 

VCT-4494 

Same as 4493 except 22/44 con. on .156 centers. 
1-4 5-9 10-24 

$16.33 $14.79 $13.25 



VCT-HA9 

Pkg.of4 $1.26 

Ejector 

Card with Roll Pin 

VCT-HA9C 
Pkg.of100 $26. 



WIRE WRAP 

POSTS (see next page) 

catalog is available to qualified 
industrial and institutional customers. 





.042 dia. holes on 
0.1 spacing for IC's 



Phenolic 

PART NO. 
VCT-64P44-X 
VCT-169P44-X 



Epoxy Glass 



SIZE 

4.5" x 6.5" 
4.7" x 17" 



VCT-64P44 
VCT-84P44 
VCT-169P44 
VCT-169P84 




PRICE 

1-9 10-19 

$1.56 $1.40 

$3.69 $3.32 



$1.79 $1.61 

$2.21 $1.99 

$4.52 $4.07 

$8.83 $7.95 



APPLE PLUGBOARD 

Vector 4609 Peripheral Interface Plugboard for construc- 
tion of custom circuits. Plug compatible with Apple II, 
Commodore PET and Super Kim microcomputers. 

VCT-4609 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$20.74 $18.79 $16.84 




VCT-4607 

DEC, LSI-11, PDP6, PDP11, Heath H-11, P Pattern Epoxy 
Glass, Plug Board 8.43" x 5.187" Dual 36 pin DEC/ 
HEATH Connectors. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$16.26 $14.74 $13.21 

MOTOROLA EXORCISER 
PROTOTYPING BOARDS 




VCT-4611 

3 hole pads interspersed with power busses (shown 
above). 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$29.95 $26.96 $23.96 

VCT-4611-1 

Bare board except with edge connector. No power bussing. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$19.95 $17.96 $15.96 




VCT-4611-2 

Has only interspersed power busses. 

1-4 5-9 

$29.95 $26.96 



10-24 
$23.96 



UNIVERSAL MICROCOMPUTER 
PLUGBOARDS 

For STD Bus, Pro-Log Microprocessors and General Use. 
Size: 4.5" x 6.5" x .052" 28/56 contacts on .125" centers. 




VCT-4610 for soldering or wire wrapping. Mounts 20 16 pin 
DIP ICs. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$18.95 $17.06 $15.16 




VCT-4610-1 for soldering or wire wrapping. Mounts 59 16 
pin DIP ICs. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$15.95 $14.36 $12.76 




VCT-4610-2 wire wrapping board. Mounts 35 16 pin DIP 
ICs. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$18.95 $17.06 $15.16 




VCT-4608 

Form and size compatible with INTEL SBL80 Series and 
NATIONAL BLC 80 Series microcomputer boards. Power 
and Ground buses on both sides. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$59.23 $53.67 $48.11 

VCT-4608-1 

Same as 4608 except plain, less power buses. 




VCT-4350 

Large Microprocessor development plugboard with Zig- 
zag Buses 7" x 9.6" Holds 77 DIPs, 80 pin con. spaced 
.125. 

1-4 5-9 10-24 

$22.80 $20.69 $18.58 



VISIT OUR RETAIL STORE 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 29 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



031 



T.M 



Slit-N-Wrap is easy to use and is up to four times fasterthan ordinary 
manual wrapping because there is no wire measuring or pre- 
stripping required. Slit-N-Wrap tools have a patented action which 
slits wire insulation while the tools is wrapping wire on .025" square 
posts. Connections are just as reliable as with conventional 
wrapping tools. Tests show Slit-N-Wrapped connections exceed Mil 
Spec requirements for pull-off, are low resistance, and are gas tight. 
All tools and bits are guaranteed to provide at least 10,000 reliable 
wraps before bit replacement is required 

Slit-N-Wrap tools with Tefzel insulated wire 



PI 84 1 



micro clip {MglaRh iJe&M 

For .042" dia. holes, (all boards on this page) 



VCT-T42-1/C 
VCT-T42-1/M 
VCT-P149 Hand installing tool 



Pkg. of 100 S 1.54 

Pkg. OM000 $11.28 

$ 3.23 



WRAP POST 



For 042" dia. holes, (all boards on this page) Bifurcated contacts for 
soldering components above board and .025" sq. wrap post below board. 

T44 will accept a .021" max. dia. lead in bifurcated end. 3 level wrap post. 
VCT-T44/C Pkg. of 100 $ 2.34 

VCT-T44/M Pkg. of 1000 $14.35 

A13 Han d Installing tool * 4.19 

T68 will accept a .032" max dia. lead in bifurcated end. 3 level wrap post. 

VCT-T68/C Pkg. of 100 $ 2.67 

VCT-T68/M Pkg of 1000 $16.40 

VCT-A13-1 Hand Installing tool $ 4.15 

T68A will accept a .032" max. dia. lead in bifurcated end, 2 level wrap post 

VCT-T68A/C Pkg. of 100 $ 2.57 

VCT-T68A/M Pkg. of 1000 $14 50 

VCT-A13-1 Hand Installing tool $4 15 



Manual wrapping kit with knurled aluminum shaft, replaceable 

hardened steel bit, and 2 rolls of Tefzel wire. 

VCT-P1 84 1 lb $30.00 




P184-4T1 



: eed-thru wrap post tits plated-thru or plain holes. Sharp Corners on 
:hese .025" sq. wrap post bite into wrapped wires tor perfect conne ctions . 

VCT-T46-2-9/C Pkg. 100 $ 2.72 

VCT-T46-2-9/M Pkg. 1000 $20.46 

VCT-T46-3-9/C Pkg. 100 $ 2.74 

VCT-T46-3-9/M Pkg. 1000 $20.90 

VCT-T46-4-9/C Pkg. 100 $ 2.64 

VCT-T46-4-9/M Pkg. 1000 $16.91 

VCT-T46-5-9/C Pkg. 100 $ 3.58 

VCT-T46-5-9/M Pkg. 1000 $28.93 

VCT-T46-6-9/C Pkg. 100 $ 4.99 

VCT-T46-6-9/M Pkg. 1000 $42.96 

VCT-P133B Hand installing tool $ 3.03 



Motorized Slit-N-Wrap kit, complete with rechargeable NiCad 

batteries and charger. 

VCT-P184-4T 3 /6s $105.00 

AC powered Slit-N-Wrap with pistol grip and trigger for industrial 

and production use. 

VCT-P184-4T1 3 lbs $105.00 

Hardened steel replacement bit for P184 series. 

VCT-P1B4A 1 lb $16.95 

Tefzel insulate silver plated copper 28 gauge wire for P184 series 
Slit-N-Wrap tools (2 rolls per package). 

VCT-W28-6A Green, 0.5 lbs $5.39 

VCT-W28-6B Red. 0.5 lbs $5.39 

VCT-W28-6E While. 0.5 lbs $5.39 

VCT-W28-6F Yellow, 0.5 lbs $5.39 

P180 Series Tools Using Polyurethane Nylon Coated Wire. Poly- 
urethane nylon coated copper wire is used in all P180 series tools. 
The small diameter of this insulated 28 gage wire permits two 7-turn 
wraps on a 0.025 inch (.64 mm) square post occupying only .21 inch 
(5.3 mm) of post length. Soldering is not required on rectangular 
posts, but if wrapped on round or irregular posts it may be soldered 
using a 750 Q F (399°C) iron which melts the insulation as solder flow 
occurs. 
Manual wrapping kit with 2 rolls of Polyurethane wire. 

VCT-P180 1 lb $25.00 

Motorized Slit-N-Wrap kit, complete with rechargeable NiCad 
batteries and charger, 

VCT-P160-4T 3 lbs $99.50 

AC powered Slit-N-Wrap with pistol grip and trigger for industrial 
and production use. 

VCT-P160-4T1 3 lbs $99.50 

Hardened steel replacement bit for P180 and P160 series. 

VCT-P180A 1/6 $14.25 

Polyurethane nylon insulated copper 28 guage wire for P180 and 
P160 series Slit-N-Wrap tools (3 rolls per package). 

VCT-W28-2A Green. 0.5 lbs $2.89 

VCT-W28-2B Red, 0.5 /6s $2.89 

VCT-W28-2C Clear, 0.5 /6s $2.89 

VCT-W28-2D Blue, 0.5 lbs $2.89 



P160-1A UNWRAP TOOL 



T107 Bus Strip 

T107 Bus Strip 

Jsed for supply busses on Vector board Holes are 1" Centers 13" long. 



Unwrapping bit is recessed far enough into the sleeve (spring loaded) to 
permit unwrapping more than the maximum amount of turns on a 3 wrap 
post for 26-30 gage wire. 
VCT-P160-18 $ 12 .50 



T46 SERIES WRAP POST 



^V 




VECTOR-PAK CARD CAGES 

19" rack mounting cages are supplied completely assembled, ready 
for connectors. Models listed accommodate 1/16" thick cards 4.5" 
maximum to 3" minimum width x 6.5" long. Heavy extruded alumi- 
num cross members (T-Struts) provide strength and easy, infinitely 
variable connector spacing. 21 pairs of 4-40 connector mounting 
nuts are furnished installed. 

Vector VCT-CCK-3 Card Cage — Has 108 grooves 0.075" wide for 
1/16" circuit cards in extruded aluminum plates mounted top and 
bottom. Vertically and horizontally adjustable rear cross members 
have 21 pairs of 4-40 nuts in captive grooves for easy connector 

mounting. Net Each $47.94 

Vector VCT-CCK-13 Card Cage — 19" wide x 5'/*" high x 8.9" deep. 
Has 21 pairs of riveted anodized aluminum card guides. 

Net Each $50.00 

Vector VCT-CCK13P Card Cage — Same as No CCK1 3, except with 

riveted ABS plastic guides. Net Each $50.00 

Vector VCT-CCK-14P Card Cages — 1 9" wide x 5V«" high x 1 2" deep. 
Has 21 pairs of riveted card ABS plastic card guides on 0.75" centers. 

Net Each $57.63 

Vector VCT-CCK13S — Same as CCK-13, except for snap in card 
guides. Comes in kit form. Net Each $41.00 



T112-1 Bus Link 






T112-2 Bus Link 



VCT-T107 
VCT-T107/C 



Pkg. 10 
Pkg. 100 



T112-1 Bus Link 

Fits over WW pin and connects pin to bus 2" long. 



VCT-T112-1/C 
VCT-T112-1/M 



Pkg. 100 
Pkg. 1000 



T112-2 Bus Link 

Same as T112-1 except .3" long. 



VCT-T112-2/C 
VCT-T112-2/M 



Pkg. 100 

_Pkg. 1000 



$ 4.00 
$38.06 



$ 1.93 
$ 8.14 



$ 2.15 
$10.95 



The Vector Pak system is a coordinated packaging system which 
provides modular cases and cages for nearly all Vector Plugbords 
and many industry-standard plug-in boards. Adjustable rear struts 
mount almost any PC connector without hole drilling or special 
brackets. Other sizes and cage parts are available separately — write 
for catalog. 

Vector VCT-CMA3A-20 Cage ~- 5%" h. x 8.9" deep fits 19" racks. 
Holds eight 2" wide x 6V long x 4.6" high modules (Vector No. 

EFP204A66). Net Each $62.56 

Vector VCT-CMA4A-20 Cage — 5'A" h. x 12" deep fits 19" racks. 
Holds eight 2" wide x 9,6" long x 4,6" high modules (Vector No. 

EFP204A96). Net Each $63.99 

Vector VCT-CMA3A-16 Cage — Same as No. CMA3A-20, except 
holds ten 1.6" wide x 6.6" long x 4 6" high modules (Vector No. 
EFP164A66). Net Each $67.91 




SOCKET PINS 

Gold plated, machined socket pin for .042" dia. holes. (All boards on this 
page.) With 3 level wrap post. 



VCT-R32 


Pkg. 25 


$ 5.75 


VCT-R32/C 


Pkg. 100 


$ 21.63 


VCT-R32/M 


Pkg. 1000 


$202.95 


VCT-P158 Impact Insertion tool 




$ 20.95 


VCT-D9 Die point for P158 




$ 4.05 




** TRIFURCATED KLIP WRAP POST 

For .010" to .040" diameter leads above board and .025" sq. 3 level wrap 
post below board for .042" dia. holes. (All boards on this page.) 



VCT-T49/C 


Pkg. 100 


$ 3.76 


VCT-T49/M 


Pkg. 1000 


S22.7C 


VCT-P156 Hand Installing tool 




$ 3.52 




>-*- 



10 lbs. 




2 lbs. 



EFP MODULES 

All-aluminum modules are anodized finished and have 5V*" high 
front panels with thumb screw, solid rear panels for connector 
mounting or circuit board slotting, rear sliding side covers, plus 
inner multiple-grooved top and bottom rails to hold 1/16" thick 
circuit boards without special bracketing. 
Vector VCT-EFP164A66 Case — Has 6 circuit board grooves spaced 
0.1 50" apart on top and bottom rails, holds circuit boards 4.5" wide x 

6.5" maximum length inside. Net Each $9.38 

Vector VCT-EFP204A66 Case — Same as No. EFP164A66, except 

has 9 circuit board grooves Net Each $9.65 

Vector VCT-EFP204A97 Case — Same as No. EFP164A66. except 
holds circuit boards 4.5" wide x 9.6" maximum length inside. Net 
Each $11.0; 



M — 30 



BYTE November 1980 



CALL FOR VECTOR ITEMS NOT LISTED 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



li'Z CiicClliT 

by Bishop Graphic^. 
BLACK 
PRECISION 
SLIT PC 
ARTWORK 
TAPE 





18Yds./RoTr "^ 
PRICE PER PACKAGE . . . 


$i.ir 


Tape Size 


Cat No.' 


in mm 


.015 


0.38 


BEZ010151 


020 


0.51 


BEZ010201 


026 


0.66 


BEZ010261 


031 


0.79 


BEZ010311 


040 


1,02 


BEZ010401 


050 


1.27 


BEZ010501 


062 


1.57 


BEZ010621 


080 


2.03 


BEZ010801 


093 


2.36 


BEZ010931 


100 


2.54 


BEZ011001 


125 


3.18 


BEZ011251 


200 


5 08 


BEZ012001 


250 


6.35 


BEZ012501 


Donut [A £££' 
Pads J ^p J1 - 25 


OD 


ID 


Cat. 


Qty./ 


In. 

080 


mm 

2.03 


In. 

.031 


mm 

0,79 


No.' 

BEZD216 


Pkg 
80 




100 


2.54 


031 


0.79 


BEZD101 


64 




120 


3.05 


.031 


0.79 


BEZD239 


64 




125 


3.18 


.031 


0.79 


BEZD102 


128 




150 


3,81 


.031 


0.79 


BEZD144 


112 




160 


4.06 j 


.040 


1.02 


BEZD247 


112 




187 


4.75 


.031 


0.79 


BEZD138 


120 




200 


5.08 


.031 


0.79 


BEZD139 


120 




250 


6.35 


.062 


1.57 


BEZD109J 120 




300 


7.62 


.062 


1.57 


BEZD111| 120 



Combination Pack 



Tees 



90° 
Elbows 



Universal 
Corners 



Q 



PRICE PER PACKAGE . . . $1.95 



I BEZK101 

7_ BEZK102 40 [ 
_ 7 BEZK103 40 ] 
t b4 BEZK104 
BEZK105 
!0 BEZK106I 40 I 



ARTWORK TARGETS 

30 per package $1.95 




PRESSURE SENSITIVE 

DUAL IN-LINE (DIP) 

PATTERNS 

aoaBaao 



aoooooo 



i 



Cut Pad 

• Basic large terminal area 

• Most commonly used pattern 

PRICE PER PACKAGE . . . $1.95 



No. of 
Leads 

14 


Qty/ 
Pico.' 

32 
28 


Scale 

1X 
2X 


Catalog 
Number 

BEZ6014 
BEZ6038 


16 


32 
28 


1X 
2X 


BEZ6004 

BEZ6109 


18 


30 
26 


1X 
2X 


BEZ6900 
BEZ6901 


24 


12 
12 


1X 
2X 


BEZ6S3S 
BEZ6536 


28 


12 

12 


1X 
2X 


BEZ6903 
BEZ6904 


40 


8 
8 


1X 

2X 


BEZ6906 
BEZ6907 



OIBIBIOIQIBIB 
BIBIBIBIBIOIB 



A 



Cut Pad With Conductors 

• Use where conductor traces 
must be routed between pads 
PRICE PER PACKAGE . . . $1.95 
No. of Qty/ Catalog 

Leads Pkg.' Scale Number 



14 



32 
28 



1X 
2X 



BEZ6760 
BEZ6761 



32 

28 



1X 
2X 



BEZ6763 
BEZ6764 



40 



1X 
2X 



BEZ6984 
BEZ698S 



B B 
jjjjpjpT 

Narrow Cut Pad 

► Use where a longer terminal area is 
desired. Can be used with conductors 
between terminals. 

PRICE PER PACKAGE . . . $1.95 



No. of 
Leads 


Qty/ 
Pkg.' 


Scale 


Catalog 

Number 


14 


32 
28 


1X 
2X 


BEZ6013 
BEZ6071 


16 


32 
28 


1X 
2X 


BEZ64S3 
BEZ6244 



40 



1X 
2X 



BEZ6987 
BEZ6988 



PRINTED CIRCUIT 

"TO" STYLE PATTERNS 

Price per package . . . $1.95 



J> 



T0-18 , , ~ 

PATTERNS Jwj" 

|JL ' CM,mml 

1X SCALE.CAT. NO.t BEZS003. 36 PER PACK 
2X SCALE.CAT. NO. BEZ6048, 36 PEP PACK 

HEAD 

T0-5 

PAnERNS •° i »-< ^Q I f5 

IX SCALE.CAT. NO.t BEZ6029, 36 PER PACK 



wx. 



HEAD 

TO-5 

PAnERNS 



O 

o°o 



p • 



A 



X-ACTO KNIFE & BLADES^ 



Cat. No. EZ3101(X-ActoNo. 1) $1.50 

CM. Not BEZ3110 

(X-ActoNo. 16) \ 

5 blade pack $1.30 




Cat. No.t BEZ3108 ^__ _ 

(x-ActoNo. 11) ~^-^^aa^* r; ' r — > 

5 blade pack $1 .30 I 



m 



8X 
MAGNIFIER 



1 X SCALE, CAT. NO.t BEZ6021, 36 PER PACK 
2X SCALE. CAT. NO. BEZ6197, 32 PER PACK 



10LEAD 

T0-5 « , 

PAnERNS r^folft 

1X SCALE.CAT. NO.t BEZ6022. 36 PER PACK 
2X SCALE.CAT. NO. BEZ6198, 32 PER PACK 






12-LEAD 

T0-5 

PATTERNS 



t> o 



IX SCALE.CAT. NO.t BEZ6023. 36 PER PACK 
2X SCALE.CAT. NO. BEZ6203. 32 PER PACK 

BASIC PRINTED CIRCUIT 
SEQUENTIAL REFERENCE 
DESIGNATION KIT 



Set Sequence 

125" : .iyn {3.17 mm) 

CI t^C20 



CRKXR10 



U1t,,uU20 



Rl Thu R40 



QihuQ20 



Catalog Number 



No. of Seta 

Per Kll 



BEZ80051 $1.95 



SEQUENTIAL ALPHABET KIT 



Letter Characters 

125" High (3.17mm) 

A,E,l,O.R,T 



No. 01 

Each 

Letter 

Per Set 



No. ol 

Seta 

Per Kit 



Cat. 
No 



C,L,nJ,S,U 



D,G,H,M,P,Y 



B.F.J, K.Q.V.W.X.Z 



BEZ80451 
2 $1.95 



SEQUENTIAL NUMBERS KIT 

(120 Characters Per Kit) 



Set Numbers 

.126" High (3.17 mm) 



01234 



56789 



Catalog Number 



No. of Seta 
Per Kit 



BEZ80551 $1.95 



• Check PC Artwork & Boards 

CAT. NO. BEZ3520 $7.95 

DRAFTING AIDS 
POLYESTER ACCUFILM CIF*» 

iClear Inking Film) Ihe ideal film lot creadng 
precision PC artwork masters 

• Excellent surlace adtiesion 

• Dimensional stability 

• Protective anli static coating 

QUANTITY: 2 SHEETS PER PACKAGE 

8V2X11 11X17 17x22 
Sheet Size 12T.6* (27. 9x [43.2 

27,9cm) 43.2 cm) 559cm) 

Catalog No! BEZ1101 bezhio BEZ1116 



$ .85 $1.20 $1.95 



10x10 LINES/ 
IN. (.100" — 
2.54 mm) 
HEAVY 
ACCENT ON 
10TH LINE 



Polyester VALU-G RIDS 

Always use a background grid during primed circuit 
artwork and layoul preparation to insure maximum 
accuracy on the final circuit board Using a grid 
system facilitates the placement of components 
terminal areas (donut pads) and conductor traces 
on the layoul Most multiple lead components, such 
as dual in-line packages (DIPS) conform to standard 
grid increments 

Sheet Catalog Price 

Size Number Per Sheet 



8'/2"x11' BEZ10223 
(21. 6x 27 9cm) 



$ .95 



11"x 17" 

17 9x43.2 err 



BEZ10224 



1.55 



17"x22" BEZ10225 2 25 

(43 2 < 55 9 cm) 

ACCUPRINT DRAFTING 
and TRACING VELLUM PADS 

Use these handy sheets of Bishop's ACCUPRINT 
drafting vellum for preliminary printed cm 
artwork sketches and layouts 50-Sheet Pad 

SAME GRID PATTERN AS ABOVE 

Sheet Size Plain 10x10 GRID 

(Ungridded) Dropout Blue 

16# 0027" Thick 16# 0027" Thick 
(0.07mm) {0 07 mm) 



V2" X 11" 

I?(.6i27.9cml 



BEZ20207 

$ 6.45 



11"x17" 

(27 9x43. 2cm: 



BEZ20211 

$ 9 95 



BEZ20208 
$11 40 



INSERTION-TYPE CONNECTOR PATTERNS 

Strip* 
per Pack/ 
Contacts/ Catalog Strips/ 
Scale Strip Number Pack 



MULTI-PURPOSE PRESPACED PADS 



Center 



Center 
Spacing 



Center 



All strips 4" In length 



Center 
Spacing 



Use to speed tape-up for rows ot axial lead component 

pads or add DIP sizes 

Pad Type 



.100" 

|2.54mm| 



.125" 

1 3. 175 mm 



.156" 

l3 962mrr 



ir ir ir 



1X 



44 




2 
BEZ6805 

$1.95 



it- ir 1 1- 



2X 

1X 



22 

35 



"i r 



-II* 



1500 

-1 r 



5 

BEZ6809 

$1.95 

2 

BEZ6704 
$1.95 



.100" 

12 5« mrr 



-> r m 

0000000000000 



Scale 

1X 



Scale/ 
Pads 
Per 

Strip 

40 



Strips 
Per 

Pack 



Catalog 
Number 



J l~. 



4 

BEZS716 

$1.95 

3 

BEZ6708 

$1.95 



5 

BEZ6720 
$1.95 



.156" 

(3 96 mm 1 



¥000000 000000 





2X 

1X 



£"„„ 



2X 
2X 



6 


BEZ5003 
S1.95 


7 


BEZSOM 
11 95 


6 


8EZS017 
1195 


7 
6 


BEZ50H 
SIM 

BEZ5020 
J195 


7 

7 


BEZSOS1 
S 185 

BEZ5015 
11.95 



PLEASE BE SURE TO ORDER BY PART NUMBER ONLY! 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 31 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



NEW! Ii S -US MICROPROCESSOR 

Your Direct Route To Efficient, Creative and 

Cut The High Cost Of Creativity! Combine E-Z CIRCUIT'S COPPER 
ELECTRONIC PACKAGING & PROTOTYPING SYSTEM With E-Z 
CIRCUIT'S New E-Z BUS™ CARDS And Plug Unlimited Flexibility Into 
Your Microprocessor System — At A Remarkably LOW COST! 





E-Z CIRCUIT'S Unique New Pressure-Sensitive COPPER 
Printed Circuit Design System Lets You Create Your Own 
Printed Circuit Boards Quickly. Easily and Professionally 
. . Without Artwork, Photography. Or Etching! 

E-Z CIRCUIT'S Unique Copper PC Design System is an 
aerospace-proven concept in circuit packaging that lets 
you construct prototypes and limited quantity production 
printed circuit boards directly from engineering sketches 



and logic flow diagrams. Using this system, you can 
make production quality PC boards without artwork, 
photography, screening, etching, plating or any other 
production problems and time delays. 

The flexibility and simplicity of E-Z CIRCUIT'S Copper 
Printed Circuit Design System reduces construction time, 
facilitates problem solving, speeds design changes and 
insures a highly reliable, technically precise PC board 
prototype or microprocessor interface 



NEW! E-Z BUtf CARDS 

Plain Microprocessor Plugboards Designed To Permit Maximum Creativity In Program 
Experimentation, Interface Design, And Memory Expansion 



Want to build your own microprocessor interface 
without the hassle of modifying standard hard- 
ware 7 E-Z CIRCUIT'S plain, pre-shaped. pre- 
drilled microprocessor plugboards free your 
design of unnecessary contacts, etching, and 
other extras that cost you money, yet serve no 
purpose in your design! Using E-Z CIRCUIT'S new 
Bus Cards as a base, you build the precise micro- 
processor design, modem control, motor control 
or memory expansion you require, with cost, 
composition, quality and reliability completely 
under your control. 

We have an E-Z BUS™ Card specially designed to 
plug into your state-of-the-art microprocessor 
system. 

• Mount any combination of E-Z CIRCUIT™ 
pressure-sensitive copper dual-in-lines (DIPS), 
and E-Z CIRCUIT wrap post sockets plus 
transistors, resistors, capacitors, E/M or SS 
relays, terminals and switches. 

• Plain, non-etched surface allows unrestricted 
component placement and maximum flexibility 
for the implementation of your individual design 




.042" diameter holes on 0.1 " grid centers 
Precision pre-shaped for total compatability 
with microprocessor units specified 
Ideal for use with E-Z CIRCUIT'S pressure- 



sensitive Copper PC Design System or for 
soldering and wire wrapping applications using 
E-Z CIRCUIT'S standard hardware and 
accessories 



V^ 



80 — 32 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



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S0IN0H10313 3NO AllUOIUd 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




Model XIOOW's mini size and Finger-eze Hypo-Action permit direct multiple hookups to one pin, even 
with wire wraps. Connects vertically or horizontally. 



IMPORTANT ORDERING INFORMATION 

Most Items Available in 10 Retma Colors: 
BK- BLACK BR -BROWN RD - RED 

OR -ORANGE YE -YELLOW GN - GREEN 

BU-BLUE VT- VIOLET GY - GREY 

WH- WHITE S- ONE EACH OF ALL 10 COLORS 

COLOR: Must be replaced with one of the 
above ABBREVIATIONS. 




X100W MINI HOOK 

2.25' 

The X100W Mini-Hook combines all the proven 
features that have made all E-Z-Hook products the 
most used Test and Trouble Shooting Aids 
available. The concave Plunger configuration and 
built-in Washer provide tireless Finger-eze Hypo- 
Action tor fast, safe, short-free testing. Hook is 
large enough to span most component leads, yet 
small enough to get into tight places. Tough, for 
continued use production testing, yet so gentle, it 
will not damage delicate components. Insulated to a 
single contact point for true readings. 

EZH-X100W ■ COLOR $.98 

EZH-X1 00 w S - 1 ea. 1 colors $9.50 

JUMPER-MINI-HOOK TO MINI-HOOK 



SPECIFY 




Part Number 

EZH204I2-COLOR 
EZH20412-S I ea ID colors 
EZH204-24-CO!l)A 
EZH204-24-S 1 ea. 10 colors 
EZH204-36-C0L0R 
EZH204-36-S 1 ea. 10 colors 




MINI-HOOK TO STACKING BANANA PLUG 

32' 780cm 

EZH-201W-HDorBK $1.95 

MINI-HOOK TO MINIATURE BANANA PLUG 
EZH-CZIW-RD or BK $2.25 




MINI-HOOK to .025" (.635 mm) SQUARE SOCKET 
WITH HEAT SHRINK INSULATOR 



E-Z-LINK 

0.25" SQUARE SOCKET CONTINUOUS JUMPERS 

E-Z-Link Continuous Jumpers were designed to 
facilitate pre-testing back-panel layouts before final 
wire wrapping. Consisting of insulated ,025" 
(,635mm) Square Socket Connectors evenly spac- 
ed on 3' ' centers, E-Z-Links individually snap over 
standard wire wrapping pins to form any desired 
network. Eliminate costly in-plant measuring, strip- 
ping and crimping 
6ZH-L3025-BL or RD-pkg. ol 25 $19.95 



XM MICRO HOOK 



XPL PROBE CABLES 




1.75" 

The XM Micro Hook is designed for difficult IC test 
connections. Light weight (less than 1 gram) and 
Finger-eze Hypo Action permit direct hook up to 
delicate wires where weight and leverage may 
damage component. 

EZH-XM COLOR $.99 

EZH-XMS - 1 ea. 10 colors $9.60 

JUMPER-MICRO-HOOK 
TO MICRO-HOOK 



SPECIFY LENGTH 




XI OOW GROUND 




SPECIFY 
LENGTH 



BNC MALE TO BNC MALE, WEATHERPROOF, 
WITH STRAIN RELIEF BOOTS 



SPECIFY 
LENGTH 




Part Number 



EZH-XM- 1 2 COLOR 
EZH-XM- 1 2- S I ea. 10 colors 
EZH-XM-24-C0L0R 
EZH-XM 24-S 1 ea. ID colors 
EZH-XM-36-C0L0R 
EZH-XM-36-SI ea. 10 colors 



12 


$ 225 


12 


$21.50 


24 


$ 2.25 


24 


$21.50 


3fi 


$ 2.25 


38 


$21.50 



Cable:RG58C/U 
Part Number 

EZH-1026-24 
EZH-1026-36 
EZH-1026-48 



PRICE 



Wire Length 

Inches 

24 $6.50 

36 $6.50 

48 $6.50 




MICRO-HOOK TO STANDARD BANANA PLUG 

32"/80cm 



EZH-BXM-RD or BK $1.95 



TEST CABLE WALL BRACKET 

Deep Slots hold 
Test Cables for 
Easy Selection. 
Half slot on each end ■ 
end permits-mounting 
of two or more units 
side by side with no 
loss of space 
between racks. 

EZH-WB6 - S3 00 



Blftji 



/ 



VIMMH I l » l " 



BNC FEMALE TO BNC 



EZH 9220 $2.00 




BNC FEMALE TO UHF MALE ADAPTER 
EZH-9001 $3.6 



STANDARD BANANA PLUG 
EZH-9202-C0L0R pkg. 2 $1.20 

j :.":. I 

PANEL MOUNT STANDARD BANANA JACK 
EZH-9217-C0L0R pkg. 4 $2.00 



PART SUBSTITUTION CLIP 
EZH-71-l-BKpkg.2 $2.10 



£=Q 



SUM-LINE TEST CONNECTOR 

Slim Line Probe with lightweight construction. 
Screw on cover for ready access to repair or replace 
Internal circuitry nr connections. 
EZH-54-1-R0 or BK $1.95 



■ 



BNC FEMALE TO STANDARD DOUBLE 
BANANA PLUG ADAPTOR 



EZH-9225 $3.75 




flMMj . 



BNC FEMALE PANEL RECEPTACLE 
EZH-9230 $1.20 




BNC MALE CONNECTOR FOR RG58C/U CABLE 
EZH-8901 $1.75 






BNC T ADAPTOR - 2 FEMALE 
AND 1 MALE CONNECTORS 

EZH-9238 $4.95 




UHF MALE CONNECTOR FOR RG58C/U CABLE 
EZH-8911 $1.50 

I 



STACKING BANANA PLUG 
EZH-9203 RD or BK pkg. 2 $1.50 



STANDARD BANANA JACK 
EZH-9210 RO or BK pkg. 2 $1.50 




STACKING DOUBLE BANANA PLUG 



EZH-0B750 $2.10 



ALLIGATOR CLIP LEAD SETS 



10 color coded mini 

clip leads 15 inches 

long. 2 each red, green, 

yellow, black, and 

white. 
CAL-ACL 1015 S2.19 



10 color coded standard 

clip leads 15 inches 

long. 2 each red, green, 

yellow, black, and 

white. 

CAL-ACL-1015H $2.69 



80 — 34 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




ii 



» 




introducing the great new 

'Su per-Grip IT 

test clip from A P Products 

22 new models for troubleshooting DIP's safely and quickly 



CHECK THESE UNIQUE FEATURES: 



Naw "narrow nose' shape allows easy attachment on high 
density boards. Fits onto IC't with only .040" between 
opposing rows of leads. 

New "nail-head" pins keep probe 
hooks from sliding off ends. 



When we invented the original A P Super- 
Grip test clip in 1967, we thought it was perfect. . . 
but look at the improvements we've made! 

In the process, we've retained every invaluable 
design feature that assures ultra-reliable, non- 
shorting electrical connections with positive clamp- 
ing action. 

And here are more bonus features: 

■ Proven Alloy 770 contacts for optimum 
wiping action. 

■ New one-piece body for each DIP size. 
TC-14 fits 14-pin DIP, etc. 

■ Simplifies prototype and production 
testing, field service work, and Quality 
Control inspection. 



Steel pin and 
hinge design. 
Made to last! 



Heavy-duty, industrial- 
grade springs for firm 
contact pressure. 
They'll keep their 
spring indefinitely. 
No intermittents. 




Also available with long, 
headless, test lead pins for- 

attaching AP juniper Cable Both rows of contacts are the same length 
assemblies... < not offset) and do not have "nail-heads". 

STANDARD TEST CLIP 



Offset pin rows allow probes to hang 

free on longer pins in the top row and 
not interfere with shorter pins In the 
bottom row. 



New "open-nose" design now permits 
probe tip access at DIP leads. 



1 1 * ? f J®» f J 



"Contsct comb" fits between 
DIP leads — eliminating 
any possibilities of shorts. 




Rugged, engineering grade 
thermoplastic body molded 
around contact pins. 




us P m N«. fto 



another "Faster & Easier" innovation from 
AP PRODUCTS INCORPORATED 



^753 INTRA-CONNECTOR 



PROVIDES FULL 
ACCESS TO 
LINES . . . 
SAVES VALUABLE 
TIME TESTING 
FLAT RIBBON 
CABLE SYSTEMS 



* Permits quick testing 
of previously unprobe- 
sble circuits. 

■ Provides both straight 
in end right-angle func- 
tions. 

■ Metes with stsndard 

.10" x. 10" dual-row con- 
nectors. 



The A P Infra-Connector al 
lows immediate access to pre 
viously inaccessible lines. In 
use, the connector is inter- 
jected between mating system 
connectors to provide external 
pin contacts that can be 
probed individually or con- 
nected to another cable as- 
sembly; pins also can be used 
to facilitate daisy chaining 
from a single connector cable 
end. 

Two Intra-Connectors used 
in conjunction with the A P 
Intra-Swttch form a complete 
test assembly for probing sig- 
nals under no load and full 
load conditions. 

Contacts are non-corrosive 
alloy 770. Body is glass-filled 
polyester. 




PART NUMBER 


MODEL NUMBER 


ROW TO ROW 

SPACING 


1-49 


PRICING SCHEDULE 
60-99 100-249 


250-499 


APP 


923695 


TC-8 


.3 IN. 


$ 7.35 


$ 6.90 


$ 6.60 


$ 6.30 


APP 


923698 


TC-14 


.3 IN. 


$ 4.50 


$ 4.07 


S 3.82 


$ 369 


APP 


923700 


TC-16 


.3 IN. 


S 4.75 


$ 4.28 


$ 4.04 


$ 3.90 


APP 


923702 


TC-16LSI 


.5/6 IN. 


$ 8.95 


$ 8.40 


$ 8.05 


$ 7.70 


APP 


923703 


TCI 8 


.3 IN. 


J10.00 


$ 9.40 


$ 9.00 


$ 8.60 


APP 


923704 


TC-20 


.3 IN. 


SI 1.55 


SI 0.86 


$10.40 


$ 9.95 


APP 


923706 


TC-22 


.4 IN. 


$12.95 


$12.17 


$11.67 


$11.17 


APP 


923714 


TC24 


.5/.6 IN. 


$13.85 


$12.47 


$11 77 


SI 1.36 


APP 


923718 


TC-28 


.5/.6 IN. 


J15.25 


$14.35 


$13.75 


$13.10 


APP 


923720 


TC-36 


.5/6 IN. 


SI 9.95 


$18.75 


$17.95 


$17.15 


APP 


923722 


TC-40 


.5/.6 IN. 


$21.00 


$19,75 


$18.90 


$18.05 


PART NUMBER 


HEADLESS TEST CLIP 

PRICING SCHEDULE 
ROW TO ROW 
MODEL NUMBER SPACING 1-49 50-99 100-249 


250 499 


APP-923690-8 


LTC-8 


.3 IN. 


$ 7.35 


$ 6.90 


$ 6.60 


$ 6.30 


APP-92369014 


LTC-14 


.3 IN. 


$ 4.50 


$ 4.07 


$ 3.82 


$3.69 


APP-923690 16 


LTC-16 


.3 IN. 


S 4.75 


$ 4.28 


$ 4.04 


$ 3.90 


APP-923690-16L 


LTC16LSI 


.5/.6IN. 


$ 8.95 


$ 840 


$ 8.05 


$ 7.70 


APP 923690-18 


LTC-16 


.3 IN. 


$10.00 


$ 9.40 


$ 9.00 


$ 8.60 


APP-923690-20 


LTC-20 


.3 IN. 


$11.55 


$10.85 


$10.40 


$ 9.95 


APP-923690-22 


LTC-22 


.4 IN. 


$1295 


$12.17 


$11.67 


$11.17 


APP-92369024 


ITC-24 


.5/6 IN. 


$13.95 


$12.47 


$11.77 


$11.36 


APP-923690-28 


LTC-28 


.5/6 IN. 


$15.25 


$14.35 


$13.75 


$13.10 


APP-923690-36 


LTC-36 


.5/6 IN. 


$19.95 


$18.75 


$17.95 


$17.15 


APP-923690-40 


LTC-40 


.5/.6 IN. 


$21.00 


$19.75 


$18.90 


$18.05 





No. of Dim. 
Contacts "A" 



Part 
Number 



Model Price 
No. Each 



20 
26 
34 
40 
50 



1.160 APP-922576-20 

1.460 APP-922576-26 

1.860 APP-922576-3. 

2.160 APP-922576-4C 

2.660 APP-922576-50 



-\ «■ r 



iooivp 

t 



■ « 

• » 
it 



y 



IC-20 
IC-26 
IC-34 
IC-40 
IC-50 



TYP 



$6.00 
6.90 
8.10 
9.00 

10.50 



TVP 
MO TVP 



No. of Dim. 
Contacts "A" 



20 
26 
34 
40 
50 



XX 
XX 
XX 
XX 
XX 
XX 
XX' 
XX' 



INTRA-SWITCH 

ALLOWS ANY LINE 
TO BE OPENED OR 
CLOSED . . . 
ANOTHER TIME 
SAVER IN TESTING 
FLAT RIBBON 
I CABLE SYSTEMS 



■ Permits instant line-by- 
line switching for diag 
nostic or QA testing. 

■ Switches ectusted with 
pencil or probe tip. 

■ Metes with stendsrd 
.10' x. 10" dual-row con- 
nectors. 

The A P Intra Switch allows 
opening and closing any num- 
ber of lines, individually, at 
system interconnection 
points. Applications include 
switching command signals to 
control boards as well 
switching I/O signals to or 
from test equipment and for 
programming optional preset 
logic functions. 

Design features include: 
low profile for use in confined 
areas, switch buttons reces 
sed in face of covers to elimi- 
nate accidental switching, and 
position "1" identification. 

Wiping action and spherical 
detents maximize contact in 
tegrity. 

An Intra-switch used ir 
conjunction with two A P In 
tra-Connectors form a com 
plete test assembly for pro 
bing signals under no load and 
full load conditions. 

Contacts are non-corrosive 
alloy 770. Body is glass-filled 
polyester. 




Part 
Number 



1.160 
1.460 
1.860 
2.160 
2.660 



APP-922578-2C 
APP-922578-2C 
APP-922578-34 
APP-922578-40 
APP-922578-50 



Model 


Price 


No. 


Each 


IS-20 


$12.00 


IS-26 


13.80 


IS-34 


16.20 


IS-40 


18.00 


IS-50 


21.00 



_I7 



2*0 4O0 



- r- OWTVP 



« 



-~r tit. 



Lff 



= TVP 

1 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



BYTE November 1980 80 — 35 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



m 



DIP 
JUMPERS 

FLAT RIBBON CABLE 
ASSEMBLIES WITH 
DIP CONNECTORS 

• Available with 14, 16, 24 and 
40 contacts. 

• Mate with standard IC sockets. 

• Fully assembled and tested. 

• Integral molded-on strain 
relief. 

• Discrete test points for line- 
by-line probeability. 



CALL FOR QTY. PRICING 




SINGLE-ENDED 
DIP JUMPERS 



No. 
Contacts 


Length 
36" 


14 


APP-924102-36 
$3.49 


IS 


APP-9241 12-36 

53.69 


24 


APP-9241 22-36 
BUM 



A P DIP Jumpers are the low-cost, high-quality solution tor 
jumpering within a PC board; interconnecting between PC boards, 
backplanes and motherboards; interfacing Input/ Output signals; 
and more. 

All assemblies use rainbow cable. Standard lengths are 6, 12. 18, 24 
and 36 inches. 



« APP-924132-36 

40 $10.09 

DOUBLE-ENDED DIP JUMPERS 



■a 
CortKU 


Lmgth 

r 


Lwiglh 


Lsngth 

ir 


Lmjtti 
24" 


length 
J6" 


H 


APP-9Z410W 
CM 


APP-924I06-I? 
S3 96 


APP-92410J-1S 
HI 9 


APP424106-Z4 
K49 


APP-92410636 

M 


IB 


APP4Z41IM 

tug 


APP-02411612 


4PP-924I16I8 
S4M 


APP-9241 16-24 
SABS 


APP-9241 1636 
tS49 


14 


APP424IZH 

ait 


»PP 9241261! 
SM9 


APP-9241 2S-I I 
1719 


APP024I 26-24 

17 69 


APP-9241 2639 

tug 


40 


APP4241JW 

Stan 


APP-924I3M2 
III IS 


APP 92413618 
112.1)9 


APP-B24 136-24 
112.99 


APP-924I36J6 
11479 



m 



i A 



A P PRODUCTS INCORPORATED 
FLAT RIBBON 
CABLE ASSEMBLIES 

• Choice of 3 types of end connectors molded on and 
factory tested. 

• Daisy chain and single-end also available. 

• 5 popular sizes to choose from: 20, 26, 34, 40 and 50 
contacts, each with line-by-line probe access holes. 

• Choice of 2 cable types and 5 lengths. 
FLAT RIBBON CABLE 

Stranded, 28 AWG with laminated PVC insulation. 

"Electric Pink" cable has red stripe on one edge for 
orientation. Used only on double-end and daisy chain 
assemblies. 

"Rainbow" cable is coded in standard 10-color 
sequence on front. Serpentine striping on back aids 
in identifying wire number and wire group during tear 
down separation for discrete wire terminations. Used 
only on single-end jumpers. 



/ 



CARD-EDGE JUMPERS 

Mates with double-sided 
V16" PC board up to 
2.050" wide with contact 
fingers on .100" centers. 
Probe access holes in 
back. 



CARD-EDGE JUMPERS 

DOUBLE END SINGLE END DAISY CHAIN 

Electric Pink Rainbow 13 connKlortl 

Electric Pink 

r ar r 



APP-924052-06-1) APP 924062-36 B APP 924092 06 fl 
88.89 J64J 813.29 



APP-924053-06-8 APP 924063-36-R APP92409306P 
89.99 1759 II4J9 



APP -924064-06-8 APP-924064-38-8 APP 924094068 
81239 SOS) 818.49 



/ 



APP-924055-06-B APP-9240S5J8-B APP 924086O8-R 
814.46 811-19 821.89 



APP 92405606R APP 924066-36 8 APP-924096O6-8 
81589 812.79 82349 



SOCKET JUMPERS 

Mates with .025" square 
or dia. posts spaced on 
patterns of .100" centers. 
Probe access holes in 
back. 

SOCKET JUMPERS 

DOUBLE EN0 JUMPER ASSEMBLIES 
Stearic Pink Cibli 



SINSLE END 
flllnbow 



DAIST CHAIN 
[3 connsclonj 
Hiclrlc Pink 



APP 924002-06-8 APP 924002-168 APP 924002 36-8 APP 924012-36-8 APP924072O6B 
84W 8609 8659 KM 8739 



APP 9240034)6-8 APP 924003 18-8 APP 924003-368 APP 92401336-8 APP 924073-06 R 
88-49 J72? 865J J6M 8969 

APP 924004-068 APP 924004 18R APP92400436B APP92401436B APP-92407M6-8 
8649 SIM ill 19 88.29 812.69 



APP 924005-068 APP 924005 18-8 APP 924005-369 APP924016368 APP 924075-068 
89.99 $1L5» 8J2M 8069 814.89 



APP 924006-06H APP-924006IB-B APP-92400636-B APP-ffiWKHS-n APP-924076O8-B 
812.39 813.99 816.29 811.99 818.49 



double-row 
JUMPER HEADERS 



'''MALE and FEMALE 



Ideal mates for "GREAT JUMPERS" 



Solder to PC boards 
for instant plug-in 
access via socket- 
connector jumpers 

.025" square posts are 
molded into plastic 
header strip on a 
.10" x .10" matrix 

Choice of straight 
or right angle con- 
figurations 




MATERIALS: Dielectric is thermoplastic polyester, unaffected bv wave 
soldering or board cleaning solvents. Posts are fabricated from copper 
alloy 




HEADERS 



FEMALE HEADERS 

■ Mate with matrices of .025" square 
or round posts on .100" centers 

■ Ideal as single and dual-row cable 
connectors for back panels and 
patchboard matrices 

■ 36 "tuning fork" contacts per row 
in rugged nylon header strip 

■ May be "cut-to-length" for shorter 
rows of contacts 

■ Single and dual-row strips available 

Female A P Headers are siackable to 
maintain .100-inch row !o-row spacing. 
Solder tails are sized for PC board mount 
inq or cable attachment. Built-in stand 
oils facilitate wave soldering and board 
cleaning. Dual-row headers are ultra- 
sonically welded at the factory. 



STRAIGHT 



No. 
Posts 



aim. 

"A" 



Dim. 



Part 
Number 



Price 
2 sets 



100 TYP - - 



WnrtlTuTlTTTtrT 



4 



zo 

26 
34 
40 

so 



RIGHT ANGLE 




No. 
Posts 



1.0 
1.3 
1.7 
2.0 
2.5 



Dim 
"A" 



0.9 
1.2 
1.6 
1.9 
2.4 



APP-923862-R 
APP-923B63-R 
APP-923864-R 
APP-923865-R 
APP-923866-R 



Pari 
Number 



SI. 59 
$1.89 
$2.39 
$2.79 
$3.39 



Price 
2 sets 



20 
26 
34 
40 
50 



1.0 
1.3 
1.7 
2.0 
2.5 



0.9 
1.2 
1.6 
1.9 
2.4 



APP 923872 R $1.89 

APP-923873-R $2.39 

APP-923874-R $2.99 

APP-923875R $3.49 

APP-923876-R $4.29 



Tvpical application: board-to-board interconnection. 

MALE HEADERS-STRAIGHT & RIGHT ANGLE 
For economical attachment of complete matrices of .025" 
square posts to PC boards to serve as male contacts for 
interconnection systems 

Ideal for mating with single and dual-row female con- 
nectors; also use as patch-board for discrete, single- 
position connections 

■ 36 posts per row — molded into nylon header strip 
Break-to-length" feature allows making short rows 

Male A P Headers are stackable to maintain .100 inch row-to-row 
spacing. All may be wire wrapped on reverse side of PC board. 
Built-in stand-offs facilitate wave soldering and board cleaning. 
Dual-row headers are ultrasonically welded at the factory. 

MATERIALS 

DIELECTRIC: Thermoplastic 

polyester. 
POSTS: Full-hard copper 

alloy 770. 




FBmale Rows Part No. Price Ea. 






1 


APP-929974 


$1.49 




2 


APP-929975 


$3.09 


MODELS for wire wrapping 




Male 1600) Rows 


Part No. 


Price Ea. 


Straight 


1 


APP-929834-0S 


$2.29 


Straight 


2 


APP 929836-05 


$4.59 


Rl angle 


1 


APP-929835-03 


$2.09 


Rl angle 


2 


APP-929838-03 


$4.59 


7ar7 length shown as (.600) in drawings. 


Male 1.1001 


Rows 


Pari No. 


Price Ea. 



Straight 1 APP-929834-01 $1.09 

Straight 2 APP-929636-01 $2.29 

RL angle 1 APP-929835-01 $1.29 

fit angle 2 APP-929838-01 $2.99 



80 — 36 



BYTE November 1980 



CALL FOR QUANTITY PRICING 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




Introducing 

POWERACE 

Use a POWERACE for faster and easier 
prototyping of all types of electronic circuits 

• 1680 sotderless. plug-In tie points.. .will hold up to 18 14-pin DIP't. 

• Breadboard elements accept all DIP sizes.. .including RTL. DTL, TTLand CMOS devices, 
TO-5's and discretes with leads up to .032" dla. 

• All connections to/from switches. Indicators, power supplies and meters are made via 
solderless, plug-in, tie-point blocks on control panels. 

• Interconnect with any solid 20 to 30 AWG wire. 

• Breadboard elements are mounted on ground planes... ideal for high-frequency and 
high-speed/low-noise circuits. 

• Short-circuit-proof fused power supplies. 

• Operate on 110 to 130 VAC at 60 Hz. 

• Space-age compact styling and high-grade components permit convenient, organized 
and quick prototyping. SHIPPING WEIGHT - 4 LBS^ 




POWERACE 103 
APP-923103 



POWERACE 101 

APP-923101 



POWERACE 102 

APP-923102 



$124.95 $79.95 $124.95 



Triple-output power 
supply for prototyp- 
ing both linear and 
digital circuits. 



The general purpose 
model for prototyp- 
ing all types of 

cimujts. 



The complete digital 
prototyping lab with 
FREE logic probe 
built in! 



An inree of these brand new POWERACE mooeis 
offer a new dimension In convenience lor fast solder- 
less, circuit building and testing. 

In addition to built in power supplies, each model 
incorporates two ol the famous AP Products Super 
Strip universal plug-in breadboards. (See Super 
Strip page lor complete details.) Combined, they 
provide 16 distribution buses of 25 lie points per 

POWERACE 101 

POWER SUPPLY is required and adjustable from 
•5 to +15 VDC at 600 mA. Ripple/noise is 
elO mV at lull load. Line and load regula- 
tion is s£3'/ti. 

METER is built in 0-15 VOC. Inputs are accessible 
at lie point blocks on control panel which 
allows monitoring of power supply or cir- 
cuits. Meter accuracy is 5% of full scale. 

POWERACE 103 

TRIPLE-OUTPUT POWER SUPPLY has outputs of 
+5 VDC at 750 mA; +15 VDC at 250 mA: and 
-15 VOC at 250 mA. Ripple/noise is 10 
mV at lull toad for all outputs. Line and load 
regulation is t;l% lor all outputs, i 15-volt 
outputs track. 

METER is built in 15-0-15 VDC. Input is accessible 
at tie-point blocks on control panel which 
allows monitoring of power supply or cir- 
cuits. Meter accuracy is 5 D o ol full scale. 

TWO LOGIC INDICATORS (LED s| have buffered 
inputs that require 1 microamp max. 

TWO LOGIC SWITCHES, momentary, with 
denounce circuitry. Both Q and Q outputs 
can sink 15 mA. and source 5 mA. 

TWO DATA SWITCHES with logic 1 and logic 
outputs have unlimited sinking capabilities 
and can source 10 mA. 



bus. These may be jumpered in groups as desired 
and used for voltage and ground distribution, reset 
lines, clock lines, shift command, etc. The remaining 
1280 tie points are for plugging in circuit com- 
ponents and jumper wires. 

As a bonus, a free logic probe is incorporated Into 
model 102. 

POWERACE 102 
POWER SUPPLY is regulated +5 VDC at 1 amp. 
Ripple/noise Is -sJO mV at lull load. Line 
and load regulation is =sl%. 
PULSE DETECTION WITH MEMORY is built-in. 
Will detect positive or negative going pulses 
as short as 10 nanoseconds. Memory is 
reset by momentary switch on control panel. 
THREE LOGIC INDICATORS |LED's| have buffered 
Inputs that require 1 microamp max. 

FREE LOGIC PROBE the above pulse 

detection with memory plus logic 
indicator features constitute a tree, 
built-in logic probe 1 

TWO LOGIC SWITCHES, momentary, with 
debounce circuitry. Both Q and Q outputs 
can sink 15 mA. and source 5 mA. 

FOUR DATA SWITCHES with logic 1 or logic 
outputs have unlimited sinking capabilities 
and can source 10 mA. 

CLOCK GENERATOR has the following frequencies 
available: 1 Hz. 10 Hz. 100 Hz, 1 KHz. 10 KHz 
and 1 00 KHz with a 50% duty cycle. C output 
will sink 15 mA and source 5 mA. C output 
will sink or source 50 mA. 

ONE-SHOT PULSE GENERATOR has output of 7 ms 
pulse, positive or negative going. Both Q 
and Q outputs can sink 15 mA and source 
400 microamps. 




§NK SUPER-STRIPS 

UNIVERSAL BREADBOARDING ELEMENTS 
WITH SOLDERLESS PLUG-IN TIE POINTS 

I 1 ■ '" I t 




■ Combine distribution system with 

universal .1" x .1" matrix 

■ 840 solderless. plug-in tie-points 

• Accommodates up to 9 14-pin DIPs 

■ Compatible with all DIP's and dis- 
cretes with lead diameters to .032" 

■ Require no special patch cords 

The A P Super-Strips combine a power/sig- 
nal distribution system with a matrix of 128 ter- 
minals, each with 5 tie points. The distribution 
system consists of eight buses, each individual 
bus consisting of a line of 25 tie points. All tie 
points are the solderless, plug-in type of the 
same design used on A P Terminal Strips and 
A' P Distribution Strips. 



The Super Strip will accept all DIP'S, TO-5's 
and discrete components with lead diameters 
up to .032 inches. As many as nine 14-pin DIP's 
can be accommodated. Any solid wire up to 
No. 20 A.W.G. can be used for interconnec- 
tions. 

Super-Strips may be permanently mounted 
with the integral non-shorting instant-mount- 
ing backing, or for quick removal, they may be 
mounted with screws (supplied) on panels up 
to 1/8" thick. Hardware and mounting tem- 
plates are provided with every strip Body ma- 
terial is acetal copolymer. 

SS-2 (Alloy 770 terminals! A PA 923252 $17.00 

SS-1 IGold-plated terminals) APA-923748 $29.95 




TERMINAL and DISTRIBUTION STRIPS 



Model 2641 Terminal Strip, 

AP^92326t......tlfJB 

Model 212B Distribution Strip, 
24 four-tie point terminals, 

APP-923277 $2.50 






Modet 248L Terminal Strip, 
96 five tie point terminals, 

APP-923265 S10.00 

BREADBOARDING 
BUILDING BLOCKS WITh 
UNIVERSAL MATRICES 

OF SOLDERLESS APP-923281 $2.25 

PLUG-IN TIE-POINTS 



'..,.'.:":: 



.I209RDKT 



mon Smp. 






Model 264R Terminal Strip, 
128 (our-tie point terminals 

APP-923289 $10.00 

Mode) 1540 Terminal Strip 
54 four tie point Terminals 

APP-923291 $6.00 

Model 606R Distribution Smp, 
36 four tie-point terminals, 

APP-923293 $3.50 






K::B:jl\ ===!:=== * ^■l*iv!^*\\m<-l ■ 




JUMPER WIRE KIT 

Each kit contains 350 wires cut to 
14 different lengths from 0.1 " to 5.0." 

Each wire is stripped and the 
leads are bent 90° for easy insertion. 

Wire length is classified by color 
coding. 

All wire is solid tinned 22 gauge 
with PVC insulation. 

The wires come packed in a 
convenient plastic box. 



_B APP-92335I JK-1 . . . $10.95 

■ 




for fast, 

solderless, 



All-Circuit 
Evaluator 



plug-in circuit 



building and testing 



Just plug in any components with leads to .032" dia. Inte 
connect with solid wire up to 20 ga. Assembled models too 



Part 


ACE 


Tit 


DIP 


No. 


No. 


Board Size 


Price ^^^. 


No. 


Model No. 


Points 


Capacity 


Buses 


Posts 


(inches) 


Each ^ 


APP-923333 


200-K (kit) 


728 


8(16's) 


2 


2 


4-9/16x5-9/16 


$18.95 


APP923332 


208 (assem.) 


872 


8(16's) 


8 


2 


4-9/16x5-9/16 


28.95 


APP-923334 


20I-K (kit) 


1032 


12 (14's) 


2 


2 


16x7 


24.95 


APP-92333I 


2I2 (assem.) 


1224 


12 (14s) 


8 


2 


4-9/16 x 7 


34.95 


APP-923326 


218 (assem) 


1760 


18 (14s) 


10 


2 


6-1/2x7-1/8 


46.95 


APP-923325 


227 (assem.) 


2712 


27 (14's) 


28 


4 


8x9-1/4 


59.95 


APP-923324 


236 (assem ) 


3648 


36(14's) 


36 


4 


10-1/4x9-1/4 


79.95 




Gold-anodized aluminum base/ 


ground; non-corrosive nickel-si 


ver terminals: 4 rubber feet- 


SHIPPING WEIGHT 




ACE • 



Model 
236 



CA, AK, HI, CALL (213) 894-8171 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 37 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



PROTO-BOARD^ UNITS 

All the speed and convenience of GT sockets and Bus 
Strips plus backplanes and binding posts in both kits and 
preassembled units. Assemble, test and modify circuits as 
fast as voucan think;. 




• IS COntlMtltKl SMCWITHS OOHTOMTKM 



PROTO-BOARD PB-6 KIT- 
HOLDS 10, 14 PIN IC'S 

Contains one preassembled QT-47S socket, two pre- 
assembled QT-47B bus strips, tour binding posts, metat 
ground/base plate, non-marring feet and all hardware. Ten 
minute assembly time. Size: 6" I, x 4" w. x 1,4" h. Weight: 
7 ozs. 
GSCPB6 $19.95 

PROTO-BOARD PB-100 KIT- 
HOLDS 10, 14 PIN IC'S 

Contains two preassembled QT-35S sockets, one pre- 
assembled QT-35B bus strip, two binding posts, non-me- 
tallic base plate, non-marring feet and all hardware. Ten 
minute assembly time. Size: 4.5" w. x 6" I, x 1,4" h. 
Weight: 7.5 ozs 
GSCPBIOO-Complete $21.95 

PROTO-BOARD PB-101- 
HOLDS10, 14 PIN IC'S 

Fully assembled breadboard contains two QT-35S sockets 

and four QT-35B bus strips mounted on metal ground/base 

plate with non-marring feet. Excellent for audio and small 

digital projects. Size: 6.0" I. x 4.5" w. x 1.4" h. Weight: 9 

ozs. 

GSCPB101 $25.00 

PROTO-BOARD PB-102- 
HOLDS12, 14 PIN IC'S 

Fuliy assembled breadboard contains two QT-47S sock- 
ets, three QT-47B bus strips and one QT-35B bus strip on a 
metal ground/base plate with non-marring feet. Excellent 
tor intermediate digital needs Size: 7.4" I. x 4.5" w, x 1.4" 
h Weight: 10 ozs. 
GSCPB102 $30.00 

PROTO-BOARD PB-103- 
H0LDS24, 14 PIN IC'S 

Fully assembled breadboard contains three QT-59S sock- 
ets, four QT-59B and one QT-47B bus strip, four binding 
posts on a metal ground/base plate with non-marring feet. 
Build calculators, interfaces, networks, etc. Size: 9" I. x 6" 
w. x 1.4" h. Weight: 21 ozs. 
GSCPB103 $50.00 

PROTO-BOARD PB-104- 
H0LDS32, 14 PIN IC'S 

Fully assembled breadboard contains four QT-59S sock- 
ets, seven QT-59B bus strips and four binding posts on a 
metal ground/base plate with non-marring feet. Build a 
CPU. encoder, complex display, etc. Size: 9.8" I x 8 " w x 
1.4" h. Weight: 29 ozs. 
GSCPB104 $66.00 



PROTO-BOARD PB-203- 
HOLDS24, 14 PIN IC'S 

Fully assembled breadboard contains built-in, short-proof, 
fused, 5 VDC at 1 amp, regulated power supply, in addition 
to three QT-59S sockets, four QT-59B bus strips, one 
QT-47B bus strip and four binding posts. Capacity for most 
digital and many analog projects. Size: 9.75" I. x 6.6" w. x 
3.25" h. Weight: 5 lbs. 
GSCPB203 $105.00 

PROTO-BOARD PB-203A 

Provides all the features of Proto-Board PB-203 with addi- 
tional + 15 and -15 VDC at 0.5 Amp power supplies with 
internally ad|ustable output voltages. Size: Same as 
PB-203. Weight: 5 5 lbs 
GSCPB203A $160.00 

PROTO-BOARD KIT PB-203AK 

Kit version of Model PB-203A. Kit contains all components 
of model PB-203A plus solder, hook-up wire and easy-to- 
follow instructions. Weight: 5.5 lbs. 
GSCPB203AK $136.00 



QUICK TEST SOCKETS AND BUS STRIPS 

Universal breadboarding system eliminates the soldering 
iron. QT sockets provide terminals, each consisting of five 
pre-connected tie-points, running across the width of the 
socket. QT bus strips consist of two rows of connected tie- 
points (in groups of five) which run the length of the bus 
strip. All QT sockets and bus strips are molded of high- 
temperature plastic so that leads and wires can be sol- 
dered while plugged in. Specially engineered, large- 
aperture holes guide leads into contacts easily and 
effortlessly. Contacts are pre-stressed, spring-loaded, 
non-corrosive, nickel silver alloy. Average contact resis- 
tance is 5 milliohm initially; 0.4 milliohm after use Any 
diameter lead from .015" to .032" may be used. All QT 
units are .33" thick: all sockets are 1.32" wide; all bus 
strips are .36" wide. Units mount with 4-40 flat-head 
screws from the front or 6-32 self-tapping screws from the 
rear. QT units feature unique snap/lock mechanism which 
mates units together in seconds to expand or contract a 
breadboard system at will. 



*m§ 


9fi=* 


QT-59S 
QT-59B 
QT-47S 
QT-47B 
QT-35S 
QT-35B 




■:: '.':«£$£* 




•ssass 


4 va =<■.: sk an «• «,:: tat mm 






. „■■!,-„-„ „-, ,„. „ 






• : :. :••*•> : : : •••.'•. • 






'•'-v* 

*«SK SKJittS KiS IKfl iSKJ KM KJR» 






w* 






*■' I: :■■■':■ '■ * 






• !§ll5|pf;;; . • 




CSC 
No. 

GSC-QT-59S 
GSC-QT-47S 
GSC-QT-35S 

GSC-QT-59B 
GSC-QT-47B 
GSC-QT-35B 


•KBi »JB .RSf KJK KST MJE*, 

Mtg. 
Length Dimen.. 
Ins. Ins. 
QT SOCKETS 

65 6.2x0.7 
5.3 5.0x0.7 
4.1 3.8x0.7 
QT BUS STRIPS 

6.5 6.2x0.7 
5.3 5.0x07 
41 3.8x0.7 


Price 

$12.95 
9.75 
7.25 

2.75 
2.50 

2.20 





EXPERIMENTOR 
BREADBOARDING SOCKETS 

Solderless breadboarding sockets accept DIP'S, transis- 
tors, LEDs, resistors, capacitors, and most all types of 
discrete components, as well as #22-30 solid hookup wire. 
An interlocking system permits boards to be snapped 
together for optimum configuration for any circuit. Sockets 
are molded of durable, abrasion resistant material and 
feature prestressed, nickel-silver contacts, A vinyl plastic 
backing prevents shorts when sockets are mounted on 
metallic surfaces. Tie-points are alphanumerically identi- 
fied for faster wiring and circuit tracing. Sockets can be 
used loose or fastened to a mounting surface. 
EXPERIMENTOR EXP-300— With 0.3" center channel 
spacing to fit the smaller DIP'S. Size, %" d. x 2.1" w. x6" Ig. 

GSCEXP300 $12.00 

EXPERIMENTOR EXP-350-With 0.3" center channel 
spacing to fit the smaller DIP'S. Size W d. x 2.1" w. x3.6" Ig. 

GSCEXP350 6.75 

EXPERIMENTOR EXP-325-With 0.3" center channel 
spacing to fit the smaller DIP'S. Size 3 /s" d. x 2.1" w. x 1.66" Ig. 

GSCEXP-325 3-50 

EXPERIMENTOR EXP-600-With 0.6" center channel 
spacing to fit the larger DIP'S. Size 3 *" d. x2.4" w. x6" Ig. 

GSCEXP600 14.75 

EXPERIMENTOR EXP-650-With 0.6" center channel 
spacing to fit the larger DIP'S. Size 3 /s" d. x 2.4" w. x 3.6" Ig. 

GSCEXP650 8.75 

EXPERIMENTOR EXP-4B-With 40-point bus strips. Size, 

%" d. x1.0" w, X6.0" Ig, 

GSCEXP4B 4.75 



EXPERIMENTOR 
SCRATCHBOARD™ WORKPADS 

Start breadboarding even before parts are assembled Or, 
sketch a working breadboard and save it for later. Pre- 
printed pads of paper with a light blue breadboard hole 
pattern give you a head start. 

EXPERIMENTOR MATCHBOARD' M 
Go from breadboard to finished PC board non-stop. Pre- 
drilled, pre-etched, copper-clad PC boards speed the 
work. The component side is silk-screened with alpha- 
numeric index. 

EXP-300P-One Matchboard, Net Each $2.70 

EXP-302— Three 50-sheet Scratchboard workpads. 

Net each $3.30 

EXP-303-Two Matchboards and one EXP-300 Bread- 
board. Net Each $16.00 

EXP-304-Two Matchboards, one EXP-300 Breadboard 
and one Scratchboard. Net Each 17.00 




LOGIC PROBES 

CSC logic probes are the ultimate tools for digital design 
and testing. These hand-held units provide an instant 
overview of circuit conditions. Simple to use: just clip 
power leads to circuit's power supply, set logic family 
switch to TTL/DTL or CMOS/HTL. Touch probe to test 
node. Trace logic events and pulses through digital cir- 
cuits. Even stretch and latch for easy pulse detection- 
Instant recognition of high, low or invalid levels, open 
circuits and nodes. Simple, dual-level detector LED s tell it 
quickly, correctly. HI (Logic "1"); LO (Logic "0"J. Also 
incorporates blinking pulse detector, e.g., HI and LO LEDs 
blink on or off, tracking "1" or "0" states at square wave 
frequencies up to 1.5 MHz. Pulse LED blinks during pulse 
transition. Choice of three models to meet individual re- 
quirements; budget, project and speed of logic circuits. 

LP-1 LOGIC PROBE— Hand-held logic probe provides 
instant reading of logic levels for TTL. DTL, HTLorCMOS. 
Input Impedance: 100,000 Ohms. Min. Detectable 
Pulse: 50 ns. Max. Input Signal (Frequency): 10 MHz. 
Pulse Detector (LED): High speed train or single event. 
Pulse Memory: Pulse or level transition detected and 
stored. GSCLP1 $50.00 

LP-2 LOGIC PROBE-Economy version of Model LP-1. 
Safer than a voltmeter. More accurate than a scope. Input 
Impedance: 300,000 Ohms. Min. Detectable Pulse: 300 
ns. Max. Input Signal (Frequency): 1.5 MHz. Pulse De- 
tector (LED): High speed train or single event. Pulse 

Memory: none. GSCLP2 $28.00 

GSLP3— High speed logic probe. Captures pulses as 
short as 10 ns. Input Impedance: 500,000 Ohms. Mini- 
mum Detectable Pulse: 6 ns. Max. Input Signal (Fre- 
quency): 60 MHz. Pulse Detector (LED): High speed 
train or single event. Pulse Memory: Pulse or level transi- 
tion detected and stored. GSCLP3 $77.00 




DIGITAL PULSER 



The ultimate in speed and ease of operation. Simply con- 
nect clip leads to positive and negative power, then touch 
DP-1's probe to a circuit node: automatic polarity sensor 
detects circuit's high or low condition. Depress the push- 
button and trigger an opposite polarity pulse into the cir- 
cuit. Fast, troubleshooting includes injecting signals at key 
points in TTL, DTL, CMOS or other popular circuits. Test 
with single pulse or 100 pulses per second via built-in dual 
control pushbutton button selects single shot or continu- 
ous modes. LED indicator monitors operating modes by 
flashing once for single pulse or continuously for a pulse 
train. Completely automatic, probe-size lab/field pulse 
generator for any family of digital circuits. Output: Tn- 
state. Polarity: Pulse-sensing auto-polarity. Sync and 
Source: 100 mA. Pulse Train: 100 pps. LED Indicator: 
Flashes for single pulse; stays lit for pulse train. 
GSCDP1 $83.00 




LOGIC MONITOR 

Trace signals through all types of digital circuits. Unit clips 
over any DIP IC up to 16 pins. Each of its 16 contacts 
connects to a single-bit level detector that drives a high- 
intensity, numbered LED readout activated when the ap- 
plied voltage exceeds a fixed 2 V threshold. Logic "1" turns 
LED on; logic "0" keeps LED off. A power-seeking gate 
networks automatically locates supply leads and feeds 
them to the LM-1's internal circuitry. Saves minutes, even 
hours in design troubleshooting, debugging of equipment. 
Voltage Threshold: 2 V ±0.2 V Input Impedance: 
100,000 Ohms. Input Voltage Range: 4-15 V max. across 
any two or more inputs. Current Drain: 200 mA at 10 V. 
Size: 4" I. x2" w. x1.75" d. whenopen. Weight: 3 ozs. 
GSCLMI $60.00, 



80 — 38 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 





LOGICAL ANALYSIS KITS 

The increasing use and complexity of digital logic has 
created the need for portable and compact test equipment. 
The Logical Analysis Kits contain design/test/ 
troubleshooting instruments that detect and locate logic 
problems, as well as component or mechanical failures, 
down to a specific IC pin. The Logic Pulser (the source) 
and the Logic Probe or Logic Monitor (detectors) instantly 
provide static and dynamic logic state analyses. These 
portable compact units save time in all phases of digital 
work. 

GSC Model LTC-1 Logical Analysis Kit— Complete with 
LP-1 logic Probe, DP-1 Logic Pulser, LM-1 Logic Monitor, 
wiring accessories, manuals and molded case. . $220.00 
GSC Model LTC-2 Logical Analysis Kit— For high-speed 
and memory analysis. Same as Model LTC-1, except sub- 
stitutes LP-3 High-Speed Logic Probe $250.00 




MAX100 100MHZ 
FREQUENCY COUNTER 

Specifications. 

Frequency Range: 20 Hz to 100 MHz guaranteed; 110 
MHz typical. Gate Time: 1 sec. Resolution: 1 Hz. Accu- 
racy: ±1 count ± time base error. Input Impedance: 1 
Magohm shunted by 56pR Coupling: AC. Sine Wave 
Sensitivity: 30 mV RMS at 50 MHz. Internal Time Base 
Frequency: 3.579545 MHz crystal oscillator. Stability: 
±3 ppm at 25°C. Temperature Stability: Better than 0.2 
ppm/°C, 0-50°C Max. Aging: 10 ppm/year. Display: Eight 
0.6" LED digits. Lead-Zero Blanking: Decimal point ap- 
pears between 6th and 7th digit when input exceeds 1 
MHz. Overflow: With signals over 99,999,999 Hz, most 
significant (left hand) digit flashes, allowing readings in 
excess of 100 MHz. Display Update: 1/6 sec. plus 1 sec. 
gate time. Low Battery Indicator: When battery supply 
falls below 6.6 VDC, all digits flash at 1 Hz. Power Re- 
quired: Internal, 6 "AA" cells; external, 110 or 220 VAC 
charger/eliminator, auto cigarette lighter adapter or 7.2-10 
VDC external supply. Battery Charging: 12-14 hrs. Size: 
1.75"h. x 5.63" w. x 7.75" d. Weight: Less than 1.5 lbs. 
with batteries 

CSC Model MAX-100 Frequency Counter- $149.00 



MAX-100 ACCESSORIES 

GSC 100-CA1-100 VAC Charger/eliminator 12.45 

GSC 100-IPC— Input cable with clip leads 7.45 

GSC Model PS-500 Prescaler-500 MHz 10:1 70.00 

GSC 100-CC— Carrying case 12.45 





MAX-50 FREQUENCY COUNTER 

A mini-sized, hand-held frequency counter featuring the 
latest LSI circuitry and advanced engineering provides 
accurate frequency measurement and operating sim- 
plicity. Can be used to check AM, CB. Business Radio, 
audio, ultrasonics and many others. Frequency Range: 
100 Hz to 50 MHz. Input Impedance: More than 1 
Megohm, diode protected. Input Connector: Miniature 
phone jack. Input Coupling: AC. Sensitivity: 30 mVfrom 
100 Hz to 30 MHz; 100 mV from 30 MHz to 50 MHz. 
Maximum Input: 200 Vp-p to 1 kHz; 75 Vp-pfrom1 kHz to 
10 MHz; 50 V p-p to 50 MHz. Time Base Accuracy: ± 3 
ppm at 25°C. Temperature Stability: Better than 0.2 
pprnAC from 0° C to 50° C. Display: Six 0.1" magnified 
LEDs with anti-glare window. Zero Blanking: All zeros to 
the left of the first significant digit are blanked; decimal 
points light automatically. Display Update: 6 per-second. 
Power Requirements: One 9 V alkaline battery or battery 
eliminator. Size: 3" h. x 6" w. x 1.5" d. Weight: 8 ozs. 

GSC MAX-50— Frequency Counter $77.00 

GSC MMAC2 AC Adapter-For 110 VAC 12.45 

GSC MMA4 Mini Antenna- 4.95 

GSC MM-IPC Input Cable Clip Leads- 4.95 

GSC MMC5 Carrying Case— 7.45 

MAX-550 FREQUENCY COUNTER 

550 MHz VERSION OF ABOVE 

GSC MAX-550- $165.00 



6001 FREQUENCY COUNTER 

Model 6001 bench-top frequency counter is designed for 
applications from audio to UHF, in communications, data 
processing, process control. RF and digital design, multi- 
plex, etc. Exceptional flexibility in general-purpose lab and 
test-bench applications. Extremely accurate measure- 
ments from 50 Hz to 650 MHz. Inputs (Front Panel): Two 
inputs provided through front-panel BNC connectors. "A" 
input is for signal frequencies from 5 Hz to 100 MHz; 1 
Megohm +25 pF input impedance; a low-pass filter pro- 
vides 3 dB/octave rolloff at 50 KHz. "B' input is for signal 
frequencies from 40 to 650 MHz; 50 Ohms input imped- 
ance; fuse protected. Gate Times: Three pushbutton- 
selectable gate times (0.1, 1.0 and 10 sec.) provide resolu- 
tions of 10, 1 and 0.1 Hz respectively; a front-panel LED 
indicates gate-open condition. Timebase: A precision 10 
MHz crystal oven oscillator (0.5 ppm, 0-50 c C) provides 
internal reference, or an external reference may be se- 
lected by a rear-panel switch. The oven oscillator output is 
buffered and made available at a rear-panel BNC connec- 
tor. A second rear-panel BNC connector provides the input 
connection for an external timebase reference signal. Use 
of an external timebase other than 10 MHz permits the 
6001 to operate in a scaling (also called rescaling) mode, in 
which the output is presented in units othen than Hz. This 
permits the 6001 to be used as a directly-duplicating digital 
display in a number of applications, including transducer 
translation, flow monitoring, tachometry, etc. Display: 8- 
digit, 7-segments, 0.43" LED display features zero blank- 
ing. Decimal point indicates frequency in MHz. A contrast 
enhancement filter assures legibility, even in high ambient 
light conditions. Discrete front-panel LEDs provide Oven 
Ready, Overflow and Gate Open indications. In addition, 
the leftmost digit (of the 8-digit display) flashes to indicate 
counter overflow. Controls: Power, Gate Time Select, A/B 
Input Select, Low Pass Filter In/Out, Internal/External 
Time Base (rear-panel). Power Required: 105-135 VAC, 
57-63 Hz. 10 VA max; 215-250 VAC, 50-60 Hz version 
available. Operating Temperature: 0-50° C. Size: 3" h. x 
10" w. x 7" d. Weight: 3 lbs. 

Frequency Counter— Net Each $385.00 

Input Fuse Kit— Includes two miniature 1/10 amp fuses 
(for B input protection). Net per Kit $7.50 




5001 UNIVERSAL COUNTER-TIMER 

Designed for electronic measurements and display of fre- 
quency, period, interval and counted events. Unique full 
input signal conditioning on both channels, including at- 
tenuators, slope selection and variable trigger level. Varia- 
ble delay between measurements. Frequency: Up to 10 
MHz in four ranges. Selectable Gate Times: .01, 0.1, 1.0 
or 10 seconds. Display indicates frequency (in KHz) at A 
Input. Period: Measures period of signal at A input, 400 
nsec. to 10 sec; measures signal cycle or averages over 
10, 100 or 1,000 cycles. Display indicates time period. 
Frequency Ratio: Counts number of cycles occurring at A 
input (to 10 MHz) during one cycle at B input (to 2 MHz), or 
averages over 10, 100 or 1,000 cycles at B input. Useful for 
scaling measurements. Display indicates ratio Fa/Fb. 
Time Interval: Measures time between given signal edge 
occurring at A input (starts measurement) and given edge 
occurring at B input (ends measurement), from 200 nsec. 
to 10 sec. May average over 10, 100 or 1,000 intervals, or 
measure single interval. Event Count: Counts up to 
99,999,999 events at up to 10 MHz. "Run" pushbutton 
enables counting with running count continuous dis- 
played: when "hold" button is pushed displayed count is 
frozen while counting continues; returns to continuous 
display when the "Run" button is pushed again. Third 
("Reset") button resets count. Delay: Variable control 
causes 75 msec, to 7.5 sec. delay between measurement 
cycles to facilitate viewing or recording of displayed read- 
ings. Detent position freezes display indefinitely following 
next measurement cycle. Full Signal Conditioning On 
Both Inputs: Both inputs incorporate x1/x10/x100 selec- 
table attenuator. +/— slope selector and variable trigger 
level control. Both inputs are 1 Megohm at 25 pf, DC 
coupled. Display: Bright, 8-digit, 7-segment, 0.43" LED 
display, drive for high visibility. Decimal point position 
gives frequency measurements in KHz, time measure- 
ments in micro-seconds. Discrete LED indicators show 
overflow (when count exceeds 99,999,999) and gate-open 
conditions. Operating Temperature: 0-50° C. Power Re- 
quired: 105-135 VAC, 57-63 Hz, 10 VA max.; 215-250 VAC, 
50-60 Hz version available. Size: 3' h. x 10" w. x 7" d. 
Weight: 3 lbs. 

GSC5001 Universal Counter-Timer— Net Each $360.00 




2001 FUNCTION GENERATOR 

Signal generator with advanced IC circuitry produces sta- 
ble, low-distortion sine waves (less than 2% THD), fast, 
rise-and-fall-time square waves (less than 100 nsec), 
high-linearity triangle waves (better than 1%) and TTL 
square waves with rise and fall time less than 25 nsec. 
Frequency is accurate, calibrated ±5% and sweepable up 
to 100:1. A voltage-controlled oscillator allows generator's 
frequency to be remotely shifted or swept by an AC or a DC 
voltage fed into the "Sweep In" jacks. A DC voltage pro- 
vides a directly proportional shift in frequency, while an AC 
voltage provides a frequency -modulated sweep. Two 
shortproof, 600-Ohm outputs are adjustable from 1 mV to 
100 mV p-p, open circuit and 100 mV to 10 V p-p, open 
circuit, with better than ±.5 dB flatness. Variable DC Offset 
control (push-button selectable) provides controlled, vari- 
able shifting of output waveform's center line above or 
below zero. Frequency Range: 1 Hz to 100 KHz in 5 
overlapping decade ranges, pushbutton selectable, with a 
10:1, 50-increment vernier dial; 1-10 Hz. 10-100 Hz. 
100-1000 Hz. 1-10 KHz, 10-100 KHz. Dial Accuracy: ±5% 
of dial setting; calibrated at 10 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 KHz and 
10KHz. Sine Wave Distortion: Less than 2% THD over 
frequency range. Triangle Wave Linearity: Better than 1% 
over frequency range. Square Wave Rise and Fall Times: 
Less than 100 nanosec. with 600 Ohms, 20 pF termination. 
Time Symmetry: Less than ±2%; TTL square wave output 
with rise and fall times less than 25 nanosec. Sweep 
Range: Maximum 100:1; maximum linear range, 10:1 at 
any dial setting. Sweep Input: to ±10 Volts. Input Im- 
pedance: 30K Ohms. Main Output: Sine, square and 
triangle waveforms, pushbutton selectable; Hi Level. 
0.1-10 V p-p open ckt, .05-5 V p-p into 600 Ohms; Lo Level 
(-40 dB), 1-100 mV, open ckt. .5-50 mV into 600 Ohms. 
Amplitude Control: Variable: greater than 40 dB range. 
Amplitude Flatness: Less than ±0.5 dB. DC Offset Con- 
trol: Variable ±5 V into open ckt.; pushbutton in/out 
switch. Max. DC Offset: (AC + DC) components before 
clipping): Hi output, ± 10 V max.; Lo output, ±1 V max. 
TTL Square Wave Output: 10 TTL loads; rise and fall time, 
less than 25 nsec. Power Required: 105-125 VAC, 50/60 
Hz; 6 Watts; 220-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz optional. Operating 
Temperature: 0° to 50° C (calibrated at 25° C ±5%). Size: 
10" w. x 3" h. x 7" d. Weight: 2.2 lbs. 

GSC2001 Function Generator— Net Each $186.00 




4001 DIGITAL PULSE GENERATOR 

A precision digital pulse generator that combines compact 
size with outstanding performance. Symmetrical and 
asymmetrical pulses over a wide range of frequencies, 
duty cycles and amplitudes. Fast rise and fall times; less 
than 30 nsec. Independent pulse width and spacing con- 
trols. Continuous/manual one-shot operation. External 
triggering; DC to 10 MHz. Synchronous output gating. 
Square wave and complementary output. In the Gate 
mode, output is synchronized with leading edge of input 
gate signal; last output pulse is always completed, even in 
absence of gate signal. Frequency Range: 0.5 Hz to 5 
MHz. Puise Width and Spacing Controls: 100 nsec. to 1 
sec. in 7 overlapping decade ranges. Variable Width and 
Spacing Controls: Concentric, single-turn verniers pro- 
vide continuous adjustment between ranges; pulse spac- 
ing controls not active during Trigger. Gate and One-Shot 
modes. Duty Cycle: 10 7 to 1 range, continuously adjust- 
able, 0.5 Hz to 5 MHz. Accuracy: ±5% of control settings; 
calibrated at min. and max. of vernier settings. Pulse 
Jitter: Less than .1% ±50 ps. Run Mode: 0.5 Hz to 5 MHz 
frequency selectable through pulse width and spacing 
controls. Trigger Mode: DC to approx. 10 MHz, from 
external source. Gate Mode: Generator starts syn- 
chronously with leading edge of gate signal. One-Shot 
Mode: Momentary pushbutton for single-pulse operation; 
pulse occurs each time button is depressed. Square 
Wave: Pushbutton provides square wave at output. Com- 
plement: COMPL pushbutton inverts output signal without 
losing sync time reference. TRIG/GATE Input Require- 
ments: TTL compatible; sine waves, 4 V p-p pulses, 2 V 
peak, greater than 40 nsec. wide; input impedance, ap- 
prox. 400 Ohms, DC coupled: max. input level, ±10 V. VAR 
OUT: Amplitude, 0.1-10 V into open circuit, adjustable by 
single-turn vernier; rise/fall time, less than 30 nsec; im- 
pedance, constant 50 Ohms. TTL OUT: Fan out, 40 TTL 
loads; sink, 64 mA at 0.8 Vmax.; rise/fall time, less than 20 
nsec. SYNC OUT: Amplitude, 2.4 V min. fan out, 10 TTL 
loads; sink, 64 mA at 0.8 Vmax.; rise/fall time, less than 20 
nsec; pulse width, greater than 20 nsec; sync pulse lead 
time, greater than 20 nsec. Operating Temperature: 0° to 
50° C (calibrated at 25° C ±5° C). Power Required: 
105-125 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 6 Watts; 220-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz 
optional. Size: 10" w. x 3" h. x 7" d. Weight: 2.2 lbs. 

GSC4001 Digital Pulse Generator-Net Each $235.00, 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 39 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




r • v^ 




/lȤ 
I feoce 



The heart of the system is the patented III Bug Box which has 30 
compartments measuring 1" x .375" x 5" deep. Each Bug Box will 
store60eight-pin DIPs, 30 fourteen-pin DIPs, 30 stxteen-pin DIPs or 30 
other small components such as transistors, diodes, resistor net- 
works, etc. The transparent cover has a stairstep design that allows 
the user to empty one compartment at a time, A numbering system on 
the cover gives an instant count of remaining ICs. 
CONSTRUCTION — heavy duty high impact injection molded s tyrene 




lat end to 

accommodate 

Bug Tags for quick 

iccurate identlficatior 

of Bug Boi 

contents., 

THE STANDARD BUG BOXES ARE BLUE 

Sh.Wt. 
III-BGX-001 Bug Box Single PackJ 1.98 1II-BGX-001A S 2.98 2oz. 
III-BGX-003 Bug Box 3 Pack $ 5.49 III-BGX-O03A S 6.00 6oz. 
Ill BGX-010 Bug Box 10 Pack $ 17.49 
lll-BGX-250 Bug Box 250 Pack $399.95 

"A" Indicates Anti-Static Plastic Construction 
LSI BUG BOX (Big Bug Box) 

The LSI Bug Box is designed to store large ICs and provides separate 
compartment storage for 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28 and/or 40 
pin IC's. The basic box is permanently divided into three permanent 
compartments measuring 1 x 4.15 x. 5 inches deep. Divider guides are 
molded into the bottom of the box in strategic locations to allow the 
use of user inserted dividers (two types supplied) to further divide the 
box into storaae for all of the standard LSI IC types as shown below. 



I-BGX-010A $ 26.00 2 lbs 
I-8GX-250A $599.95 20 lbs 




Additionally, 
the main permanent 
compartments ar» ideal for 
storage of leaded components such 
s resislors and capacitors (the Bug Tag 
resistor/capacitor families provide three part values per tag and 
e that the basic LSI bug box is used for storage 




Stores eighteen 20 Of 
22 pin ICs m separate 
compartments 



Stores six 40 pin IC's in Any molded groove localic 

separate compartments may be used for divider loc 



lll-BLX-001 LSI Bug Box Single PackS 2.98 lll-BLXOOIAS 3.9B 

III BLX 003 LSI Bug Box 3 Pack S 8.29 III-BLX-003A $ 10.95 

lll-BLX-010 LSI Bug Box 10 Pack $26.49 III-8LX-010A S 34.95 

lll-BLX-250 LSI Bug Box 250 Pack {599.95 III-BLX-250A $799.95 

"A*' Indicates Anti-Static Plastic Construction 

III-BDV012 2 sets of 12 extra LSI Dividers $1.49 1 oz. 



-■ ■'■ ■,. . 





THE BUG BOX SYSTEM 

The Bug Box System provides a complete storage/protection/identi- 
tication and retrieval capability for integrated circuits or other small 
components or tools. The system is totally modular and can be as 
small as a single Bug Box in a field engineer's tool kit or as large as 
the complete storage/indexing and retrieval for the thousands of 
different ICs and semiconductors used in a major research and 
development laboratory. 



/ 



BBBifiaaaan -^ BB| BSii 



JUG CAGE 

The Bug Cage will store either a Bug Box or a Bug Tray in any ol its 12 
storage locations, and its modular design allows it to be attached to 
other Bug Cages, either vertically or horizontally, to build storage 
libraries ol any size. The ends ot the Bug Boxes or Bug Trays are 
exposed so that Bug Tag identification labels, on the ends, are visible. 

Sh.Wt. 
$ 10.95 2 lbs. 

$114.95 15 lbs. 



III-BGC-001 
IIIBGC-012 



Bug Cage, Single 
Bug Cage, 12 Pack 

CAGE KEEPERS 



Cage Keepers pin a column or Bug Boxes into the storage compart- 
ment o( a Bug Cage lor protection against casual use or theft and for 
transportation. Keepers are available in a 5" model for a single cage 
and a 10" model for cages stacked two high, 

Sh.Wt. 
IH-CKP-005 5" Cage Keepers, Pkg, of 2 J3.9B 3 oz 

lll-CKP-010 10" Cage Keepers, Pkg, of 2 $4.98 15 oz. 

Colors: The standard Bug Boxes and Cages are blue; yellow, red and 
white are available at extra cost 




BUG TRAYS 

Bug Trays offer storage for larger components or tools. Available in 
three styles. Bug Tray Open has a single open compartment measur- 
ing 3.05" wide x 4,6" long x 6" deep. Bug Tray Vertical has five storage 
areas measuring ,5" wide x 4 6" long Bug Tray Horizontal has eight 
areas measuring ,4" wide x 3.95" long. 



lll-BTV-001 Bug Tray Vertical, Single 

HI-BTV-OIO Bug Tray Vertical, 10 Pack 

III-BTHO01 Bug Tray Horizontal. Single 

III-BTH-OIO Bug Tray Horizontal, 10 Pack 

III-BT0-001 Bug Tray Open, Single 

III-BT0-010 Bug Tray Open, 10 Pack 

M-BTX-003 Bug Tray Mixer. 3 Pack 





Sh.Wt 


S 1.49 


1 oz. 


$12.96 


10 oz. 


$ 1.49 


1oz. 


SI 2.98 


10 oz. 


S 1.49 


1oz, 


$12.98 


10 oz. 


$ 3.98 


3oz 




BUG RUGS 



Bug Rugs provide the necessary static discharge for CMOS M0SFET 
devices Bug Rugs are made of high carbon content foam which will 
effectively short all of the pins together when they are inserted into 
the foam Die cut to the exact dimensions of the Bug Box compart- 
ments. Each package contains 30 Bug Rugs to line the 30 compart- 
ments of a Bug Box. 



Sh.Wt. 
$ 1.98 1 oz. 

$14.98 4oz 

$ 1.98 1 oz, 

$14.98 4oz 



lll-BGR-030 Bug Rug, Pkg of 30 

lll-SBR-300 Bug Rug, Pkg of 300 

lll-BBB-036 LSI Bug Rug, Pkg. of 6 

lll-BBR-060 LSI Bug Rug. Pkg. ol 60 



BACK PACKS 

Each Back Pack label is imprinted with the exact internal logic of a 
specific IC as well as the pinout of this logic to the pins of the IC. When 
Back Packs are affixed to the IC and the IC is in the circuit, the user 
can trace logic connections without needing data sheets or counting 
pins. Each Back Pack family packet contains 532 labels and each is 
imprinted with the logic and pinout of the most popular ICs within 
that logic family. Labels are die-cut and are self-adhesive to stick to 
the IC. Several blank labels are included in each family packet for 
special labels. 



Sh.Wt, 
2oz. 
2oz. 
4oz. 



III-BPT-012 
IIIBPC0I? 
III-BPM0I2 
llf BPU-012 



TTL Family Back Packs $ 5.9B 

CMOS Family Back Packs $ 6.98 

Combination of TTL/CMOS Packs $10.98 
Over 700 Back Pack Labels covering the 
most popular CPU's, RAMS, UARTS. 
Clocks. PIA, PROMS. Drives, 

and much more $ 9.95 



3oz. 




BUG TAGS 

Bug Tags are self-adhesive labels, die-cut to the exact dimensions of 
the front edge of a Bug Box. They are pre-printed with the numbers 
and descriptions of the ICs in the most popular logic families. They 
are packaged by logic families and each Bug Tag package contains 
200 or more labels 

Sh.Wt. 

IIIBTT-200 TTL Bug Tag Family $ 3.98 2 oz. 

III-BTC-200 CMOS Bug Tag Family $ 3.98 2 oz. 

III-BTK-200 LS Shottky Family S 3.98 2 oz. 

III-BTS-200 LINEAR Bug Tag Family $ 3.98 2 oz. 

III-BTM-SOO Contains ALL 800 labels above $13.95 8oz 

lll-BTU-300 MICROPROCESSOR Bug Tags $ 5.96 3 oz 

lll-BTR-300 RESISTOR 300 labels (900 valves) $ 5.98 3 oz 

lll-BTP-300 CAPACITOR 300 labels (900 valves) $5.98 3oz 

IIIBTZ-200 DIODES & ZENERS. Bug Tag Family $ 3.98 2 oz 

lll-BTD-200 DIP RESISTOR, Bug Tag Family $3.98 2oz 



COMPARTMENT CONTENTS 


30 


39 


JB 


n 


16 


35 


M 


33 


H 


n 


10 


is 


18 


" 


is 


ia 


14 


.3 


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11 


10 


8 


■ 


7 




* 


* 




* 


1 'M 






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■ iMTtflnlAriONAL INST HUME 


NT* HON INC 





lll-BTF-01? $ 2.98 1 oz 
Field Engineering Kit Bug 
Tags (rear compartment 
labels) are used whenever 
more than one type of IC (or 
other component) is to be 
stored in a single box. The 
Bug Tag FE Kit contains 12 
labels designed to mount on 
the rear cover ot a Bug Box 
for user written or typed 
identificationof different 
contents for each of the 30 
c o m p a rt m enls- uithe^ox_ 



PROTO-PAK 

Proto-Paks provide the basic IC set for 
general CMOS and /or TTL prototyping or 
troubleshooting. Proto-Pak includes 30 
different IC's. Back Pack labels for each, 
a Bug Box to house them in. and Bug^ 
Tags to locate them easily 



lll-PPT-030 TTL PROTO-PAK 

lll-PPC-030 CMOS PROTO-PAK 




Sh.Wt 
$39.95 4 oz 

$49.95 4 oz 



so-40 «,,.-.» PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



MICRO PROCESSOR BASED 
DIGITAL CAPACITANCE METER 

THE STANDARD AGAINST WHICH ALL 
OTHERS WILL BE MEASURED 




• Auto Ranging 

• Auto Zero Mapping 

• Leading zero blanking 



III-CP3001 

$299 95 

• Microprocessor based 
Programmed for field upgrades & future expansion 



• Avg. auto search /measure and display time « 
0.1 sec. for values to 100 ufd. max. =0.279 sec. 

• Direct measurements of cap values to 1 F. 

• Dual input Cx terminals for computer derived 
measurements of caps to 100 F. 

• Dual regulated power supplies 

• Limits entry by keypad or displayed or stored 
values and computer derived + or - % 'ages 

• Nested multiple limits for simultaneous sort- 
ing of caps into increasing tolerance groups. 

• Arithmetic average 

• Statistical mean 

• Standard deviation 

• Statistical sampling function to determine 
probability of incoming batch within limits by 
measuring only a random sample of the batch 

• Running mean calculation 

• Ignore first x readings function 

• Display average of x readings function 



• Limits comparator (up to 16 simultaneous 
sets of limits) 

• DA (dielectric absorption) Measurement 

• Leakage measurement 

• Four level 16 keypad for user interface & 
control 

• Battery (auto or marine) or AC operation 

• 6502 Microprocessor based 

• ROM (2K or more depending upon options) 

• RAM (IK or more depending upon options) 

• BCD output for printer or other interface 

• Single cycle or continuous operating modes 

• Programmed pitch and duration audio for 
eyes off limits comparison testing & keyboard 
entry 

• Limits independent of range— any limit can 
be from .1 pF to 1 F. 

• 25 turn trimmers (internal) for range calibra- 
tion and temp, setting 

• Binary search auto ranging 

The u C-PR0BE — offers advanced capacitance testing functions and statistical capabilities that are not 
available on any other capacitance meter at any price. The u C-Probe uses the powerful 6502 microproces- 
sor for control and stored program functions which are simply not feasible with conventional instruments. 
Full auto ranging from. 1 pF to 1 Farad is standard as is full autoZERO. This automatically zeroes the effects 
of stray or lead capacitance — Rather than the cumbersome and time consuming zero control tweaking 
required with every other meter presently sold, the u C-Probe samples the offset stray or lead capacitance 
for each of its internal ranges and stores the result in random access memory. It then subtracts these zero 
offset values from each reading before display or use in other calculations. Zero mapping automatically 
occurs at turn-on, after the reset button is pressed or it may be initiated at any time by pressing key 1D. An 
exclusive audio output allows "eyes off" sorting of capacitors and gives audio feedback for other C-Meter 
functions and key entry. The u C-Probe's .1% accuracy and .1 pF resolution place it in the post doctorate 
class of capacitance meters. 

Size: 8<hx9x3 inches (excluding tilt stand/handle). Weight: 3% lbs. Made in U.S.A. III-CP3001 $299.95 
QC-N0TCH— Adds Limits comparator capability to basic unit — allows user setting of up to 16 simultaneous 
sets of independent limits — i.e., lower limit could be .1 pF and upper limit 1 Farad if required. Limits 
indication by LCD displayed "up arrow" and "high" for over upper limit, "down arrow" and "low" for under 
lower limit and bar with "OK" for "in range." Also displays L-01 through L- 16 to show which multiple limit the 
capacitor fell into in multiple limits testing. Provides audio signals to denote High, Low or coded signal for 
the exact Limits range for multiple limits testing. 

Size: Internal to main unit Weight: 1 oz. additional weight. Installed when ordered with basic unit. Plug-in 
ROM-user installable. III-QCN002 $149.95 

STATISTICS option — Provides extensive statistical monitoring in QC and other applications. Provides 
statistical mean, running average, standard deviation and ignore first readings capabilities as well as 
random sample testing rather than total batch testing for incoming acceptance/rejection of large ship- 
ments of capacitors. 

Size: Internal to main unit. Weight: 1 oz. additional weight. Installed when ordered with basic unit. Plug-in 
ROM-user installable. III-STT001 $149.95 

TEMP OVEN option— Houses XTAL time base and critical C-measurement components in a closely controlled 
(1°C) temperature oven. 

Size: Internal to main unit. Weight: 4 oz. additional. Installed when ordered with basic unit. Factory ONLY 
installation. HI-XVN001 $79.95 

EXTENDED MSM RANGE — Extends the basic measurement functions to DA and Leakage + extends upper 
range to several hundred Farad. 

Size: Internal to main unit. Weight: 1 oz. additional. Installed when ordered with basic unit. Factory ONLY 
installation. III-EMR001 $99.95 

BCD OUTPUT — Provides an output port from the6502 microprocessor with BCD information and handshak- 
ing signal lines to interface with printers/recorders or other equipment. 

Size: Internal to main unit but including rear panel connector. Weight: 2 oz. additional. Installed when 
ordered with basic unit. Factory ONLY installation. III-BCD001 $99.95 

AC ADAPTOR — Allows AC operation of u C-Probe. UL listed unit operated on 115 VAC and plugs into AC 
Adaptor jack on rear panel. 

Size: 2x2x2 inches. Weight: 1 lb. III-MACB00 $1 9.95 

for your convenience, we recommend that you order factory options with order for basic unit. 







gy HITACHI 



Hitachi Denshl America. Ltd 



Single and dual trace, 15 and 30 MHz. All four high sensitivity 
Hitachi oscilloscopes are built to demanding Hitachi quality 
standards and are backed by a 2-year warranty. They're able to 
measure signals as low as 1mV/ division (with X5 vertical magni- 
fier). It's a specification you won't find on any other 15 or 30 MHz 
scopes. Plus: Z-axis modulation, trace rotation, front panel X-Y 
operation for all four scope models, and X10 sweep magnifica- 
tion. And, 30 MHz oscilloscopes offer internal signal delay lines. 
For ease of operation, functionally-related controls are grouped 
into three blocks on the color coded front panel. Now here's the 
clincher: For what you'd expect to pay more, you actually pay 
less. Check our scopes before you decide. All scopes come 
complete with probes. 

Hitachi...The measure 



of quality. 



List Price 
$735.00 
Our Price 

$650.00 
HIT-V-152B 



List Price 
$995.00 
Our Price 

$859.00 
HIT-V-302B 




■~wg&-=*~- ~ — "-- 



R.4*%^ ■*» bfc 





» CRT 
Display area 
Acceleration potential 
Intensity modulation 



• Vertical deflection 
Sensitivity and 
bandwidth 



Rise time 
Non-distorted Max. 

amplitude 

Signal delay line 



Input R and C 
Maximum input 
Display mode 
X-Y operation 



Direct 1 M ohm, approx. 30pF 
oltag« 600Vp-p or 300V(DC+AC peak) 

CHI , CH2, DUAL, ADD, DIFF 

DC-500kHz, 5mV/div~5V/div 

se difference DC- 1 OkHz 3° 



■ Horizontal deflection 

Sweep mode 

TV synchronization 

Internal 

External 
Trigger sensitivity 



Trigger slope 
Sweep time 



Sweep-time magnifie 
Max. sweep rate 



AUTO, NORM, TV {+), TV (-) 
TV sync-separator circuit 
Over Idiv (V sync-signal) 
Over 1 Vp-p (V sync-signal) 



• Amplitude calibrator 
Waveform 
Voltage 



• Power requirements 



• Dimensions 



> Ambient operation 
temperature 



130BUB31 (5-inch, round shape) 
SxlOdiv (1div=9.5mm) 
Approx, 2k V 
Over 5Vp-p 



5mV/div~5V/div ±5%, DC-15MHz, 

-3dB 

1mV/div~1V/div ±6%, DC~5MHzTyp 

-3dB (Using x5 amplifier) 

24ns 

More than 4 divat 15MHz 



Frequency 



20Hz~2MHz 

2~15MHz 



0.5div 
1.5div 



200mV 
800m V 



0.2ys/div~0.2s/div ±5%, 19 calibrated 

steps 

10 times (±7%) 

lOOns/d.v 



1kHz ±10% Typ, Square wave 
0.5V ±3% 



100V (12O/220/240V) ±10% 
50/60Hz,40W 



. 275(W)x19O(H)x400(D)mrr 



Approx 8.5kg 



130BTB31 (5-inch, round shape) 
8x10div (ldiv=9.5mm) 
Approx. 4kV 
Over 5Vp-p 



5mV/div-5V/div -5%, DC~30MHz, 

-3dB 

1mV/div-1V/div ±6%, DC~5MHz 

— 3d8 (Using x5 amplifier) Typ 

12ns 

More than 4 div at 30MHz 

Permits viewing leading edge of 

displayed waveform 

Direct 1M ohm, approx. 30pF 

600Vp-p or 300V(DC+AC peak) 

CHI, CH2, DUAL, ADD, DIFF 

DC-500kHz, 5mV/div~5V/div 

Phase difference DC~10kHz 3° 



AUTO, NORM, TV (+), TV (-) 
TV sync-separator circuit 
Over 1div (V sync-signal) 
Over 1 Vp-p (V sync-signal) 



Frequency Internal 



20Hz~5MHz 
5~30MHz 



0.5div 
1.5div 



200mV 
SOOmV 



0.2us/div~0.2s/div ±5%, 19 calibrated 

steps 

10 times (±7%) 

lOOns/div 



1kHz ±10% Typ, Square wave 
0.5V ±3% 



100V (1 20/220/240 V) -10% 
50/60Hz,40W 



Approx. 275<Wlx190(H)x400(D)mm 



Approx. 8.5kg 



AT-10AB1.5 2 



AT-10A81.5 2 



HIT-V151B (Single trace version of HIT-V152B) 



List Price 

$570.00 



Our Price 
$525.00 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 41 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



Hitachi...The measure of quality. 







HITACHI 

Hitachi Denshi.Ltd. 



• Dynamic range 8 div. 

• TV sync-separator circuit 

• Built-in signal delay line (V-352) 

• X-Y operation 

• Sweep-time magnifier (10 times) 

• Trace rotation system 

• Fine-adjusting, click-positioning 
function 

• Economically priced 20MHz dual trace 
oscilloscope 

• Square CRT with internal graticule 
(illuminated scale) 

• High-accuracy voltage axis and time 
axis set at ±3% (certified at 10° to 35 C) 

• High-sensitivity 1mV/div. 

• Low drift 

• 2 Year Warranty 




HIT-V202 

20MHz DUAL TRACE 



SPECIFICATIONS: 



LIST PRICE: $850.00 
OUR PRICE: $798.00 



HIT-V352 

35MHz DUAL TRACE WITH DELAY 

LIST PRICE: $1150.00 
OUR PRICE: $998.00 



• CRT 

Display area 
Acceleration potential 
Intensity modulation 



• Vertical deflection 
Sensitivity 



Bandwidth 

Rise time 
Signal delay line 
Max. input voltage 
Input connection 
Input impedance 
Operating modes 
X-Y operation 
Sensitivity 
Phase difference 
X bandwidth 
Dynamic range 



» Horizontal deflection 
Sweep mode 
Sync signals 
Sync connection 
TV synchronization 

Internal 

External 
Trigger sensitivity 



AUTO low bandwidth 
Trigger polarity 
External sync input 



Sweep time 



Sweep time magnifier 
Max. sweep rate 



• Amplitude calibrator 
Waveform 
Voltage 



• Power requirements 



i Weight 



• Temperature 
Ambient operation temperature 



140BMB31R (5.5-inch square with internal graticule, 

illuminated scale} 

8x10div <1div = 9.4mm) 

Approx. 2kV 

Voltage: 5Vp-p or more 

Effective band-width: DC to 2MHz 

Input impedance: 47kJ2 (type) 

Max. input voltage 300V (DC + AC peak) 



5mV/div to 5V/div +3%, 9-step changeover 

(When using x5 amplifier) 1 mV/div to 1 V/div ±5% 

Continuously variable when using x2.5 amplifier with 

fine adjustment 

(provided with click-positioning function) 

DC to 20MHz, -3dB (at 8div) 

(When using x5 amplifier) DC to 7MHz, -3dB (at 8div) 

1 7.5ns, (for x5) 50ns 



500Vp-p or 300V (DC + AC peak, at 1 kHz) 

AG, GND, DC 

Direct 1 M ohm, approx. 30pF 

CHI, CH2, DUAL, ADD, DIFF 

CH1: X axis, CH2: Y axis 

5mV/div to 5V/div (when using x5 amplifier: ImV/div) 

DC to 50kHz within 3° 

DC to 500kHz, -3dB 

8div or more ____^__„ 



AUTO, NORM, TV ( + ), TV (- 

CH1, CH2, LINE, EXT 

AC 

TV sync-separator circuit 

1 div or more (V sync-signal) 

1 Vp-p or more (V sync-signal) 



Frequency 


Internal 


External 


20Hz to 2MHz 
2 to 20MHz 


0.5div 
1.5div 


200 mV 
800 mV 



20Hz 

Input impedance: approx. 1M ohm, 30pF or less 

Max. input voltage: 300V (DC + AC peak, at 1 kHz) 

0.2/is/div to 0.2s/div +3%, 19 calibrated steps 

Continuously variable when using x2.5 amplifier with 

fine adjustment 

(provided with click-positioning function) 

10 times (»5%) 

lOOns/div (20ns/div or 50ns/div, not calibrated) 

Linearity: within 3% or +5% when using x 10 



Ambient temperature for guaranteeing 
specifications 



• Accessories 



Approx. 1 kHz ±10% (typ) 
0.5V ±3% 


square wave 


100/1 20/220/240 V 
50 to 60Hz, approx. 


±10% 
45W 




Approx. 8.5kg 


to+40°C 


+10to+35°C 


20,000 hours (target 


value! 





Probe AT-10AF1.5 (10:1/1:1) 

Power cable 

Operation manual 



140DFB31 (5.5-inch square with internal graticule, 

illuminated scale) 

8x10div (1div=9.4mm) 

Approx. 5.2 kV 

Voltage: 5Vp-p or more 

Effective band-width: DC to 2MHz 

Input impedance: 47 kn (typ) 

Max. input voltage: 300V (DC + AC peak) 



5mV/div to 5V/div ±3%, 9-step changeover 

(When using x5 amplifier) 1 mV/div to 1 V/div +5% 

Continuously variable when using x2.5 amplifier with 

fine adjustment 

(provided with click-positioning function) 

DC to 35MHz, -3dB (at 8div) 

(When using x5 amplifier) DC to 7MHz, -3dB (at 8div) 

10ns, (for x5) 50ns 

Permits viewing leading edge of displayed waveform 

500Vp-p or 300V (DC + AC peak, at 1 kHz) 

AG, GND, DC 

Direct 1 M ohm, approx. 30pF 

CHI, CH2, DUAL, ADD, DIFF 

CH1: X axis, CH2: Y axis 

5mV/div to 5V/div (when using x5 amplifier: 1 mV/div) 

DC to 50kHz within 3" 

DC to 500kHz, -3dB 

8div or more 



AUTO, NORM, TV (+), TV (-) 

CH1, CH2, LINE, EXT 

AC 

TV sync-separator circuit 

1 div or more (V sync-signal) 

1 Vp-p or more (V sync-signal) 



Frequency 


Internal 


External 


20Hz to 5MHz 
5 to 35MHz 


0.5div 
1.5div 


200 mV 
800 mV 



20Hz 

Input impedance: approx. 1 M ohm, 30pF or less 

Max. input voltage: 300V (DC + AC peak, at 1 kHz) 

0.2Ms/div to 0.2s/div +3%, 19 calibrated steps 

Continuously variable when using x2.5 amplifier with 

fine adjustment 

(provided with click-positioning function) 

10 times (±5%) 

20ns/div 

Linearity: within 3% or +5% when using x10 



Approx. 1 kHz ±10% (typ), square wave 
0.5V ±3% 


100/1 20/220/240V 
50 to 60Hz, approx. 


±10% 
45W 


Approx. 8.5kg 


to +40°C 


+10to+35°C 


20,000 hours (target 


value) 



Probe AT-10AF1.5 (10:1/1:1) 2 

Power cable 1 

Operation manual 1 



80 — 42 



BYTE November 1980 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



<f& HITACHI 

Xtpr Hitachi Denshi, Ltd. 

V-550B 50 MHz Dual Trace 
Delayed Sweep Oscilloscope 

Until now, if you wanted a 50 MHz dual 
trace oscilloscope of uncompromising 
quality, there was only one choice. Now 
there's a second. . . an outstanding new 
delayed sweep scope with an estab- 
lished name-the Hitachi V-550B. 

The V-550B offers all the capabilities 
you expect from a lab grade oscillo- 
scope-trigger view, a bright 6" square 
CRT, and a maximum sweep rate of 5 
ns/div-plus a few features you might 
not expect, such as 1 mV/div. sensitivity 
(10 MHz), automatic focus correction, 
and a built-in TV sync separator circuit. 

The cost? Remarkably reasonable, 
especially when you compare it to the 
other leading 50 MHz scope. It's a price 
breakthrough made possible by using 
up-to-date production techniques and 
a design backed by over 20 years of 
oscilloscope experience. 



The Hitachi Alternative 




A REMARKABLE VALUE THE 
HIT-V550B AT $1745-00 (Probes Included) 



SHPG. WT. 29 LBS. 



A New C.R.T. Development 

The large square C.R.T. of V-550B is most advantageous not only 
for dual trace operations, but also for third channel display of trigger- 
ing signals. The diameter of the screen is 6" and the tube has an 
internal graticule. Care has been given to such details as graticule 
divisions in red which provide greater contrast in photography of 
data. 

In the vertical axis, supplementary graticule markings of 0, 10. 90, 
and 100% are provided, which facilitates reading of rise time of pulse 
waves. Since these supplementary markings are in dots they do not 
interfere with ordinary measurements. 

The use of an improved phosphor makes the new V-550B 10 kV tube 
as bright as old type 15 kV C.R.T.'s. 

High Sensitivity: I mV/dlv. (1(1 MHz) 

Sensitivity of 1 mV/div is useful for research and development in 
such applications as medical and biological experiments where sig- 
nals are weak. 



Automatic Focus Feature Eliminates Lag. 

Loss of focus tends to occur when brightness or sweep range is 
altered. Automatic focus solves this problem, eliminating the neces- 
sity for adjustment each time. 

Trace rotation system (or easily adjusting bright-line inclination caused by 
terrestrial magnetism. 

When bright lines are inclined by the influence of terrestrial mag- 
netism, this rotation system promptly compensates and corrects 
lines to the proper locations, rendering accurate observation con- 
stantly feasible. 

Third Channel Display (Trigger View) 

In addition to CH1 and CH2, CH3 can be observed. Internal trig- 
gered signals and externa) triggered signals can be displayed as a 
third trace. This feature allows time comparisons to be made 
between external trigger signals and displayed waveforms. 

X-Y Operation Convenient for Observation ol Two Types of Waves. 



Delayed sweep permits 1,000 X Magnification 

One of the qualifications for high performance oscilloscopes is 
that they be equipped with delayed sweep. Needless to say. the 
V-550B possesses delayed sweep, which permits magnification of 
any desired portion of the wave up to a thousand times. 

Variable Hold-off Circuitry Facilitates Pulse Measurement 

The trigger hold-off circuitry is a variable hold-off circuitry spe- 
cially developed for the V-550B, permitting stable triggering on com- 
plex waveforms. 

Single Sweep 

The single sweep mechanism is indispensable for studying signals 
produced in research involving vibration, impact, explosion, and 
voice. 

10 X Sweep Magnification Facilitates Precision Measurement 

Delayed Sweep Jitter Held at Below 1/20,000 



SPECIFICATIONS 

C.R.T. 

Type 

Hitachi 150BCB31 rectangular mesh type tube with 10kV accel- 
eration potential and metal backed phosphor. 

Screen Type 

P31 (GH) phosphor standard. 

Useful Screen Area 

8x 10div{1 div = 1 cm). 

Graticule 

Internal graticule with centimeter divisions and 2mm subdivi- 
sions along the central axis 10% and 90% lines are indicated. 
Illumination continuously variable. 

Z-axis Input 

DC-coupled positive-going signal decreases intensity: 5 Vp-p 
signal causes noticeable modulation at normal intensity: DC to 
3.5 MHz. 

VERTICAL DEFLECTION (2 Identical Channels) 

Bandwidth and Rise Time 

DC to at least 50 MHz and rise time 7,0 ns or less. DC to at 
least 10 MHz and rise time 36 ns or less as magnifier 
extends. Lower— 3dB point, AC coupling 10 HZ or less. 10x 
probe: 1 Hz or less. 

Dellection Factor 

5mV /div to 5V /div in 10 calibrated steps, 1-2-5 sequence. Uncal- 
ibrated continuous control between steps 1:<2,5, x5 magnifier 
extends min. deflection rate to 1mv7div. 

Accuracy 

±3%(+10to+35°C) 

±5% (0 to +50°C) 

Additional error for magnifier ±2% 

Display Modes 

CH1, CH2 (normal or invert) Alternate, chopped (250kHz rate), 
Added. 

Input Impedance 

1M ohm ±2% in parallel with 30pF approx. 

Maximum Input Voltage 

250V (DC + peak AC) or 500Vp-p AC at 1Khz or less. 

Delay Line 

Permits viewing leading edge of displayed waveform. 

3rd Channel Display (A Trigger View) 

Display simultaneously channel 1, channel 2, and external 
trigger signal. The deflection factor is approx. 200mv7div. 



TRIGGERING A AND B 
A Trigger Modes 

Automatic, Normal, Single sweep, TV-V, TV-H. 
A Trigger Hold-off 

Adjustable control permits a stable presentation of repetitive 

complex waveform, 
A Trigger Source 

Internal (Ch1. Ch2), Line, External. 
A Trigger Slope 

+ or- 
A Trigger Sensitivity 





DC to 10MHz 


DC to 50MHz 


Internal 


0.5div 


1.5div 


External 


150mV 


500mV 



A Trigger Coupling 

AC; 30Hz to full bandwidth 
HFRej:30Hzto4kHz 

LFRej: 4kHz to 50MHz 

DC: to full bandwidth 
A External Trigger Input Impedance 

1M ohm ±20% in parallel with 30pF approx. 
Maximum Input Voltage 

250V (DC + peak AC) 

500Vp-pACat 1kHz or less 
B Trigger Modes and Source 

Automatic, Normal (Internal, External) 
B Trigger Slope 

+ or- 
Trlgger Coupling 

AC only; 30Hz to full bandwidth 
HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION 
Time Base A 

50ns/div to 0.5s/div in 22 calibrated steps, 1-2-5 sequence. 

Uncalibrated continuous control between steps 1:<2.5 

10x mag extends fastest sweep rate to 5ns/div. 
Time Base B 

50ns/divto50ms/div in 19 calibrated steps 1-2-5 sequence. 10x 

mag extends fastest sweep rate to 5ns/div. 



Accuracy 

±3%(+10to+35°C) 

±5% (0 to +50°C) 

Additional error for magnifier ±2%. 
Horizontal Display Modes 

A only, A intensified, B delayed. 
Calibrated Sweep Delay 

Continuous calibrated control between 0.5 and 10x time base A 

setting. 
X-Y OPERATION (CHI: Horiz. Ch2; Vert) 
Dellection Factor 

Same as vertical deflection 
Accuracv 

Y: ±3% (+10 to +35°C), ±5% (0 to +50°C) 

X: ±5% (+10 to +35°C), ±7% (0 to +50°C) 

Additional error tor CH1 and CH2 magnifier ±2% 
Bandwidth 

DC to at least 500kHz 
Phase Error 

3° or less from DC to 50kHz 
CALIBRATOR 

0.5v ±1% Frequency 1kHz +5% square wave 
POWER 
Line Voltage and Frequencies 

10BVACto132VAC, 49Hzto61Hz, 

114V AC to 120V AC, 49Hz to 400Hz 
POWER CONSUMPTION 

45W or less at normal line voltage 
DIMENSION AND WEIGHT 

310(W)x 180(H) x 410(D) mm 

(12.2x7.1 x 16.1 In.) 

9.3kg (20.5 Lb.) 
AMBIENT TEMPERATURES 

Rated range of use: +10 to +35°C 

Limits of operation: to +50°C 

Storage and transport: -20 to +70°C 
M.T.B.F. 

20.000 hours for target value 
ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED 

Two AT-10AD1.5 probes, 2-A fuse, protective cover, operation 

manual. 



ALSO AVAILABLE: HIT-V100 100 MHz DUAL TRACE OSCILLOSCOPE. 

CALL FOR PRICING 



ORDER TOLL FREE (800) 4235633 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 43 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



Three good reasons to buy a 
handheld DMM from Fluke. 



MODEL D800A: 

THE TROUBLESHOOTER 



MODEL 802A: 
THE ANALYST 





• Six functions 

dc voltage 
ac voltage 
dc current 
ac current 
resistance 
diode test 

■ 3 1 /2-digit resolution 

• 0.25% basic dc accuracy 

• LCD display 

• Overload protection 

• Safety-designed 
test leads 

■ Full year parts 

& labor warranty 

FLU-D800A 




9Wf& 



r;:ir^i 



• Seven functions 

dc voltage 
ac voltage 
dc current 
ac current 
resistance 
diode test 
conductance (1/R) 

• 3 1 /2-digit resolution 

• 0.1% basic dc accuracy 

• Overload protection 

• Safety-designed 
test leads 

• Two year parts 
& labor warranty 




l^lfglf^ 



■■■■■<■■ .■■.■■■..■■ ■ . .,■ ■ ■■ 



MODEL D804A: 
THE INVESTIGATOR 



• Nine functions 

dc voltage 
ac voltage 
dc current 
ac current 
resistance 
diode test 
conductance (1/R) 
logic level and 

continuity detect 
temperature (K-type 

thermocouple) 

• Peak hold on voltage 
and current functions 

• Selectable audible 
indicator for continuity 
or level detection 

• 3 1 /2-digit resolution 

• 0.1% basic accuracy 

• LCD display 

• Overload protection 

• Safety designed 
test leads 

• Full year parts 

& labor warranty 




$115.00 FLU-D802A 



$179.00 FLU-D804A 



$219.00 



More hard facts on Fluke handheld DMM*s: 
One-year specifications. 



Accuracies are ± (% of reading - 
AC Current 



no. of digits) 1 year, 18°C to 28°C except as noted. 
D8Q4A D802A D800A 



Ranges 
Resolution 

Accuracy 

2 mA range 
(45Hz-450Hz) 

20-2000 mA ranges 
(45Hz-450Hz) 
(450Hz-1kHz) 



2 mA, 20 mA, 200 mA, 2000 mA 



0,05% of range (1 ^Aon 2 mA range) 



3% of rdg 

+ 2 digits 
1.5% of rdg 

+ 2 digits 
1.5% of rdg 

+ 2 digits 



2% of rdg 

+ 2 digits 
1.5% of rdg 

+ 2 digits 
1.5% of rdg 

+ 2 digits 



2% of rdg 
+ 3 digits 
2% of rdg 
+ 3 digits 
Not Specified 



Conductance* 



D804A 



Ranges 

Equivalent Resistance 
Range 

Resolution 
Accuracy 



Overload Protection 



200 nS 


2mS, 200 nS 


5Mnto 10,000 Mn 


500nto1 Mn(2mS), 

5Mf!to10,000Mfl 

(200 ns) 


0.05% of range (10- 


"Son 200 nS range) 


200 nS: 2% of rdg 
+ 10 digits 


200 nS: 2% of rdg 

+ 10 digits 

2 mS: 0.2% of rdg 

+ 1 digit 



500V dc or rmson all ranges 



Temperature (D804A Only, requires thermocouple accessory) 



Temperature Sensor 

Range 

Resolution 

Accuracy 



Connection 



Overload Protection 



K-type Thermocouple (Chromel-Alumel). See 
accessories 

-20°Cto+1265°C 

rc 

±3°C±1 digit, -20°to+300°C;3%of rdg, +300°Cto 
+ 1265°C (±2°±1 digit, 0°to + 80°C typical) Accuracy 
includes NBS conformity, calibration stability, zero and 
reference junction but not thermocouple errors. 

Dual banana isothermal termination provided with Fluke 
thermocouple accessories. Use Y8104 termination 
accessory for any K-type thermocouple. 



2A fused up to 250V 



Continuity (804A Only) Use for Passive Current Testing 



Ranges 
Indication 



Response Time 
(2 kn range) 



Overload Protection 



All Resistance and Con'ductance ranges 

Open Circuit: "-*" Display 

Continuity: " ♦ " Display + 2 kHz audio tone (selectable) 

50 /xs (Minimum duration of continuity or open to toggle 
display or audio tone. Pulse stretcher holds display and 
tone for approx. 100 ms.) 

500V dc or rms all ranges 



Level Detector (804A0nly) Use for Active Circuit Testing 



Reference Level 
Display 



0.8V dc nominal 



"♦" for inputs greaterthan reference 

"■»" for inputs less than reference 

"*"for inputs toggling above and below reference 

Audio tone coincident with "■*-" (switch selectable) 



Pulse Response 
(200 kn range) 

Input Impedance 
Overload Protection 



50 ^s (Minimum width of to +3V pulse required to 
toggle display. Pulse stretcher holds display for approx. 
100 ms when short pulses are detected.) 



>100kn, <100pF 



500V dc or rms 



Accuracies are ± (% of reading 
DC Voltage 



no. of digits) 1 year, 18°Cto 28°C except as noted 
D804A D802A D800A 



Ranges 
Resolution 
Accuracy (all ranges) 

Input Impedance 
Normal Mode Rejection 
Common Mode Rejection 



200mV,2V, 20V, 200V, 1000V 



100MVon200mVrange 



0.1% rdg 
+ 1 digit 



0.1% rdg 
+ 1 digit 



0.25% rdg 
+ 1 digit 



10 Mn on all ranges 



>60dBat50and60Hz 



>100 dB at dc, 50, 60 Hz; 1 kn unbalance 



AC Voltage 



D804A 



D802A 



D800A 



Ranges 

Resolution 

Accuracy 



200 mV, 2V, 20V, 200V, 750V 



100nVon200mVrange 



45 Hz to 1 kHz: 0.75% of rdg +2 
digits on all ranges except 750V 
(1% of rdg + 2 digits) 

1 kHz to 2 kHz: 1.5% of rdg + 3 
digits on all ranges except 
750V (not specified) 

2 kHz to 5 kHz: 5% of rdg + 5 digits 
on all ranges except 200V and 
750V (not specified) 



45 Hz to 450 Hz: 
1% of rdg + 3 
digits on all 
ranges 



Input Impedance 



10 MO, <100pFon all ranges 



Resistance 



D804A 



D802A 



D800A 



Ranges 

Resolution 

Accuracy 
200 n range 

2 kn thru 200 Ml 

ranges 
2000 kn range 

20 Mn range 

Open Circuit Voltage 

Diode Test 
(Hi-LoOhms) 



20on, 2 kn, 20 kn, 2 Mn, 20Mn 



0.05% of range (0.mon200n range) 



0.2% of rdg 
+ 3 digits 

0.1% of rdg 
+ 1 digit 

0.15% of rdg 
+ 1 digit 
2% ot rdg 
+ 1 digit 



0.2% of rdg 
+ 3 digits 

0.1% of rdg 
+ 1 digit 

0,1% of rdg 
+ 1 digit 
2% of rdg 
+ 1 digit 



0.3% of rdg 
+ 3 digits 

0.2% of rdg 
+ 1 digit 

0.2% of rdg 
+ 1 digit 
2% of rdg 
+ 1 digit 



<1.5Von all ranges except 2 kn range <3.5V 

2 kn, 200 kn, and 20 Mn ranges supply enough voltage 
to turn on junctions allowing a "Diode Test" 200n, 
20 Kn, and 2000 kn ranges can be made in-circuit 
measurements without turning on silicon junctions 



DC Current 


O804A D802A D800A 


Ranges 


2 mA, 20 mA, 200 mA, 2000 mA 


Resolution 


0.05% of range (1 p.A on 2 mA range) 


Accuracy 


0.75% of rdg + 1 digit all ranges 



80 — 44 



BYTE November 1980 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



LOW COST DMM'S 







LCD DISPLAY 

Large, high contrast, 2000 count, liquid crystal display 
digits can be seen from a distance and in practically any 
light. An overrange condition is indicated when only the 
most significant digit is displayed. 



TRUE RMS, 50 kHz AND HIGHER 

True RMS assures accurate measurements of nonsinusoi- 
dal waveforms. You can notice the difference on even the 
average power line. Any measurement of ac voltage and 
current may apply to waveforms having a crest factor of 1 :1 
(squarewaves) to 1.4:1 (sinewaves) to 3:1 (peaked wave- 
forms). A typical 3dB bandwidth to 200 kHz includes the 
most significant harmonics of fundamental frequencies to 
50 kHz. A Fluke-manufactured hybrid rms converter pro- 
vides wideband, low noise, accurate measurements at low 
cost. 



CONDUCTANCE MEASUREMENTS 

This unique and highly useful function makes possible 
resistance measurements far beyond the capacity of ordi- 
nary multimeters. Conductance is theinverseofohms(lii) 
and is expressed in Siemens, formerly mhos. Simple con- 
version of direct-reading conductance to ohms yields re- 
sistance values to 10,000 Mil without special shielding to 
minimize noise. It is a must for verifying resistance values 
in high voltage dividers, checking leakage of capacitors, 
pcb's, cables, and insulators, and for general use above 20 
Mfi. You may measure transistor beta and leakage directly 
using a simple test adapter— more useful and informative 
than simple junction tests. Ask for application bulletin 
AB-44 for more details. 



ONE YEAR ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS 

A very stable semiconductor Band-Gap reference element 
lets us guarantee accuracy specifications for one year. 
That means you can depend on accuracy for long periods 
of time. But it also means a great savings in calibration 
expense over the life of the DMM. There are only five 
calibration adjustments. Some will probably never need to 
be changed. 



SPECIFICATIONS 
DC VOLTAGE 

Ranges: ±200mV, ±2V, ±20V, ±200V, ±1000V. 
Resolution: 100 ^.V on lowest range, Won 1000V range. 
Accuracy: +{0.1% of reading + 1 digit) on all ranges. 
Overload Protection: To 1000V dc or peak ac on any 
range, continuous. 
Imput Impedance: 10MU on all ranges. 



AC VOLTAGE (TRUE RMS) 

Ranges: 200mV, 2V, 200V, 750V. 

Resolution: 100 ^V on lowest range, 1 V on 750V range. 

Accuracy: ±(% of reading + no. of digits). 

Range 45 Hz 1kHz 10 kHz 20 Khz 50kHz 200 kHz 

200mv 

|J V (0.5%+2) (1.0% + 2) (5% + 3) 

200V 

750V (0.5% + 2) Not specified 

* Extended Frequency Response is typically ±3dB at 200 
kHz. Above accuracy applies for 5% to 100% of voltage 
range. 

Overload Protection: To 750V rms, 1000V peak, not to 
exceed 10' volt-Hertz product, continuous (except 10 
seconds maximum on 200mV and 2V ranges). 
Input Impedance: 10Mn in parallel with < 100 pF. 
Resistance: 

Reso ' Arrurarv FuM Scale Max Test 

lutlo n "cc"""=y Voltage Current 



Range 



200!1 

2«r 

20k!l 
200k!f 



"+.O. 




<0.25V 


1.30 mA 


m 


±(0.2% of rdg+1 


xl.OOV 


1.30 mA 




digit) 


<0.25V 


10.0 M A 


00!1 




> 1.00V 


35.0 M A 



2000k!! 1kfl „..,.,,,,, <0.25V O.IOiiA 

20MS!' 10kf! ±(0.5% of rdg+1 

>1.5V 0.35^A 



digit) 



•Diode lest ranges. 

V 



FOR BENCH 
OR FIELD 

IFLUKEI 



• 3 ! 2 LCD display 

• Auto zero, auto polarity 

• AC or battery operated models 

• One year warranty 

• Many other features not found in other DMM'S! 

FLU-D810 $249.00 

FLU-D811 with Ni Cad batteries $289.00 

LOW POWER OHMS AND DIODE TEST 

Three resistance ranges are identified as diode test 
ranges (-*+). They supply enough voltage to turn on a 
silicon junction so diode and transistor junctions can be 
tested. The remaining ranges (low power ohms) supply 
only enough voltage to measure the resistance of in- 
circuit components other than diodes and transistors. 

BATTERY OPTION (-01) 

Rechargeable size "C" Ni Cad batteries are installed 
inside the 8010A or 8012A with this option. They are 
continually kept charged when the power cord is plugged 
in and completely recharged in approximately 14 hours. 
The batteries typically provide up to 40 hours of continu- 
ous operation without recharging when measuring dc 
voltage, up to 15 hours for other measurement functions. 
The letters "BT" appear in the upper left hand corner of 
the display about a half hour before the batteries require 
recharging. 

SAFETY AND PROTECTION 

Recessed banana jacks reduce shock hazard to an oper- 
ator. When measuring resistance or conductance, up to 
300 volts may be applied with no instrument damage. 
Transients to 6kV cause no damage when measuring 
voltage. The standard current input is protected against 
shorts with a 2A, 250V fuse in series with a 600V fuse. 
That is double protection— first, for ordinary overloads 
protected with an ordinary fuse, and, second, for acci- 
dental connection to a source of up to 600V ac. 

8081 A-10 AMPERES AND TRUE RMS 

The 8010A will measure 10 amperes of ac or dc current. 
That is higher than most multimeters, and, because the 
true value of ac current is measured, even complex 
current waveforms can be measured with accuracy and 
confidence. 
DC Current 

Ranges: 200 ^A, 2 mA, 20 mA, 200 mA, 2A (and 10A on 
8010A). 

Resolution: 0.1 y.A on lowest range. 
Accuracy: ±(0.3% of reading + 1 digit) on all ranges 
except 10A range on 8010A where accuracy is ±(0.5% of 
reading + 1 digit). 
AC Current (True RMS) 
Accuracy: ±(% of reading + no. of digits) 
45 Hz 2 kHz 10 kHz 



Range 

200 uA 
2 mA 
20 mA 
200 mA 
2000 mA 
10A* 



20kHz 



(1%+2) 



(2% + 2) 



(1% + 2) 



Not specified 



FLUKE DMM 
ACCESSORIES 

FLU-4820S Carrying case (FLU-D810, D811) S35.00 

FLU-C90 Carrying case (FLU-D800, D802, D804) $10.00 
FLU-A81 AC adaptor (FLU-D800, D802, D804) . . .$15.00 

FLU-80J10 10 Amp current shunt $30.00 

FLU-Y8133 Deluxe test lead set $15.00 

FLU-Y8134 Deluxe test lead set with safety 

connectors $15.00 

FLU-Y8140 Slim test lead set $15.00 

FLU-80T150C Temp probe (°C) $110.00 

FLU-80T150F Temp, probe (°F) $110.00 

FLU-Y8102 Sheath thermocouple (D804) $50.00 

FLU-Y8103 Bead thermocouple (D804) $20.00 

FLU-Y8104 Thermocouple termination (D804) $10.00 

FLU-Y8008 Touch and hold probe (D810. D811) . . $40.00 

FLU-80K40 40KV high voltage probe $75.00 

FLU-81RF 100 MHz rf probe $45.00 

FLU-82RF 500 MHz rf probe $85.00 

FLU-801600 Clamp-on AC current probe 600A . . . $90.00 

FLU-Y8100 200A AC/DC current probe $195.00 

FLU-Y8101 150A AC current xformer $69.00 




HICKOK 



LX304 

• 3'/i Digits 

• V LCD Display 

• Floating 
Decimal Point 

• Diode Test Function 

• Auto Zero, 
Auto Polarity 

• 100 „!/' Resolu- 
tion on DCV 

• 200 Hr. Battery Lite 



SPECIFICATIONS 



DC VOLTS 


200mV. 2V. 20V. 
200V, 1000V 


Input Impedance 


lOMfi, all ranges 


Overload Protection 


1000V dc/peak ac, except 500V 
on 200mV range 


RESISTANCE 


200Q. 2kn. 20kn, 
200ka 2Mn. 20MO 


Resolution 


O.m on 200fi range 


Accuracy 


±0.9% + 1 digit except ±1.4% 
+ 1 digit on 20Mn range 


Overload Protection 


120V dc or rms ac, all ranges, indefinitely 
240V dc or rms ac, all ranges, 30 seconds 


AC VOLTS 


200V. 600V, Avg. sensing— rms 
calibrated sine wave 


Accuracy 


±1.0% + 4 digits, 40 Hz to 120 Hz 
-0.2dB@1 kHz. -2.0 dB@ 5kHz 


Input Impedance 


4,3Mfi, all ranges 


Overload Protection 


600V dc or ac rms, all ranges 


OC CURRENT 


200mA, 1A 


Resolution 


1mA 


Accuracy 


±1.5% * 1 digit, all ranges except 
±2.5% + 1 digit on 200mA range of LX 303 


Overload Protection 


1.7A all ranges 


GENERAL 


Power 


Single 9V battery; NEDA 1604 (not incl.t 
or Hickok AC Adapter 


Battery Indicator 


"Lo Bat" on display 


Dimensions 


5'/b" x 3 3 /s" x 1 3 A" (14.7 cm x 8.5 cm x 4.3 cm) 


Weight 


12 oz. (0.33 kg) including battery 


HIC-LX304 . . . 


ftft&AS 


ACCESSORIES (See LX 303) 




LX303 

• 3V? Digits 
• 14" LCD Display 

• 200 Hour Battery Lile 
Auto Zero. Polarity and Overage 

• lOOmvDCF.C. Sensilivity 
• 19 Ranges and Functions 

• Weighs on 12 ounces 



Specifications: DC Volts (5 Ranges): O.lmV to 1000V; 
Accuracy +0.5% rdg +0.5% f.s.; Input imped: 10M 
ohms; Max. input 1kV except 500V on 200mV range. 
AC VOLTS (40Hz to 5kHz): 0.1 to 600 V; Accuracy: 
+ 1.0% rdg +0.5% f.s. (-2dB max. at 5kHz); Max in- 
put:600V.RESISTANCE (6 LOW POWER RANGES): 0.1 
ohms to 20M ohms; Accuracy: +0.5% rdg +0.5% f.s. 
( + 1.5% rdg on 20M ohms range); input protected to 
120 VAC all ranges. DC CURRENT (6 RANGES): 01nA 
to 100mA; Accuracy: +1.0% rdg +0.5% f.s. DIMEN- 
SIONS AND WEIGHT: 5-7/8" x 3-3/8 x 1%", 12 oz.; 
Power: 9V Batt. (not included) or Hickok AC adapter; 
READ RATE: 3/sec. OPERATING TEMPERATURE: 
0°-50" C. 
PART NO. 
HIC-LX303 
HIC-RC-3 
HIC-CC-3 
HIC-VP-10 



HIC-VP40 
HIC-CS-1 
HIC-TP-20F 
HIC-TP-20C 



DESCRIPTION PRICE 

DIGITAL MULTIMETER $79.95 

1 15V AC ADAPTER $ 8.00 

PADDED CARRY CASE $ 8.00 

X10 DC PROBE ADAPTER 

(Up to 10KV) $16.50 

40kV DC PROBE $38.50 

10 Amp DC Current Shunt $16.50 

Temp Probe (-67 to + 302F) $49.95 

Temp Probe (-55 to * 150C) .... $49.95 



VISIT OUR RETAIL STORE 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 45 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




Non-Linear Systems oscilloscopes 



NEW MS- 2 30 Dual Trace Miniscope with 30 MHz Bandwidth! 

From the originators of the Digital Voltmeter, the people who have broken sales and performance records for Oscillo- 
scopes, Non-Linear Systems, comes the MS-230 miniscope. 

Non-Linear Systems took their engineering and modular construction skills and made a dream a reality, a Dual-Trace 30 
iniscope, small enough to fit in most briefcases with room to spare at an affordable price. 



MHz r 



FEATURES: • Dual-Trace — 2-channel; separate, chopped or 
alternate modes. • Warranty — one year parts and labor. • 30- 
megahertz bandwidth. • External and internal trigger. •Time Base 
— 0.05 microseconds to 0.2 Sec./div — 21 settings. • Battery or 
line operation. • Line synchronization mode. • Power consump- 
tion less than 50W. • Vertical Gain — 0.01 to 50 volts/div — 12 
settings. • Size: 2.9" H x 6.4" W x 8,5" D . • Weighs only 3.5 lbs with 
batteries • TEST MOST DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS INCLUD- 
ING MICROPROCESSORS. 





VERTICLE: Mode: CHI, CH2, CHI & CH2 (Chopped) & CH2( Ait.) 
( The following specifications apply to each channel. ) Bandwidth: 
DC to 30 MHz, ±3 db @ 3 division deflection. Typical 4 division 
deflection is obtainbable up to 20 MHz. Coupling: AC, DC or 
ground, switch selectable Low frequency 3 db point on AC is 3 
Hz. Rise Time: Approximately 10 nSec @ 3 division deflection. 
Vertical Input: 10 mV/div to 50 V/div in 12 calibrated ranges 
Accuracy is 3%. Input Impedance: 1 megohm in parallel with 50 
pF. 

HORIZONTAL: Mode: Internal time Dase or external, in XY mode, 
vertical input is thru CH1 and horizontal thru CH2. Time Base: .1 
^sec/div to 0.5 sec/div in 21 calibrated ranges; 3% accuracy. 
Bandwidth: DC to 1 MHz (13 db) Deflection factor: 10 mV/div to 
50 V/div in 12 calibrated ranges. Max. Input Voltage: 250 V (DC and 
peak AC). Trigger Modes: Automatic, internal, external, and line 
(line not functional when operating on battery power). Slope 
Switch: + or -. Coupling: AC Sensitivity: Less than 1 div for 
interanl trigger and less than 1 volt for external trigger. CRT 
Viewing Area (Screen Size): 1 .1 " H x 1 .35 " W Graticule: 0.25 in./div 
(4 div H x 5 div W). Power: 3 rechargable batteries or 115 VAC with 
transformer. Battery Life: Approx, 45 minutes. Power Consump- 
tion: Less than 50 watts Input Connector: BNC; Iwo shielded 
cables included. Size: 2.9" H x 6.4" W x 8.5" D. Weight: 3.5 lbs. with 
batteries. 
NLS MS-230 Miniscope List Price S598.15 

Our Price $525.00 



MS-215 MINISCOPE OSCILLOSCOPE 



An extremely small dual-trace oscilloscope with big performance 
at a low price. Portable, battery powered or AC line operation 
Rechargeable batteries and charger included. 
FEATURES: • Dual trace — 2 channel; separate, chopped, or 
alternate modes. • 15 MHz bandwidth. • External and internal 
trigger. • Battery or line operation. • Automatic or line sync, 
modes. * Power consumption less than 15 watts. • Time Base: 1 
^sec to 0.5 sec/div in 21 settings. • Vertical Gain: 0.01 to 50 
volts/div in 12 settings. • Weighs only 3 lbs. with batteries. 




SPECIFICATIONS: Vertical (Both channels identical}. Mode: 
CH1. CH2, CH1 and CH2 (chopped), and CH1 and CH2 (alter- 
nate). Bandwidth: DC to 15 MHz, ±6 db at 1 div deflection.' 
Risetime: Approx. 23nsecat 1 div deflection Deflection Factor: 10 
mV/div to 50 V/div in 12 calibrated ranges; 3% accuracy. Max. 
Input Voltage: 350 V (DC and peak AC) provided DC component 
does not exceed 250 V Horizontal Mode: Internal time base or 
external. In XY mode, vertical input is thru CH1 and horizontal thru 
CH2. Time Base: 0.1 ^sec/div to 05 sec/div in 21 calibrated 
ranges; 3% accuracy. Bandwidth: DC to 200 kHz (r3db) Deflec- 
tion Factor: 10 mV/div to 50 V/div in 12 calibrated ranges. Max. 
Input Voltage: 250 V (DC and peak AC). Trigger: Modes: Auto- 
matic, internal, external, and line (line not functional when operat- 
ing on battery power). Slope Switch: + or - Coupling: AC Sensi- 
tivity: Less than 1 div for internal trigger and less than 1 volt for 
external trigger. CRT Viewing Area (Screen Size): 1 .1 " H x 1 .35" 
W Graticlue:0.25 in, /div (4 div H x5 divW) Power Consumption: 
Less than 15 watts. Power Required: AC line or rechargeable 
batteries. Battery Lite: 3 hours typical Input Connector: BNC; two 
shielded cables included. Size: 2.9" H x 6.4" W x 8.0" D Weight: 3 
lbs. 
NLS-MS-215 Miniscope List Price $465.45 

Our Price $410.00 

* Typical 3 dB point is 8 MHz at 2-division deflection. Typical 
maximum frequency for full scale (4-div) deflection is 2 MHz. 



MS-15 MINISCOPE OSCILLOSCOPE 

An extremely small oscilloscope with big performance 
at a low price. Portable, battery operated, or AC line 
operation. Rechargeable batteries and charger unit in- 
cluded. 1.1" x 1.35" viewing area. 

FEATURES:* 15 MHz bandwidth. • External or internal 
triggering. • Time Base— 0.1/jsec. to 0.5 sec/div. in 21 
settings. • Battery or line operation. • Automatic and 
line sync modes. • Power consumption less than 15 
watts. • Vertical Gain— 0.01 to 50 volts/div. in 12 set- 
tings. • Weight— only 3 lbs. 




SPECIFICATIONS: Vertical Bandwidth: 15 MHz ± 6 dB 

at 1 div. deflection*. Risetime: Approx. 23nsec. at 1 div 
deflection. Deflection Factor: 10 mV/div. to 50 V/div. ir 
12 calibrated ranges; 3% accuracy . Max. Input Voltage: 
350 V (DC + peak AC) provided DC component does not 
exceed 250 V. Horizontal Mode: Internal time base or ex 
ternal. Time Base: 0.1 usee to 0.5 sec/div. in 21 
calibrated ranges; 3% accuracy. Horizontal Bandwidth: 
DC to 200 kHz (±3 dB). Deflection Factor: Approx 
1 V/div. Max. Input Voltage: 100 V (DC + peak AC). Trig' 
ger Modes: Automatic, internal, external and line (line 
does not function when operating on battery power) 
Slope Switch: + or - . Coupling: DC. Sensitivity: Less 
than 1 div. for internal trigger; less than 1 volt for exter- 
nal trigger. CRT Viewing Area (Screen Size): 1.1" h. x 
1.35" w. Graticule: 0.25 in./div. (4 div. h. x 5 div. w. 
Power Consumption: Less than 15 watts. Power Re- 
quired: AC line or rechargeable batteries. Battery Life: 3 
hours typical. Input Connector: BNC; two cables includ- 
ed. Size: 2.9" h. x 6.4" w. x 8.0" d. Weight: 3 lbs. with 
batteries 
NLS-MS-15 Miniscope List Price $349. 

Our Price $310.00 

MHz at 2-division deflection. Typical 
jll scale (4-div) deflection is 2 MHz 



' Typical 3 dB point is 8 
maximum frequency for f 



ACCESSORIES: PROBES 



Deluxe 10 to 1 probe with 10 megohm input. 100 HHz 
probe with 4 interchangeable tips: Spring-loaded retrac- 
table cover tip, insulating tip, BNC tip, IC tip, also in- 
cluded cap adjustment tool and zippered vinyl case. 
NLS-41-141 $27.00 



DELUXE COMBINATION PROBE 

Same as above except the probe has a switch to select; 
10 to 1, 1 to 1 or a ground reference position. 
BKP-PH37RD Red probe body 
BKP-PR37GY Grey probe body $39.50 ea. 



LEATHER CARRYING CASE 

The leather case has 2 separate compartments. One to 
hold the scope, the other to hold the charger, probe 
shoulder strap, etc. The case can be worn on the belt, or 
over the neck. The snaps used on the case are "one 
way", thus accidental striking of the case against an ob- 
ject will not undo the snaps or let it be pulled off you 
belt. 

NLS-41-180- Leather Case (MS-230) $45.00 

NLS-41-140- Leather Case (MS-15 & MS-215) $45.00 

NLS-41-134-2 - Charger Unit, 230 VAC 

(MS-15 & MS-215) $7.70 

NLS-41-184-2 • Charger Unit, 230 VAC 

(MS-230) $20.9 



-Only11x22x30cm 



SfC PRECISION , 



15 MHz response: usable beyond 20 MHz 

• 10 mV/div vertical sensitivity 

• Conveniently fits into ordinary attache case 
(4.5 x 8.5 x 12") with handle 
Operates on AC, external 10-16 VDC or optional internal battery pack 

• 8 x 10 division high-brightness rectangular CRT 
TIME/DIV control selects line/frame rate triggering 
18 calibrated sweep positions 
Video sync separator standard 
X-Y operation — X axis, through CH 

• Front-panel probe calibration source 
Weighs only 3.6 kg. (8 lbs.) 

SPECIFICATIONS 

VERTICAL AMPLIFIER: Deflection Factor: 10 mV/div to 20 V/div. ±5% in 11 
ranges, each with vernier adjustment. Frequency Response: DC: -15 MHz 
(-3 dB); AC: -10 Hz-15 MHz (-3 dB). RiseTime: 24 nsec or less Overshoot 
3% or less. Input Impedance: 1 Mil shunted by 22 pF. Maximum Input: 300 
V (DC * AC) peak or 600 V p-p. Operating Modes: Channel A only; Channel 
~ only; A & B (dual). Dual-Trace: Trace automatically chopped at all 
sweep rates less than or equal to 1 mSEC/div and alternate mode for 
all sweep rates greater than 1 mSEC/div. Chop Frequency: 100 kHz 

20%, Channel Separation: Better than 60 dB at 1 kHz. 
SWEEP SYSTEM: (Common to Channel A and Channel B). Type: Auto- 
matic and triggered (NORM): auto provides sweep with no input 
signal. Sweep Time: 1.0 ^S/div to 0.5 S/div ±5% in 18 ranges in a 1-2-5 
sequence. Linearity: 3%; 10X ±5%. Sweep Magnification: x10. ±10%, 
variable between ranges. Extends maximum sweep rate to 100 nS /div. 
TRIGGERING: Source: CH A. CH B. (CH A in dual) external. Automatic: 
Sweep obtained without input signal. Normal: Sweep is obtained with a 
displayed signal of one division or more. Slope: Sweep can be set to 
trigger on the positive- or negative-going slope of the trigger wave- 
form. Coupling:AC, 20 Hz-20 MHz. Level: Continuously variable. Trigger 
Sensilivity: INT: 20 Hz to 15 MHz - 1 Div deflection. EXT. 20 Hz to 15 
MHz —1.0V p-p. External Trigger Input: Max. Input Voltage: 50 V p-p or 
24 V. DC + AC peak Input Impedance: 100 Kit (nominal). Input Capac- 
itance: 35 pF (nominal). 

HORIZONTAL AMPLIFIER: Input through Channel B vertical input. Deflec- 
tion Factor: 10 mV/div, to 20 V/div. x5% in 11 ranges, each with fine 
adjustment. Response: DC: DC to 1 MHz (-3 dB); AC: 10 Hz to 1 MHz. Input 
Impedance: 1 Mil (±5%). 22 pF (±3pF) Input Protection: 300 V (DC I AC 
peak) or 600 V p-p. X-Y Operation: With SWEEP TIME/DIV switch in X-Y 
position, the CH B input becomes the X input (horizontal) and the CH B 
position control becomes horizontal position control. 
OTHER SPECIFICATIONS: 

Operating Environment — Temp: to +45 C Calibration: Internal 1 V p-pi 
3% (square wave at 1 kHz ±5%). CRT: Rectangular. 8 x 10 div (OV 
cm/div) with P31 phosphor; mumetal shield. Power Requirements: 120 
VAC-60 Hz, 240 VAC-50 Hz, 10-16 VDC or internal battery Power 
consumption; 16 watts (AC). Supplied with 120 VAC adapter. 240 VAC 
adapter available on special order. Size:(HW0) 11 x 22 x 30 cm (4.5 x 
8.5x12") with handle. 8x20x25 cm (3.25x7.75x10") without handle. 
Weight 3.6 kg (8 lbs.) with optional battery Probes: Two 10:1 /direct 
probes and accessory tips provided. Options: BP-14 battery pack, 
LC-20 deluxe carrying case with shoulder strap and pocket. LC-21 
pouch for probes and operating manual. 

LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 
BKP 1420 Miniscope $825.00 $750.00 

BKP-BP14 Battery Pack $ 55.00 

BKP LC20 Leathercase CALL 

BKP-LC2I Pouch for Probes CALL 




3" 5 MHz Solid 

State 

Oscilloscope 

$289.00 

B&K-PRECISION 
Model 

BKP-1405 

FEATURES: 5MHz with high sensitivity • Direct deflec- 
tion input for waveforms to 450MHz • Sharp bright trace 
• DC amplifiers on both axes • 10mV/div vertical sen- 
sitivity • Weighs only 8.5 lbs. 

The 1403A is an outstanding value. Bandwidth extends 
to 5MHz with a sensitivity of 10mV/div or better. With 
high brightness CRT and smoked-glass filter. 
waveforms are clear and easy to observe. The graticule 
features db and division indexing. 
SPECIFICATIONS: Vertical Amplifier— Sensitivity: 
10mV/div or better. Response: DC, DC-5MHz (-3dB); 
AC, 2Hz-5MHz(-3dB). Max Input: 600V peak to peak. In- 
put Impedance: 1 meg shunted by 35pF. Attenuattor: 1, 
1/10, 1/100 multiplier, ±5%. Gain Control Range: 
greater than 22dB. Horizontal Amplifier— Sensitivity: 
300mV/division or better. Response: DC-250kHz. Max In- 
put: 100 Vp-p. Sweep System— Type: Recurrent. Time 
Base Ranges: 10-100Hz, 100-1000Hz, 1 -10kHz, 
10-100kHz; continuously variable between ranges. 
Sweep Linearity: ±5%. Sync: Internal, negative; exter- 
nal. Direct Deflection Terminals: 10V/division sensitivity 
or better. General — Intensity Modulation: 25Vp-p. 
Power: 117/234VAC. 50-60Hz. 10W; three-wire grounded 
line cord. Acc.incl.: Leads, spare fuse, instructions. 
Size: (HWD) 13.1 x 18 x 29 cm (5.25 x 7,25 x 11.5"). 
Weight: 3.8 kg. (8.5 lbs.). Optional Accessories: PR-21 
iprobe. LC-14 case. a 



80 — 46 



BYTE November 1980 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




Non-Linear Systems 



DIGITAL 
PANEL 



DIGITAL 
MULTIMETERS 



DEL PC-4 PANEL METER EVENT COUNTER 




The PC-4 is an all-solid-state evenVcounter or~totalizer 
designed for panel mounting and high reliability. It will 
totalize electronic pulses up to 200,000 per second or 
mechanical switch closures up to 3000 per second. The 
.3" high LED display is easily readable up to eight feet. 
Has multiplexed BCD output and a displayhold feature. 
Input Signal Amplitude: + 3 to +15 volts or switch 
open to ground for count. Decimal Location: external 
jumper locates decimal to any of four positions. Out- 
puts: 1-2-4-8 BCD parallel. Power Source: +5 VDC, 
±5%, external. Size: 0.9375" h. x 2.5" w. x 3.25 d. 
Weight: 4 oz. 

NLS PC-4 Event Counter— Price Each $64.20 

MODEL RC-5TB UNIVERSAL COUNTER 



9 3 9 3 9 



A DIN size panel-mounted universal counter which can 
be internally programmed to function as a unit counter, 
frequency counter. The RC-5TB also permits internal 
selection of four time bases of 0.01 sec, 0.1 sec, 1.0 
sec, or 10 sec for the frequency counter mode and 1 cy- 
cle, 10 cycles, or 1000 cycles for the period frequency 
ratio and time interval modes. The RC-5TB utilizes ter- 
minal block connections and has hold and reset 
capabilities. Power Requirements: + 5 VDC, ±5%. 
Operating Temperature Range: 0" C to +50° C. Ac- 
curacy: Unit counter frequency counter, ± 1 count: fre- 
quency ratio/period/time interval, ±1 count + time 
base accuracy. Number of Digits: 5. Display: 0.5" high 
LED. Count Rate: Greater than 1 MHz. Input signal 
Amplitude: + 3 to +15 volts. Time Base Crystal Fre- 
quency: 10 MHz. Frequency: DC to 1 MHz. Size: Behind 
bezel. 3.58" w. x 1.645" h. x 3.80" d. 
NLS RC-5TB "niversal Counter- Net each $144.00 

MODELS PR-5 AND PR-5B 
DIGITAL PRESET COUNTERS 



PR-5 



S.H 3 E 7 

^> model *"*•:> 



c 



Low-cost electronic digital preset counters to replace 
mechanical counters. Solid-state LSI design. Up to 500 
kHz pulse count rate or 300 contact closures per se 
cond. Accepts subtractive pulses for rejection subtrac 
t ion or for counting downward. Multiplexed BCD output 
Guarded preset; can not be accidently changed 
Unlimited number of preset count. Applicable to totaliz- 
ing batch counting, digitizing, timing rate/frequency 
measurement, press control, coil winding and many 
other applications. 5-digit, 0.3" high LED display in- 
dicates total number of counts less any subtractive 
counts. Compatible with wide range of sensors. Count 
Speed: Electronic, up to 500 kHz ( + 3 V to + 15 V); con- 
tact closure, up to 300/sec Number of Resets: One, 
built-in; unlimited number with external switches; 
preset number set by front-panel screwdriver ad- 
justments. Input Impedance: 40K ohms. Reset Capabili- 
ty: Front-panel pushbutton switch or external contact 
closure. Power Requirements: + 12 VDC ( ± 5%). 270 mA 
max.; Mode) PR-5B contains internal rechargeable bat- 
tery pack which provides + 12 V stand-by power 
(without toss of count) for approximately 1 hr. in case of 
primary power failure. An optional 115 VAC line power 
supply for operation of Model PR-5 or recharging bat- 
teries of PR-5B is available as an accessory. Operating 
Temperature: ° C to 50 ° C. Coincidence Output: Output 
signal is provided when displayed count is equal to 
preset number (TTL logic level) or when zero is reached 
when counting downward. Size: 2.25" h. x 3.25" w. x 4" 
d. Weight: 4.75 oz. 

NLS PR-5 Digital Preset Counter— Net Each. $168.55 
NLS PR-5B Counter w/Battery Pick- 
Net Each $198.55 



RANGE INFORMATION 

RANGE COD E 

WHEN ORDERING PANEL METERS 0-200V A 

FROM THIS PAGE, A VOLTAGE RANGE 0-200V B 

MAY BE REQUIRED IN THE PART 0-20V C 

NUMBER. PLEASE USE THE CODES 0-2V D 

GIVEN 0-.2V E 




Great performance at a thrifty price. 3Vz digits; 3 digits 
olus 100% overrange. 0.05% accuracy. 
FEATURES: • MOS/LSI construction. • Less than 1" 
high. • Programmable decimal. * No zero adjustment 
necessary. • Overload indication. • Large, bright, 0.3" 
LED or LCD display. • Low Power requirement. • Display 
blanking. • Automatic polarity. • Input voltage protec- 
tion. 

SPECIFICATIONS: Voltage Ranges: 0- ±0.1999. 
0- ±1.999, 0- + 19.99. 0- ± 199.9, and 0- 1000 VDC. 
Accuracy (at +23" C ±2° C): ±0.05% of reading 
+ 0.05% of full scale. Input Impedance: 0.1999 volt 
range. 100 megohms: 1.999 volt range. 1000 megohms; 
19.99 volt range. 1 megohm; 199.9 and 1000 volt ranges, 
10 megohms. Display Height: 0.3" Display Type: PM-349 
and PM-350, LED: PM-351 . LCD. Update Rate: 3 rdg./sec 
nominal Power Requirements; 5 VDC (±5%). 200 mA. 
nominal for PM-349 and PM-350; 6mA for PM-351. Com- 
mon Mode Rejection: 80 dB. minimum. Common Mode 
Compliance: + 100 mV, Operating Temperature: 10° C 
to 50 D C. Zero Adjustment: None required. Decimal Posi- 
tioning Capability: Standard. Control Signals: Polarity 
Inhibit: Standard. Display Inhibit: Standard. Scale Fac- 
tor Adjustment: ±5%. Input Voltage Protection: Stan- 
dard. Overload Indication: Standard. Bipolar Operation: 
Standard. Automatic Polarity: Standard. Special Scal- 
ing: Optional Offset Capability: Optional Current Meter 
Operation: Optional. Overall Size: 2-7/8" w. x 15/16" h. x 
3%" d. 
with Soldered in components 

NLS-PM349-RANGE $55.65 

Range change resistors, Display and IC's are plug in 

NLS-PM350RANGE $69.55 

NLS-PM351-RANGE $78.10 

RANGE: .2V (PM350, PM351 Only), 2V, 20V, 200V, 1000V. 

Specify when ordering. 

AVi DIGIT PM SERIES DIGITAL PANEL METER 
SPECIFICATIONS: Voltage Ranges: 0- ±1.999, 
0- 19.999. 0- ± 199.99, - ± 1000VDC. Accuracy (at 
NLS-PM450-RANGE $122.00 

4% DIGIT RM SERIES DIGITAL PANEL METERS 




RM-450 

SPECIFICATIONS: Voltage Ranges: 0-± 1.9999, 
0- 19.999. 0- ± 199.99, 0- ± 1000 volts. Accuracy (at 
23° C ± 2°): 0.02% of full scale. Imput Impedance: 
1.9999 volt range, 1000 megohms: 19.999 volt range. 1 
megohm: 199.99 and 1000 volt ranges, 10 megohms. 
Display Height: RM 450, 0.5"; RM-451, 0.4". Display 
Type: RM-450. LED: RM-451. LCD. 

NLS-RMS450-RANGE (LED DISPLAY) $133.00 

NLS RM450TB RANGE (LED DISPLAY) $133.00 

NLS-RM451-RANGE (LCD DISPLAY) $146.60 

NLS-RM450TB-RANGE (LCD DISPLAY) $146.60 

RANGE: 2V, 20V, 200V, 1000V. 

Specify when ordering. 

m DIGIT RM SERIES DIGITAL METERS 

SPECIFICATIONS: Voltage Ranges: 0- ±. 1999. 0- ± 
1.999, 0-± 1999, 0- ± 199.9. and 0-± 1000 
VDC/VAC. Accuracy (at 23° C ±2° C): ± (0.05% of 
reading +0.05% of full scale). Input Impedance: 0.199 
volt range. 100 megohms; 1.999 volt range. 1000 
meghohms; 19.99 volt range. 1 megohm: 199.9 and 1000 
volt ranges, 10 megohms. Display Height: 0.5" LED: 0.6" 
LCD. Display Type: RM-350 or RM-350TB, LED: RM-351 
or RM-351TB, LCD. Update Rate: 3 readings/second. 
Common Mode Rejection: 80 db minimum Common 
Mode Compliance: + 100 mV. Operating Temperature: 
10" C to 50" C Zero Adjustment: None required. Size: 
1.89" h. x 4.0" w. x 3.8" d. 

NLS-RM350-RANGE (LED DISPLAY) $69.55 

NLS-RM350TB-RANGE (LED DISPLAY) $69.55 

NLS-RM351-RANGE (LCO DISPLAY) $81.30 

NLS-RM350TB-RANGE (LCD DISPLAY) $81.30 



RANGE: .2V, 2V, 20V, 200V, 1000V. 

Specify when ordering. 



THE NEW TECHNOLOGY 
TOUCH/TEST 20 MULTIMETER 

Voltage Measurements. AC volts & AC millivolts — each function has 
three ranges: measurements from 10 microvolts to 750 VRMS. DC 
volts & DC millivolts — each function has three ranges, measure- 
ments from 10 microvolts to 1000 VOC. 

Temperature Measurements. Degrees Celsius & Fahrenheit — two 
ranges; measurements from -40 to +150 D C or from -40° to +302' : T. 
Conductance Measurements. Measurements from 0.01 nanosiemens to 
1.999 nanosiemens which is equivalent to: from 5 megohms to 100.000 
megohms 

Capacitance Measurements. Microfarads, nanofarads & picofarads — 
six ranges combined; measurements from 1.0 picofarad to 200 
microfarads. 

Current Measurements. AC amperes & AC milliamperes — four ranges; 
measurements from 10 microamperes to 10 amperes. DC amperes. OC 
milliamperes & DC microamperes — seven ranges combined; mea- 
surements from 0.01 microamperes to 10 amperes. 
Resistance Measurements. Megohms, kilohms & ohms — seven ranges 
combined, measurements from 10 milliohms to 20 megohms. 
Other Tests. Diode Test — A single quantitative means of checking 
diode and transistor junctions in both conducting and non-conducting 
directions. Continuity Test — Provides capability for audibly checking 
conductors and solder joints for shorts and open circuits, plus a 
go-no-go measurement of the amount of resistance from 10 milliohms 
to 2000 ohms. 

ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS 

DC Voltage - DC volts & DC Millivolts 

±(0.2% of Reading ♦ 1 digit) 
AC Voltage - AC volts & AC millivolts 

±(0.5% of Reading * 2 digits) - 50 Hz to 10 kHz 
OC Current — DC amps, DC milliamps & DC microamps 

±(1% of Reading + 1 digit) 
AC Current — AC amps & AC milliamps 

±(1.5% of Reading + 2 digits) — 50 Hz to 10 kHz 
Temperature — % & °F 

±(3'C from -40°C to +150'X) 
Resistance — ohms, kilohms & megohms 

±(0.25% of Reading + 1 digit) 

Test Current — 100 nA, 10 ^A & 1 mA 

Test Voltage — 0.2V max. @ F.S. up to 2 megohms 
Conductance — nanosiemens 

+(0.2% of Reading +2 digits) 
Capacitance — microtarad, nanotarad 8. picofarad 

±(1% of full scale) 
Diode Test 

±(0.2% of Reading + 1 digit) 

Test Current — 1 mA ±2% 

TOUCH/TEST 20 comes complete with Test Leads. Temperature Probe, and 
Component Test Adaptor. 

CAT. PART ft LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 



NLS-TT20 $399.50 

NLS-TT20B $425.00 

(With Batteries and Charger Unit) 
NLS-41-140 Leather Carrying Case 



$360.00 
$385.00 



$45.00 




A 



FM-300TB/115 and FM-300TB/230 
LCD Display — 45.0 to 99.9 Hz. 

3DIGIT FM SERIES 
DIGITAL LINE FREQUENCY MONITORS 
FEATURES: • Crystal controlled time base. • Fits DIN or 
NEMA cutout. • Large 0.6" LCD or 0.5" LED. • Calibra- 
tion not required. • Line voltage protection. • Display 
updated every two seconds. • Terminal block connec- 
tions. 

SPECIFICATIONS: Frequency Range: FM 3TB and FM- 
300TB. 45.0 to 99.9 Hz; FM-340TB. 045 to 450 Hz, Time 
Base: 1 second, crystal controlled. Resolution: FM-3TB 
and FM-300TB. 0.1 Hr: FM-340TB. 1 Hz. Accuracy: FM- 
3TB and FM300TB, ± 0.1 Hz: FM-340TB. ± 1 Hz. Display: 
FM-3TB. 0.5" LED: FM-300TB. 0.6" LCD: FM-340TB. 
0.6"LCD. Update Rate: Once every two seconds 
Operating Temperature: ° C to + 50 " C. Size: 1 .09" h. x 
4.00" x 3.80" d. 

NLS-FM3TB-115VAC $103.55 

NLS-FM3TB-230VAC S105.55 

NLSFM300TB-115VAC $109.15 

NLSFM300TB-230VAC $112.35 

NLS-FM340TB-115VAC $112.00 

NLSFM340TB 230VAC $115.00 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 47 



DYNASCAN 
CORPORATION 



BSSSSBc 

Test Equipment 

New 

Sweep/Function 
Generator 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




BKP-3020 

...Four 
One! 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 

s 350 00 *309 00 
Instruments in 



decoders. ..Generate double side-band supressed car- 
rier signals for communications system tests. ..Evaluate 
attack-time of audio compressors.. .Sweeptest any 
passive or active device up to 2MHz. 

FEATURES: Four instruments in one package — sweep 
generator, function generator, pulse generator, tone- 
burst generator • Covers .02Hz-2MHz • 1000: 1 tuning 
range • Low-distortion high-accuracy outputs • Three 
-step attenuator plus vernier control • Internal linear 
and log sweeps • Tone-burst output is front-panel or ex- 
ternally programmable • Variable symmetry for almost 
any wave shape • Independent control of modulation 
and carrier level • Most complete low frequency signal 
source in its price range. 

APPLICATIONS: Frequency response tests ... Amplifier 
square-wave and sweep evaluation ... Tone-burst 
speaker response tests ... Bias signal source ... 
substitute signal source for digital and analog circuits 
... Pulse signal source ... Check threshold levels for TTL 
and CMOS logic ... Receiver alignment ... IF response 
tests... Observe distortion including Transient Inter- 
modulation (TIM) distortion ... Measure linearity of in- 
struments and transducers ... Check for ringing induc- 
tors ... Align subaudible and tone-burst. 

SPECIFICATIONS: Frequency- Range: .02Hz-2MHz in 7 

ranges, (each range provides 1000: 1 frequency control.) 
Ext. Control: VCG range >1000: 1 (linear) on any range 
with 0-10V input. Accuracy: ±5% of f .s. Stability: .05% 
(after 15 min.) SQUARE WAVE: Variable amplitude and 
fixed TTL output. Symmetry: 99% to 100kHz. Rise/Fall 
Time: <100ns. TTL Square Wave: <25ns. rise/fall time 
(logic 0<0.4V; logic 1>2.4V). SINE WAVE— Distortion: 
<1% .02Hz to 100kHz, <0.5% typical. Amplitude 
Flatness: Better than ±0.3dB to 2MHz at max. output. 
TRIANGLE WAVE— Linearity: 99% at 100kHz. Variable 
Symmetry: 40:1 range, .02Hz-2MHz. AM Modulation: 
0-1.5Vp-p ext. signal required to provide 100% modula- 
tion. Capable of suppressed carrier operation. 
SWEEP— Internal: Linear or log. Sweep Rate: 0.5Hz to 
50Hz. Sweep Width: Var. 10:1 to 1000:1. Sweep V. Out- 
put: Proportional to sweep. Ext. Sweep: Rear panel VCG 
input provided. TONE-BURST— Burst Width: Adj. from 
5-90% of period of internal gating frequency. Ext. 
gating, burst width determined by TTL gating pulse. 
Rep. Rate: 0.5Hz to 50Hz, set by SWEEP RATE control. 
OUTPUT— Amplitude: 20Vp-p open circuit; 10Vp-p at 
50Q. Control: Cont. variable, >20dB. Fixed attenuation, 
0-40dB in 3 steps: total 60dB attenuation. Output Z: 50Q 
±5%. DC Offset: Cont. variable. to ± 10V or ± 5V in- 
to 50Q. 



GENERAL— Rear panel jacks: VCG (sweep) input, GCV 
voltage out (prop, to freq.), AM input, TTL output, ext. 
burst gate input. Operating Temp.: 0-50°C. Power: 

105-130VAC, 60Hz, 22W. Three-wire cord. Size (HWD): 
8.1 x29 x 20cm. (3.2 x 11.3 x 7.8") incl. handle. Weight: 
1.35kg (3.1 lbs.) CSA listed. 



New Low Distortion 
Function Generator 




LI 



BKP-3010 



ST PRICE OUR PRICE 

$200 00 $ 175 00 



APPLICATIONS: Frequency response tests • Amplifier 
performance evaluation • Bias signal source • 
Analog/Digital signal substitution • Receiver alignment 

• Check linearity of test instruments ■ Check resonant 
circuits for ringing inductors. 

FEATURES: Generates sine, square and triangle 
waveforms • Variable amplitude and fixed TTL square- 
wave outputs • 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz in six ranges • Typical 
sine wave distortion under 0.5% from 0.1 Hz to 100 kHz 

• Variable DC offset for engineering applications • VCO 
external input for sweep-frequency tests. 

SPECIFICATIONS: Frequency— Range: 0.1Hz to 1MHz 
in six ranges. (Each range provides >100:1 freq. control.) 
Ext. Control: >100:1 on any range with 0-5. 5V input. Ac- 
curacy: 5% of f.s. Stability: .05% (after 15 min.) 
SQUARE WAVE— Symmetry: 99% to 100kHz Rise/Fall 
Time: <100ns. TTL Square Wave: <25ns rise/fall time. 
TRIANGLE WAVE— Linearity: 99% to 100kHz. SINE 
WAVE— Distortion: <1% 0.1Hz to 100kHz; <0.5% 
typical. Amplitude Flatness: <0.3dB to 1MHz at max. 
output. OUTPUT— Amplitude: 20Vp-p open circuit, 
10Vp-p into 600S2. Continuously variable, >30dB range. 
Output Z: 600B ±5%. DC Offset: Var. to max. of ±10V 
open circuit or ± 5V at 600n. GENERAL— Operating 
Temp.: 0-50"C. Power: 105-130VAC, 60Hz, 8W. Size 
(HWD): 8.1 x 29 x 20cm (3.2 x 11.3 x 7.8") incl. handle. 
Weight: 1.3kg (2.9 lbs.). CSA listed. 

80 MHz Counter with 
Period Mode and Timer 




BKP-1820 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 

*300 00 $ 265 00 



FEATURES: • 5Hz to 80MHz reading guaran- 
teed— 100MHz typical • Period measurements from 5Hz 
to 1 MHz. " Period average, auto and manual positions • 
One PPM resolution • Totalizes to 999999 plus overflow 

• Elapsed time measurements from .01 to 9999.99 
seconds plus overflow • One-megohm input resistance 

• Bright,. 43" high LED readouts. 

SPECIFICATIONS: FREQUENCY — Range: 5Hz to 
80MHz Gate Time Auto: 10ms (MHz) and 100ms and 1 
sec. (kHz). Gate Time Man.: 1 sec. (1 Hz reso.). Accuracy: 
±t.b. accur. ±1 count. Resolution: ±0.0001% (i.e. 
1 PPM of a 6 digit scale). PERIOD— Range: 5Hz to 1 MHz; 
MS (100 period aver.) or AUTO reading. Period Aver. Auto: 
1 period aver, (ms), 10 and 100 period aver. (^s). Period 
Aver. Man.: 100 and 100 period aver, (ms reading with 1 ns 
reso.). TOTALIZE CHAR.— Range: 5Hz to 80MHz; to 
999999 plus overflow. Control: Man. reset to 0; converti- 
ble to remote reset. ELAPSED TIME— Range: .01 to 
9999.99 sec. plus overrange. Trigger: TTL or contac 
closure. Reset: Manual, on front panel. IN 
PUT— Impedance: 1 M£; 25pF. Coupling: AC. Sensitive 
ty: 30mV rms, 5Hz to 40MHz; 50mV max. at 80MHz 
Derate linearly to 100 V (peak AC + DC) at 1kHz. Max 
Input: 200V (peak AC + DC) DC to 500 Hz, derate linear 
ly to 30V (peak ac + dc) @ 80MHz. Attenuator: X10 
switch sel. INT. TIME BASE— (25°C; 1 /2 hour warm-up) 
10MHz Crystal Oscillator. Setability: ±0.1 PPM (± 1Hz). 
Stability: <±1PPM for ±10° Line Voltage 
Variations ±0.001% (i.e. ±10 PPM) from 0" to 50 °C am- 
bient. Max. Aging: ± 1 PPM/YR. Ext. Input: TTL Level, 
switch sel., General — Power: 105V to 130V and 212 to 
258V. 50/60 Hz. Size (HWD): 8.1 X 29 x 19 cm. (3.25 x 11.6 
x 7.50") incl. handle. Weight: 1.4 kg (3 lbs.). 



Portable Autoranging 
Digital Capacitance Meter 




BKP-830 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 

$ 199 00 *174°° 



• Automatically measures capacitance from 0.1pF to 200 mF 

• 0.1pF resolution 

• No range switching 

• 10 internal ranges for accuracy and resolution 

• 0.2% basic accuracy 

• Range hold switch 

• Zero control lor test lead compensation 

• 3 : 2 digit LCD display 

• Banana jacks and special lead insertion jacks 

• Battery or AC operation 

• Fuse-protected 

CAPACITANCE 

Range: 10 automatically selected ranges with full scale value from 
199. 9pF to 199.9mF (reads from 0.1pF to 0.2F, with resolution of 
0.1 pF),AccuracyMufo.2%of reading, ±0.5pF.±1 digit to 1999uF. 
1% of reading, ±1 digit from 20uF to l99.9mF; Hold all specs 
between 180 & 1999 counts same as Auto; for all readings between 
and 179 counts add: 0.1% of full scale to 19.99mF full scale, 0.5% 
of full scale from 19.99uF full scale to 199.9mF full scale. 
Resolution: 0.1 pF on lowest range and 0,05% of full scale on all 
other ranges, Reading Time: 0.4-1 .0 SEC to 0.20mF; increasing to 
6 SEC at 200mF Zero Control: Can compensate up to 25pF of test 
lead capacitance. Minus sign (-) indicates overcompensation. 
Overrange Indicator: (All Ranges) plus sign (+) with blank display 
and mF LED on, 
GENERAL 

Display: 3 Va digit LCD display. Front Panel Controls: Range HOLD 
switch, ZERO adjust, ON-OFF switch. Power Source: 4 standard 
"C" size cells operating from 4.2-6 volts, nicad. alkaline, or zinc 
carbon, with provision for AC adapter/charger. (Note: batteries 
and charger are not supplied.) Battery Lite: 20 hour* minimum, 
continuous use. Operating Temperature: *15°C to +35°C (59°F 
to 95 C: F) at stated accuracy. Usable range at reduced accuracy: 
0°C to 50 n C(32°F to 122 C F). Dimension: 16x11 x 6cm (6.4x4.4 x 
2.4"). Weight: 725g (1 .6 lbs.) with batteries. Optional Accessories: 
BC-28 AC adapter/charger, BP-28 battery pack, LC-28 carrying 
case. 

New Portable Digital 
Capacitance Meter 




BKP-820 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 

$ 155 00 *140 00 



FEATURES: Measures capacitance to 1 Farad in 10 

ranges • Resolves to 0.1pF on lowest range • 4 digit 
easy-to-ready LED display • 0.5% accuracy • Special 
lead insertion jacks and banana jacks • Fuse protected 
• Uses either rechargeable or disposable batteries • 

Overrange indication. 

APPLICATIONS: Measure: unmarked capacitors • cable 
capacitance • trimmer capacitors • capacitance in swit- 
ches and other components • capacitor tolerance for in- 
coming inspection, QA; Design use. 

SPECIFICATIONS: Capacitance— Range: 1pF to 1000 
millifarads (1 Farad) in 10 ranges. Accuracy: 5% of 

F.S., ± 1 digit to 100mF; 1% of F.S., ± 1 digit from 
1000fjF to 1000mF. Resolution: 0.1pF on lowest range. 
Reading Time: 0.6 sec to 10mF, increasing to 35 sec 
max. at 1000mF. Overrange: Bottom segments of digits 
are "ON" for overrange. GENERAL: Display: 4 digit LED. 
Power: (4-6 volts) 4 standard "C" size cells, nicad, 
alkaline or zinc carbon, with provision for charger (bat- 
teries and charger not supplied). Battery Life: 8 hours 
min. Operating Temp.: 0°C to SOX (32° to 100°F). Size 
(HWD): 16 x 11 x 6cm (6.4 x 4.4 x 2.375"). Weight: 675g. 
(1.15 lbs.) with batteries. Optional: BC-28 charger, BP-28 
battery pack, LC-28 carrying case. 



80 — 48 



BYTE November 1980 



WE ACCEPT VISA, and MASTER-CHARGE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



VACUUM BASE 
$19.95 PNV-380 



LOW-PROFILE BASE 
$13.9i> PNV-305 






STANDARD BASE 
PNV-300 $13.95 



SH.WT. 
2 lbs. 



PNV-304 
HORIZONTAL JAW VISE HEAD 



Not Included 



$12.95 

PNV-312 TRAY BASEMOUNT 



SH.WT. 
2 lbs. 




PNV-311 




PNV-315 
$19.95 



BOARD HOLDER 



with 14" uat 

FITS S-100 BOARDS 




$16.95 



BENCH CLAMP 



STANDARD VISE HEAD 

SH.WT. 2 lbs. 



PANAVISE TILTS, TURNS, AND 
ROTATES TO ANY POSITION. 
IT HOLDS YOUR WORK 
EXACTLY WHERE YOU WANT IT. 



PNV-303 




Hmter Tools 






SEMI-FLUSH CUTTING Regular 
head design for *20 (.032") soft 
copper or smaller. A popular cut- 
ter on the assembly line. Exclusive 
duradium process (see tech sheet). 
Makes this cutter tough for elec- 
tronic production applications. 

A = 4% HNT-20197(cl $12.25! 

FULL FLUSH CUTTING Our most 
popular cutter. Slim taper nose de- 
sign plus full flush cut at extreme 
tip combine to make the ideal pro- 
duction cutter. Recommended for 
# 20 (.032") soft copper wire or 
smaller. Exclusive duradium proc- 
ess (see tech sheet) gives un- 
matched life to the cutting edge. 
Perfect for P.C. board and related 
high density applications where 
clearance is a factor. A = 414" 

HNT-20195(c) $12.46 
SEMI FLUSH CUTTING Taper nose 
and tip cutting. This cutter is 
larger than the *20195 for durabil- 
ity and longer life. Recommended 
for *18 (.0403") and smaller cop- 
per wire. Ideal for P.C. board and 
related type applications where 
density allows a larger head pro- 
file. A = 4'A" 

HNT-20186(c) $12.72 
TIP DYKE - SEMI-FLUSH CUTTING 
For getting in those tight spots 
with maximum visibility. Cuts at 
the extreme tip and has alignment 
pin to keep the cutter Dlades 
aligned. Recommended for nickel 
ribbon size .010" x .030" and smal- 
ler. Also *22 (.0253") and smaller 
copper wire. Perfect for work on 
D.I.P.'s and other I.C. packages 
where clearance and visibility are 
factors. A = 4 3 /«" 

HNT-20190 $20.09 

ULTRA FINE "DELICATE" CUTTING AND BENDING APPLI- 
CATIONS. DELICATE YET DURABLE 

FULL FLUSH CUTTING Tiny deli- 
cate cutter. Thin taper jaw plus 
overall small size. Gets into those 
tight spots. Ideal for super high 
density P.C. board work and re- 
work, and other delicate jobs. 
Recommended for # 24 (.020") and 
smaller copper wire. A = 3 1! V | .." 

,n, , MATURE CHAIN NOSfc Minia- 
ture for extra fine work. Designed 
for bending, forming or holding 
delicate parts and assemblies 
found in the electronics industry. 
Also widely used wherever preci- 
sion pliers are required such as 
instrumentation work, hobbyists, 
technicians, etc. Radius edges and 
smooth gripping surface for pro- 
tection of delicate assemblies. 

CURVED MINIATURE CHAIN 
NOSE Similar to # 20144 but with 
curved nose. Gets into those tight 
spots. Particularly suited to P.C. 
board rework and instrumentation 
applications, a = 41/;" 





HNT-20177 $10.04 




A = 4V4" 
HNT-20144 $12.46 




HNT-21029 $14.73 




FINE CUTTING AND BENDING APPLICATIONS. DELICATE 
YET DURABLE FLUSH AND SEMI-FLUSH CUTTERS. RECOM- 
MENDED FOR USE ON "18 (.040") AND SMALLER SOFT COP- 
PER WIRE. ALL HUNTER PRECISION ELECTRONIC CUTTERS 
COME COMPLETE WITH SPRING, COLOR CODED CUSHION 
GRIP HANDLES, AND FULL POLISH HEAD. 



NARROW CHAIN NOSE Serrated 
jaw, radius edged for precision 
looping, twisting, and bending. 
Serrated jaw for extra grip with 
minimum pressure. A delicate yet 
durable tool for production use. 

A = 4 J /4" HNT-20150(c) $10.04 

EXTRA LONG NEEDLE NOSE Ser- 
rated jaw radius edged. For preci- 
sion pulling, clamping and hold- 
ing. Strong taper point insures long 
working life, serrated jaws for firm 
grip using less pressure. Reduces 
fatigue. Perfect for production, line 
use. A = 5%" 

HNT-2010S(c) $11.38 

SUPER THIN NEEDLE NOSE 

Smooth jaws, radius edged for pre- 
cision bending, reaching, clamp- 
ing and forming. Delicate needle 
nose allows access to remote 
areas. Ideal for guiding leads 
through high density areas. 

A = 4 3 /." HNT-20114(c) $11.12 

SUPER THIN - EXTRA LONG - 
NEEDLE NOSE Smooth jaws, radius 
edged. Similar to *20114 but long- 
er. Extra long "delicate" needle 
nose allows access to remote 
areas. A = 6" 

HNT-20115(c) $11.79 






c= 



^Ece^H 



KNIFE SETS 




Stripper and Cuttei with spring 
HNT-25508 $308 , 




HEAVV DUTY KNIFE SET includes three 
knives, regular #50130, heavy duty 
#50160 and extra heavy duty #50170, 
plus 10 assorted blades. Packed in com- 
pact clear plastic carrying case, 

HNT-50182 $6.43 









■jr ~,k«. 



A 



STRAIGHT NOSE FORCEP CLAMP 

5" Model HNT-54035 $6.43 
FORCEP CLAMP (Hemostat, ForcepJ 
Popular in the electronics field with ap- 
plications throughout industry Clamps, 
holds and positions small parts, wires, 
pins, etc. 



PRECISION KNIFE SET Popular set both 
in industry and with the hobbyist. Com- 
plete with two most popular handles 
#50130 and #50160 plus 10 assorted 
blades. Packed in compact clear plastic 
carrying case. 

HNT-50183 $4.55 






CA, AK, HI, CALL (213) 894 8171 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 49 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



Ungar 



MODULAR SOLDERING TOOLS 

Designed for Professionals by Professionals _ 



STANDARD LINE SOLDERING TOOLS 



The modular "Standard Line" provides the professional with a durable yet economical iron for all types 
of soldering. Handles are perfectly balanced for comfort and fatigue-free soldering. Heaters provide 
fast recovery and maximum heat transfer, AH irons are 120 VAC. 

Note: LAN electrical Tools & Components are UL Listed and bear the mark. Rated at 1 20 Volts AC/DC. 

2. All Temperature Ranges are Approximate. 

3. Tip not included. 




MODEL 750 GROUNDED 3-WIRE HANDLE 

The handle when assembled with the S or HP Series heaters, is completely grounded from tip to plug 
and eliminates electrostatic tip potential. A unique, spring-loaded ground plate reflects heat away from 
the operator's hand. For use only with S or HP heaters. 
Ungar Model 750 Grounded Handle — UNG-750 $9.95 




MODEL 777 CLEAN ROOM HANDLE 

Convection-cooled, molded grip for "clean room" use. Octagonal handle prevents rolling. Stainless 

steel heat reflector. Accepts all Standard Line heaters and integral heater/tips, including the S and HP 

series. 

Ungar Model 777 Clean Room Handle — UNG-777 $4.95 



\ 

S SERIES STAINLESS STEEL HEATERS 

Constructed of corrosion-resistant stainless steel. Units feature improved 2- or 3-wire versatility, high 
strength, resistance to abuse and provide positive transfer of heat to the tip. Wedge-shaped base guide 
permits firm, taper-fit assembly to the handle. The heat reflecting shield also provides a positive ground 
when used with Model 750 grounded handle. Models 537-S, 1 237-S and 4037-S Thread-On Heaters will 
accept all W Thread-On Tips and. with No. 100 Adapter, all v 6 " Thread-in Tiplets and Nibs; with No. 101 
Adapter, all 3/16" Thread-in Tips. 



PART NO. 


TEMP. 


FOR'/ 


" THREAD-ON TIPS 

WATTS SIZE 


PRICE 


UNG-537-S 

UNG-1237-S 

UNG-4037-S 


Approx 700 
Approx. 800 
Approx 900 




23 3.67" Ig. x .365" diam. 
33 3.65" Ig. x .375" diam. 
45 3.45" Ig. x .365" diam. 


$5.40 
$6.47 
S8.43 



3 WIRE LINE 



The ultimate tool... approved grounding ensures maximum safety from static-induced currents to 
sensitive circuitry. Meets NASA/military standards plus gives you the versatility of more than 40 tips, 
tiplets, nibs, and three fast-change heater units. Handle up to 30"' cooler. New heat resistant cord set. 

Use V thred-on tips or adapters 



COMPLETE 3-WIRE IRON 



PART 
NO. 



DESCRIPTION 



SUGGESTED USER PRICE 



lUNG-127 
lUNG-135 

UNG-145 



Handle, 650' 7 
Handle, 750 ,: 
Handle, 900'' 



■750° F, 
850- F 
■1000" F 



27W. 
35W. 
. 45W. 



$14.88 
$14.88 
$14.88 



V*" THREAD-ON TIPS AND ADAPTERS 




* I 

H [J 



1 

[I 



PL-111 PL-113 PL-114 KL-133 Pl-138 PL-151 PL-153 PL-155 

TIPS 





Material 




Size, Ins. 




Ungar 
No. 


Tip 
Shape 


Ovrl. Tip 
Lgth. Diam. 


Net 

Each 


VT THREAD-ON TIPS 



UNG-PL111 
UNG-PL113 
UNG-PL114 
UNG-PL133 
UNG-PL138 
UNG-PL151 
UNG-PL153 
UNG-PL15S 



Plated' 
Plated - 
Plated' 
Plated' 
Plated' 
Plated' 
Plated' 
Plated' 



Pencil 
Chisel 
Micro spade 
Taper chisel 
Needle 
Screwdriver 
Chisel 
Stepped chisel 



1-1/4 
1-1/4 

1 
1-1/16 
1-1/4 
1-1/4 
1-1/16 
1-1/4 



1/8 
1/8 
.05 
1/8 
3/64 
1/8 
3/16 
1/16 



$1.85 
$1.85 
$1.85 
$1.92 
$1.85 
$1.85 
$1.85 
$1.85 



ADAPTERS 



UNG-100 
UNG-101 



1/4" thread-on heaters to 1/8" thread-in tips 
1/4" thread-on heaters to 3/16" thread-in tips 



$ .63 
$ .63 



SOLDERING STATION 




PRINCESS® MICRO LINE 



Princess Kit 

UNG-6975 $21.59 

Complete Princess iron with 3 interchangeable 
copper nibs. Includes #6902 2-wire handle, #6910 
10W heat capsule and #6950, #6951 and #6952 
soldering nibs. 

Princess Soldering Station 

UNG-6900 $28.50 

Complete 10W soldering station. Fully assembled 
iron with 3 copper nibs plus Princess iron holder 
and cleaning sponge. Includes #6902 2-wire handle, 
#691 1 0W heat capsule and #6950, #6951 and #6952 
nibs, #6990 iron holder and sponge. 



Designed expressly for the special needs of micro-electronic assembly. This popular precision tool 
design enables pinpoint hand control, comfort and accuracy assuring hi-yield soldering of delicate 
circuitry and components in the tightest spaces. 



PART 
NO. 


HANDLES 

DESCRIPTION 




.PRICE 




UNG-6902 
UNG-6903 


Nylon Pastel Turquoise. Plastic 
cool-grip, 2-wire plug & cord. 

Nylon Pastel Turquoise, Plastic 
cool-grip, 3-wire plug & cord 




$ 8.72 
$11.78 




HEAT CAPSULES (Accepts all W 


nibs and tiplets) 




UNG-6918 


Reach: 2%." 775--850- F„ 18W 




$10.58 




V." PRINCESS NIBS 


UNG-6960 
UNG-6961 
UNG-6962 
UNG-6963 
UNG-6953 


Platedt Pencil 
Platedt Screwdriver 
Platedt Spade 
Platedt Precision 
Copper Precision 


3/8 
7/16 
3/8 
3/8 
3/8 


1/16 
1/16 
1/16 
1/16 
1/16 


$1.62 
$1.62 
$1.62 
$2.90 
$1.58 



t Iron ciad ana gold plated. 



DE-SOLDERING EQUIPMENT 



PART 
NO. 





6948 



DESCRIPTION 




6982 



6983 

PRICE 



UNG-50 DK Ungarmatic* Desoldering Kit Adapts for fast, easy removal 

of 14 and 16 pin DIP'S. Kit includes 95 Tip Adapter, 6982 
Extractor, 6948 Bar Tip, 5013 Super-Wick Desoldering Braid 

UNG-51 DK Desoldering Kit. Same as above. With 100 Adapter, fits Ungar 

Heaters. Standard 1237-S, 4037-S, 37 HP. 3-wire 135. 

145 Dl" 361, 362 
UNG-5002 Super-Wick™ 050 W Desoldering Braid 

UNG-5004 Super-Wick'" 100 W Desoldering Braid 

UNG-6980 DIP Extractor Pliers 

UNG-6982 Dual In-Line Extractor. Removes up to 16 pin IC's, use 6948 

desolder tip 
UNG-6983 TO-5 Extractor, for most TO type cans, use desolder tips: 

6943, 6944, 6946 
UNG-6948 Desolder Tip. for DIP'S, Iron Clad, pre-tinned 

UNG-7805 Solder-Off Bulb with TEE tip 



$12.45 



$11.20 



$ 1.65 

$ 1.89 
$14.95 

$ 4.22 

$ 4.87 

$ 5.00 

$ 2.88 



PRODUCTION AIDS; 

M 

ftflnn f *^ 




PART 

NO. 



DESCRIPTION 



UNG-8000 Iron Holder. All Irons' 

UNG-6990 Iron Holder, for Princess Iron only 

UNG-8800 Iron Holder. All Irons" plus Ungarmatic and Hot Vac 2000 

UNG-400 Kleen-Tip Sponge & Tray, fastens to workbench, sponge 

replaceable 
UNG-455 Replacement sponge 



HEAT GUN 



Uron clad and silver plated. 



Specifically built for electronic assembly, the W nozzle 
enables precise, accurate heat flow (750 '-BOO 1 -' F.) for a 
variety of applications including: shrink tubing, curini 
cements, reflow soldering, cooling/drying, encapsulation, 
shrink films, and component stressing. Four baffle 
adapters standard with heat guns for complete versatility. 
Weighs 13 oz. Convenient 3-way switch. Case' of UL 
recognized glass filled plastic. #6966C complete with 
3-wire NEMA plug for approved grounding. 



PART 
NO. 




DESCRIPTION 



3-Wire Model, 4 baffle adapters standard 



S59.95 



J 



80 — 50 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




UNGAffwwtie 

MODULAR SOLDERING TOOLS 

Designed for Professionals by Professionals 

Controlled Soldering Station 

THREAD-TOGETHER MODULAR DESIGN FOR 
QUICK, ON-LINE HEATER OR TIP CHANGE 

• Available in 3 preset temperatures; 600° F., 700° F. 
or 800°F. for any application. 

• Closed loop, non-magnetic control. 

• Low voltage system; 3 wire grounded. 

• Biomechanical designed handle with cool grip 
for operator comfort. Cord is super flexible 3 wire 
grounded, heat resistant. 

• Large capacity snap-on tray and sponge; 
removable for optional placement. 

• Long life interchangeable tips; iron clad, chrome 
plated, pre-tinned. 

• Designed for use on sensitive components. 

Transient Spikes 

Transient spikes caused by the switching action of 
some controlled output soldering stations may be 
transmitted to the workpiece and may adversely 
affect a metal oxide semiconductor, particularly if 
the amplitude of that spike is in excess of the operat- 
ing voltage of the device. UNGARmatica Tempera- 
ture Controlled Soldering Stations and Irons suppress 
transient spikes to less than the 5 volt operating voltage 
of sensitive MOS devices. 

COMPLETE STATION SELECTION GUIDE 
FOR THIS ORDER COMPLETE 
TEMPERATURE STATION PART It 

600 ° F ,..^ T UNG-50T6 

MOST 

700°F popular) UNG-50T7 

800°F UNG-50T8 

LIST PRICE: $69.95 

OUR PRICE: $62.96 

Each of the above stations include: #70B Power 
Supply with on/off switch, indicator light, and 3 wire 
power cord; #71 Handle with 3 wire heat resistant 
secondary cord; #89 Tray and Sponge; #72 Iron 
Holder; Controlled Heater with #87 Screwdriver 
tip 1/16." I 

fl a I I A n 



3UNG#80"OUNG#83 HlNG #86 t|JNG#88 ^UNG «93 UNG #95 
Iron clad, chrome plated, pre-tinned tips 

UNG #80 Long Screwdriver W $2.56 

UNG #83 Screwdriver 3/32" $2.56 

UNG #86 Needle Tip 3/64" $2.56 

UNG #88 Long Screwdriver 3/64" $2.56 

UNG #93 Screwdriver 1/32" $2.56 

UNG #95 TIP ADAPTER Tip Adapter #95 for spe- 
cial micro applications. This Adapter is designed for 
the use of '/«" thread-in Princess Nibs. $1.59 



PORTABLE DESOLOERING 
TOOLS 

EDS-AS196 $ 21 95 



Special purpose SOLDAPULLT for low static work 
stations. Deluxe features. Static conductive con- 
struction reduces sensitive component damage. 



EDS DS017 



DELUXE 



$1795 



(U3i) 



Rugged manual loading tool for volume desolder- 
ing. High vacuum. Heavy duty plastic. Fully 
enclosed shaft for safety. Plunger lock feature for 
compact storage. 



EDS-PT109 



$ 12 



50 



. T '=-'J^f- r ^ ~ 



wt 3 oz. 
(85u) 



Sturdy tool for routine desoldering. Slim profile, 
smooth action, very low recoil. Plunger lock feature 
for compact storage. 



EDS-US340 



$1195 



LOW STATIC POTENTIAL 

Completely portable. One hand loading, three posi- 
tion stroke adjustment. Swift vacuum action. 



EDS-US140 



$3 



95 



tigf' f. ' ' ? " 



Compact manual loading tool. Easy one hand oper- 
ation. Adjustable three position loading stroke. Low 
mass plunger, rapid vacuum impulse, negligible 
recoil. 



EDS-MV124 



$5 



95 



s= ^tW t ^ftff^irs^t=^. 



(2L 



MINI VACUUM PUMP "" (2 7 °' > 



Designed for desoldering microminiature compo- 
nents and fine wiring. Resilient teflon tip, spring 
arrestor plunger with cleaning shaft. 



REPLACEMENT TIP FOR SOLQAPULLTS 

CAT. # TOOL USED PRICE 

EDS-SRT12 
EDS-LS197 
EDS-EC131 
EDS-ST132 



DS017, PT109, US140 

AS196, US340 

MV124 (END CAP) 

MV124 (TIP) 



$2.95 
$4.50 
$1.95 
$1.95 



SUPER-WICK™ 

DESOLDERING BRAID 




UNG-5002 
UNG-5004 



.050" 
.100" 



$1.65 
$1.88 



ISOSTIB 




ISO-Tip Cordless 
Soldering Irons 



Up to 125-150 Joints per charge 

5-10 Seconds average soldering heat time 

Tip performance up to 50 watts and over 700° F tip 

temperature 

Built-in work light 

"Lock off" switch 

Rechargeable battery & charger included 

Cannot over charge 

ISO-7800 $38.95 

Fastest recharging iron on the market. 

Recharges fully in one hour. 

ISO-7740 $28.95 

"Quick Charge" Recharges completely 

in 3 to 4'/2 hours. 

ISO-7540 $25.50 

"The Original" Recharges completely 

in 12 to 16 hours. 

ISO-6500 $11.95 

P.C. Drill attachment with No. 56 Bit. 




SOLDER 

The best for general wire and printed circuit solder- 
ing 60% tin, 40% lead alloy, .032" dia. (21 guage) 
with triple resincore. 

TCH1832 1 lb. $13.41 

TCH1835 'A lb. $ 7.44 



cffi 



COLE -FLEX CORPORATION 



IRRADIATED POLYOLEFIN 
SHRINKABLE TUBING 

• Conforms to MIL-I-23053B/5 

• Shrinks 50% (2:1 ratio) with only 5% longitudinal 
shrinkage 

• Fewer sizes covering more applications 

• Operating temp, range: -55 J C to +135°C 

• Dielectric strength: 500^ per mil 

Price 100 Ft. (25 1 4 It Lengths) 

Part No. Size 4 It. Length Add "C" to end of Part No. 



CST364XX 3/64" $1.05 $22.36 

CST116XX 1/16" $1.10 $23.83 

CST332XX 3/32" $1.25 $27.04 

CST18XX 1/8" $1.30 $28.59 

CST316XX 3/1 6" $1.60 $34.73 

CST14XX 1/4" $2.00 $43.94 

CST38XX 3/8" $2.25 $48.94 

When ordering— Replace "XX" with color code: ColorCodes: 
BK-Blac k, WH-White. RD-Red, YE-Yellow, BU-Blue. CL -Clear 

NIBBLING TOOL 

This Nibbling Tool is perfect for 
cutting, trimming, or notching 
sheet metal up to 18 guage. 
It operates like a punch and die 
and also works well on alumi- 
num or plastic up to 1 /16" thick. 
We feel that this tool can be a 
real time-saver for our custo- 
mers when working on chassis, 
printed circuit boards and proto- 
type model boards. 




TLX-201 



NIBBLING TOOL 



$8.95 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



BYTE November 1980 80 — 51 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



ISDBflFY 



Model IBAR4-6 with 6 foot power cord 
Model IBAR4-15 with 15 toot power cord 

• 4 Standard 3-prong plugs 

• 4 100 KHz to 200 MHz filters 

• Inductively isolated grounds 

• Sockets individually filter isolated 

• Each socket isolated from power line 

• On-Off switch • Indicator light 

• Circuit breaker protected at 15A. 

High Voltage Spike Protection: 1000 A, 8/20 usee; pro-1000 
A, 8/20 usee; protection from repeated spikes. 
Load Handling: 1875 W MAX. total load; 15A per socket. 
Input: 125 VAC, 15 Amps; Standard 3-prong plug. 

PROTECT YOUR INVESTMENT 
PROTECT YOUR DATA WITH 



GOF-IBAR46 

LIST PRICE $7995 

,95 




OUR PRICE 



$ 59 



POWERMATE 




(gscT) 

BY ™ ofcursTED 

MULTIPLE OUTLET STRIPS 

Designed with GSC's traditional regard for quality, 
safety and long life, Powermate Multiple Outlet 
Strips set a new standard of excellence. The unique 
two-piece extruded Aluminum Channel body is 
very strong and rigid for maximum wearability. All 
Powerstrip models are circuit-breaker protected, 
CSA and UL listed. 
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS: 
Size: 2" W x 1%" H. (Length according to Model). 
Maximum Power Rating: 15A, 125 VAC, 60 Hz, 1875 
Watts continuous duty. Outlets: 3-prong "U" 
ground. Case: Anodized, extruded aluminum. Pro- 
tection: Circuit Breaker. 6' line cord. 







$■'■- 




■ 



MODEL 


LENGTH 


OUTLETS 


SWITCH 


LIGHT PRICE 


G0F-9P5-6 


9" 


5 


No 


No $15.95 


G0F-9PLS4-6 


9" 


4 


Yes 


Yes $16.95 


G0F-12P7-6 


12" 


7 


No 


No $17.95 


GOF-12PLS6-6 


12" 


6 


Yes 


Yes $18.95 


G0F-24PLS8-6 


24" 


8 


Yes 


Yes $24.95 


G0F-48PS8-6 


48" 


8 


Yes 


No $32.95 


G0F-72PS8-6 


72" 


8 


Yes 


No $36.95 



RACK MOUNT OUTLET STRIP 



7 OUTLETS WITH SWITCH & PILOT LIGHT 

Anodized aluminum. 1 outlet on front, 6 on back. 
Size: 19" W x 3% H x 314" D. 
GOF-19RRPS7 - with 6 foot power cord. $34.95 



& 



ANTRONK 

Corporation ULLISTED 

JUNCTION BOXES 

PROTECTION — UL listed and 100% factory 
tested • Reliablepush-to-resetcircuit breaker 

• Tough 14-guage jacketed 3-wi re, 6 foot cord with 
molded plug • Rugged steel housing • Electrical 
and mechanical grounding throughout unit. 
CONSTRUCTION — All wiring mechanically fas- 
tened and soldered • Multiple keyhole mounting 

• Silicone enamel finish • U-ground 3-prong 
outlets. 

UTILITY — Models for every application • End- 
mounted cords • Full 15 amp, 125 volt A. C. rating. 



ANT-UL30 



ANT-UL40 




Master 
Model Switch 
Number & Pilot 



Only 
3- Prong 



Switched Switched 
Outlets w/Pilot 
3-Prong 3-Prong 



Price 



ANT-UL30 1 
ANT-UL40 

ANT-UL60 1 

ANT-UL70 1 

ANT-UL70L 1 



— $16.00 

— $19.25 

— $18.95 

— $29.90 
6 $35.05 




Magnifier IM SERIES 

Perfectly balanced fluorescent lighting with preci- 
sion magnifier lens. Tough thermoplastic shade. 
Easy lens removal. New wire clip design permits 
easy installation and removal of fluorescent tube. 
Comes with plastic shield to protect tube from soil- 
ing and damage. 

Colors: Gray, Black. Comes with one 22 watt T-9 
Circline fluorescent tube. 3 diopter lens standard. 
Shipping weight with bracket: 8 lbs. 
'Reach: Model IM-10, 42" 



LDU-IM10A-WH 
LDU-IM10A-GY 
LDU-IM10A-BK 
LDU-IM10A-CB 
LDU-5DLNS 



WHITE 

GRAY 

BLACK 

CHOC BROWN 

5 DIOPTER LENS 



LIST PRICE OUR PRICE 
$94.95 $69.95 
$94.95 $69.95 
$94.95 $69.95 
$94.95 $69.95 
$14.00 



MRGEONICS LIMITED 



Protection against transient over-voltage 

The units consist of a two-gate solid state circuit 
board protected by a 3 amp fuse. 
Upon the occurrence of a transient over-voltage 
above 6% of the line voltage, the components in the 
two-gate system react in tandem to allow pico- 
second response time and energy dissipation. 
The transient voltage is thereby suppressed to a 
safe non-destructive level. 
Product Specifications: 

• 120 Volts, Single-Phase, 40/70 Hz. 

• Steady State Power Dissipation: .85W. 

• Transient Energy Dissipation: 20 Joules. 

• Max. Peak Current 2000 amps. 

INTERCEPTOR 

SURGE-LESS SOCKET" 

Model ISS 701-R 



Patent 
Pending 



SRG-ISS-701-R 

1-4 5-9 NQ 10-24 

$21.80 $20.25 <3 $18.50 

Shipping Weight: 8 oz. 

CONTROLS . . . 

ELECTRICAL SURGES — 

PROTECTS YOUR 

VALUABLE ELECTRICAL 

EQUIPMENT 

POWER-SENTRY 




Model PS 701-D 



Patent 
Pending 




SRG-PS-701-D 

1-4 5-9 10-24 
$31.50 $29.30 $27.00 

Shipping Weight: 8 oz. 

COMP-ONICS 

ELECTRONIC ATTENUATOR 

• POSITIVE PROTECTION FOR SOPHISTICATED 
EQUIPMENT 

• MORE ACCURATE REPORTS 

The Model 708 can be utilized in applications where 
inductive and switching transients are present and 
jeopardize the electonic circuitry of data process- 
ing equipment, computer power supplies and 
numerical controlled machinery. When the Comp- 
onics Model 708 is connected harmonic distortion 
and transients are instantaneously clamped to a 
safe efficient operating level. 




SRG-CO 708 

10-24 
$199.75 



80 — 52 



BYTE November 1980 



VISIT OUR RETAIL STORE 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



OPEN FRAME POWER SUPPLIES 




FEATURES: 

• Designed to comply with all applicable UL & CSA 
specifications! 

• Pluggable IC regulators - user replaceable! 

• Remote sensing! 

• Fold back currents limiting! 

• Unconditionally guaranteed for two years! 

• Manufactured and serviced in U.S.A. and Canada! 

• Industry standard frame sizes for simplified second 
sourcing! 




GOF Midget Series: $26.00 



GOF M-5 

GOFM-12 

GOF M-15 

GOF M-24 

GOF M 2-6 

GOF M 10-16 

GOF M 16-24 

Dim.: 1.9" x 4.0" x 4 0" 

Weight: 3 lbs. 



5V/1.2A 
12 V / 0.5 A 

15 V / 0.5 A 
24 V / 0.4 A 

2 to 6 V / 1 A 
10 to 16 V / 1 A 

16 to 24 V / 1 A 



Basic features of all GOF Series units include: dual AC pri- 
mary hookup for 115/230 VAC connection with 50 Hz provision: 
oversize lo-flux transformers; pluggable IC regulators. 85° 
computer-grade electrolytics; metal-can power transistors. 
FR-4 circuit boards with 2 oz. copper track; remote sensing; 
fold back current limiting; multi-surface mounting with 
factory-installed captive hardware; industry standard frame 
size for simplified alternative sourcing. 

Premium components are used in all units to enhance 
reliability. All IC regulators are pre-burned and checked before 
installation in actual units. IC's are socket mounted and user 
replaceable. Computer-grade capacitors are rated to 85° 
operating levels and are built to GSC's own specifications for 
low ESR to enhance long life. All power transistors are metal- 
can devices and are graded for important parameters by GSC's 
own quality assurance group before release to production. 



SPECIFICATIONS: 

Input 

Line Regulation: 
Load Regulation: 
Output Ripple & Noise: 



Remote Sensing: 

Transient Response: 

Overload Protection: 

Ambient Operating Temp.: 
Mounting: 

Cooling: 



105-125 VAC / 210-250 VAC. 47-63 Hz. 

0.05% over entire operating range. 

0.1% for no load to full load current. 

1 mV RMS / 3 mV peak-to-peak 

typical. 

On all models except G0F-M series, 

FDD100 and GOF 2A-1D. 

No overshoot or undershoot on 

turn-on or turn-off. 

Foldback current limited, self 

restoring. 

Continuous duty from 0°C. to 60°C. 

Multi-surface mounting with 8-32 

captive hardware. 

Convection cooled. 



GOF-1 Series: $36.00 



GOF 1-5 






5V/3A 


GOF 1-12 






12 V / 15 A 


GOF 1-15 






15 V/ 1.2 A 


GOF 1-24 






24 V / 0.8 A 


GOF 1—28 






28 V / 0.5 A 


Dim: 1.62" x 


4.00" x 4.87" 




Weight: 










GOF-2 Series: $57.00 



GOF 2-5 




5V/6A 


GOF 2-12 




12 V / 3 A 


GOF 2-15 




15 V / 2.8 A 


GOF 2-24 




24 V / 2.3 A 


GOF 2-28 




28 V / 2.0 A 


Dim.: 2.5" x 4.87' 


x 5.62" 




Weight: 5 lbs. 








GOF 3X-5 

GOF3X-12 

GOF 3X-15 

GOF 3X-24 

GOF 3X-28 

Dim.: 2.75" x 9.0" x 4.87" 

Weight: 10 LBS. 



GOF-FDD-100 Series: $89.00 



GOF-FD0100 24V/2A 5V/1.5A 5V/5A 

GOF-FDD101 12-15 V/ 1 A 5V/3A 12-15 V/ 1 A 

GOF-FDD102 24V/2A 5V/3A 12-15 V/ 1 A 

Dim.: 2.80" x 10.25" x 4.00" 
Weight: 6 LBS. 

Overvoltage Protection Modules 



GOF-OVF-1 
GOF-OVF-2 
G0F-0VF-3 
Weight: 1 lb. 



Below 6 A 
6 A to 10 A 
15 A to 25 A 



S 8.00 
$12.00 

$24.00 



G0F2A-1DA 

GOF2A-1DB 

GOF2A-1DC 

GOF2A-1DD 

Dim.: 2.53" x 7.90" x 4.03" 

Weight: 5 lbs. 



12-15 V/ 1.5 A 

5V/1.2A 

15 V / 0.5 A 

24 V / 0.4 A 



GOF 2A IT Series: $115.00 

GOF2A-1T 5V/6A 12-15 V/ 1 .5 A 

12-15 V/ 1.5 A 
G0F2A-1TA 5V/6A 5V/0.8A 

12-15 V/ 1.5 A 
G0F2A-1TB 5V/6A 5V/3A 

18-24 V/1.0 A 
G0F2A-1TC 5V/6A 18-24 V/ 1 .0 A 

12-15 V/1.5A 
GOF-FDD200 5V/3A 5V/1.0A 




GOF-5 Series: $140.00 



GOF 5-5 

GOF 5-12 

GOF 5-15 

GOF 5-24 

GOF 5-28 

Dim.: 6.0" x 13.25" x 4.E 

Weight. 15 LBS. 



5 V / 25 A 
12 V / 16 A 
15 V / 13 A 
24 V / 8.1 A 

28 V / 6.9 A 



GOF 2A-2D Series: $90.00 



GOF 2A-2D A 

GOF 2A-2D B 

GOF 2A-2D C 

GOF 2A-2D D 

Dim: 2.78" x 11.00" x 4.87" 

Weight: 10 LBS. 



12-15 V/3A 
5V/6A 
5V/6A 
5V/6A 



12-15 V / 3 A 

5V /6A 
12-15 V / 3 A 

24 V / 2.3 A 




GOF 3A IT Series: $145.00 



G0F3A-1TA 5V/12A 

G0F3A-1TB 5V/12A 

GOF3A-1TC 5V/12A 

GOF3A-1TD 5V/12A 

Dim.: 4.30" x 16.75" x 4.88" 
Weight: 16 LBS. 



12-15 V/ 3 A 12-15V/3A 

12-15V/3A 18or24V/2A 

5V/6A 12-15 V/ 3 A 

18or24V/2A 12-15V/3A 



GSC power supplies sell faster than we can stock our shelves. Please plan ahead and allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



BYTE November 1980 80 — 53 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 



IC OP-AMP COOKBOOK 

by Walter G. Jung. The first book of its kind to be 
published. Covers not only the basic theory of the IC 
op-amp in great detail, but also includes over 250 
practical circuit applicaions, liberally illustrated. 
Organized into three basic parts: introduction to the IC 
op-amp and general considerations, practical circuit 
applications, and appendixes of manufacturers' 
reference material. 592 pages; 5% x 8%; softbound. 
SAM 20969 $12.95 

TTL COOKBOOK 

byDonaldE. Lancaster. A complete and detailed guide 

to transistor-transistor logic (TTL)— what TTL is, how 

it works, and how to use it. 336 pages; 5 1 /2 x 8V2; 

softbound. 

SAM 21035 $9.50 

ACTIVE-FILTER COOKBOOK 

by Donald E. Lancaster. A practical, user-oriented 
treatment of active filters. Explains what active filters 
are and how they work, and gives detailed 
information on design, analysis, and synthesis 
technigues. Explores some interesting applications 
for active filters in brainwave research, electronic 
music, quadrature art, and psychedelic lighting. 240 
pages; 5 1 /z x 8% softbound. 
SAM 21168 $14.95 

CMOS COOKBOOK 

by Donald E. Lancaster. This well-known author 
presents an information-packed guide to this low- 
cost, fun-to-work-with digital logic family. 416 pages; 
5'/2 x 8V2; softbound. 
SAM 21398 $10.50 

GUIDEBOOK TO SMALL COMPUTERS 

by William Barden, Jr. Contains all the information 
needed for the prospective buyer of a small computer 
to make a wise selection from 21 popular systems 
described. 128 pages; 5% x 8V2; softbound. 
SAM 21698 $4.95 

GUIDE TO CMOS BASICS. CIRCUITS. S EXPERIMENTS 

by Howard M. Berlin. Discusses what CMOS devices 
are, their characteristics, and design rules. A series of 
22 useful experiments illustrate many of the concepts 
discussed. 224 pages; 5'/2 x 8V2; softbound. 
SAM 21654 $8.95 

THE Z 80 MICROCOMPUTER HANDBOOK 

by William Barden. Jr. Gives current and prospective users a one- 
stop source to Z-80 technology — hardware and software aspects 
and instrumentation problems. 304 pages; 5'/2 x BVs; sottbound. 

SAM 21500 $8.95 

USING THE 6800 MICROPROCESSOR 

by Elmer Poe. Acquaints you with the hardware and software of the 

"6800" fun machine. 176 pages; 5'A x 8V2; softbound 

SAM Z15I2 16.95 

THE CHEAP VIDEO COOKBOOK 

by Donald E. Lancaster. Your complete guide to super low cost 
alphanumeric and graphic microprocessor-based video displays. 
256 pages; 5 1 A x X8V2; sottbound. 

SAM 21524 $5.95 

IC CONVERTER COOKBOOK 

by Walter G. Jung. Written for the engineer, technician, hobbyist, or 

student, this book will be an invaluable working guide to the 

understanding and use of IC a/d and d/a converters. 576 pages; 5 'A x 

by-/, sottbound. 

SAM 21527 $13.95 

BxolC PROGRAMMING PRIMER 

by Mitchell Waite and Michael Pardee. Covers everything from 
getting organized to writing a game program. 240 pages; 5V2 x 8V2; 
softbound. 

SAM 21586 $8.95 

THE S 100 AND OTHER MICRO BUSES 

by Elmer C. Poe and James C. Goodwin. From discussing the basics 
of buses to examining in detail the various ways to convert different 
bus signals to S-100 signals, this guide covers it all 144 pages; SB x 
8V2; softbound. 

SAM 21587 $5.95 

MICROCOMPUTER INTERFACING WITH THE B255 PPI CHIP 
by Paul F. Goldsborough and Peter R. Rony. Introduces you to the Intel 
8255 Programmable Peripheral Interface (PPI) through discussion 
and experiments. Tells what the 8255 is, where it fits in a 
microcomputer system, why it is used, and how it is used. 224 pages; 
5V2 x 8fe softbound. 
, SAM 21614 $895 



SAMS BOOKS 




MICROCOMPUTER PRIMER (2nd Edition) 

by Mitchell Waite and Michael Pardee. Describes the 

newest advances in microprocessor technology 

including information on VLSI chips, 16-bit micros, 

and new interface devices. 384 pages; 5Vz x 8%; 

softbound. 

SAM 21653 $11-95 

THE HOWARD W. SAMS CRASH COURSE IN 
MICROCOMPUTERS 

by Louis E. Frenzel, Jr. Designed to meet the computer 
challenge fo the '80's, this course is arranged as a 
series of lessons in a unique self-teaching format. The 
programmed instruction text is a quick and effective 
way to learn the basics, numbers systems, memories, 
architecture, input/output devices, software 
programming, and applications. Written for the lay 
person as well as scientists, engineers, or 
technicians. 264 pages; 8'/z x 11; wirebound. 
SAM 21634 $17.50 

FUNDAMENTALS OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS (2nd Edition) 

byBonaldD. Spencer. Covers everything fromcomputerhardwareto 
the two most popular programming languages — BASIC and 
FORTRAN. 320 pages; 5% x 8V2; softbound. 

SAM 21534 $9.95 

DBUG: AN 8080 INTERPRETIVE DEBUGGER 

by Christopher A. Titus and Jonathan A. Titus. Describes the 

operation of a software debugging program for the 8080 and how it 

can be applied to program development and testing. 11 2 pages; 5V2X 

8V2; softbound. 

SAM 21536 $4.95 

MICROCOMPUTER-ANALOG CONVERTER 
SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE INTERFACING 

by Titus. Titus. Rony, andlarsen. Introduces you to the concepts and 
techniques of interfacing digital computers to analog devices. 288 
pages; 5% x 8V2: softbound. 

SAM 21540 $9.50 

8080/8085 SOFTWARE DESIGN, 2 Volumes 

byLarsen. Rony. Titus & Titus. Volume 1 gives you an introduction to 

assembly language programming. 336 pages; 5V2 x 8%; softbound. 

SAM 21 541 $9.50 

Volume 2 is a unique, one-of-a-kind computer science book for the 
design engineer. Written in Intel machine code. 352 pages; 5V2 x BVz; 
softbound. 

SAM 21615 $995 

Two-volume set, SAM 21659 $17.50 

INTERFACING AND SCIENTIFIC DATA COMMUNICATIONS EXPERIMENTS 
by Rony. Larsen. Titus, and Titus. Tells you about the principles of 
transmitting data using the asynchronous-serial data transfer 
technique-the most universal interfacing standard available today. 
160 pages; 5V2 x 8V2; softbound. 
SAM 21546 $5.95 

INTRODUCTORY EXPERIMENTS IN DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND B080A 
MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAMMING AND INTERFACING. 2 Books 

by Rony. Larsen, and Titus. Completely self-instructional texts. Book 
1 covers Digital Codes, An Introduction to Programming, Some 8080 
Microcomputer Instructions. Registers and Register Instructions and 
more. 496 pages; 5V2 x 8V2; softbound 

SAM 21550 $12.95 

Book 2 covers What is Interfacing. Device Select Pulses, The 8080A 
Distinctive Set. and more. 416 pages; 5% x 8V2; softbound. 

SAM 21551 $10.95 

Two Volumes. SAM 21552 $20.95 



6502 SOFTWARE DESIGN 

by Leo Scanlon. Explains the fundamentals of the 
popular 6502 integrated circuit currently being used in 
general purpose microcomputers, video games, and 
personal computers. 272 pages; 5% x 8V2; softbound. 
SAM 21656 $10.50 

Z-80 MICROCOMPUTER DESIGN PROJECTS 

by William Barden, Jr. Provides a solid introduction to 
the Z-80 and shows how to build a microcomputer 
called the EZ-80 around this remarkable chip. 208 
pages; 8V2X 11; softbound. 
SAM 21682 $12.95 

HOW TO PROGRAM AND INTERFACE THE 6800 

by Andrew C. Staugaard, Jr. Provides an in-depth 
introduction to microprocessors/microcomputers in 
general with emphasis on the Motorola 6800 micro- 
processor family. Includes over 30 "hands-on" 
experiments that demonstrate "real-world" 
applications. 416 pages; 5Vz x 8Vz; softbound. 
SAM 21684 $13.95 

B085A COOKBOOK 

by Christopher A. Titus and Jonathan A. Titus. Shows 
you how to design a microprocessor using the 8085A 
microprocessor chip with designs for several 
completely operational microprocessors. 352 pages; 
5% x 8Vi; softbound. 
SAM 21697 $12.95 

COMPUTER GRAPHICS PRIMER 

by Mitchell Waite. Threecarefully illustrated chapters 
explain perspectives, basic concepts, and graphics 
programming in this newest computer development 
that permits the creation of complex drawings, plans, 
maps, and schematics on the screen of a television 
set. 184 pages; 5% x 8 'A; softbound. 
SAM 21650 $12.95 

PROGRAMMING & INTERFACING THE 6502. WITH 
EXPERIMENTS 

by Marvin L. De Jong. A compilation of information 
and programs that will be useful to anyone interested 
in using 6502-based microcomputer systems. 416 
pages; 51 x 8V2; softbound. SAM 21651 $13.95 

TV TYPEWRITER COOKBOOK 

by Donald E Lancaster. Gives you an in-depth coverage of typew 
riters (tvt's)— the only truly low-cost microcomputer and small- 
systems display interface. 256 pages; 5'/2 x iW, softbound. 
SAM 21313 $9.95 

THE B080A BUGBO0K • MICROCOMPUTER INTERFACING 
AND PROGRAMMING 

by Rony, Larsen, and Titus. Gives you the principles, concepts, and 
applications of an 8-bit microcomputer based on the 8080 
microprocessor IC chip. 416 pages; 5'/2 x 8V2; sottbound. 

SAM 21447 $10.50 

(BUGBOOK* is a registered trademark of E & L Instruments. Inc., 
Derby Connecticut 06418.1 

HOW TO PROGRAM MICROCOMPUTERS 

by William Barden. Jr. A popular, complete guide to assembly 

language programming of the Intel 8080, Motorola MC6800, and M0S 

Technology MCS 6502 Microprocessors. 256 pages; 5V2 x 8V2; 

softbound. 

SAM 21459 $8.95 

Z-80 MICROPROCESSOR PROGRAMMING S INTERFACING - Books 1 & 2 

by Elizabeth A. Nichols, Joseph C. Nichols, and Peter R. Rony. Two 
volumes of laboratory-oriented text. Book 1 explores Z-80 software 
and machine language programming. Book 2 addresses Interfacing 
digital circuits with the Z-80 CPU, PI0. and CTC chips. Both books 
stress learning through experimentation. 
Book 1; 304 pages; 5% x 8%; softbound. 

SAM 21609 $10.95 

Book 2; 496 pages; 5'A x 8V2; softbound. 

SAM 21610 $12.95 

Two Volumes, SAM 21611 $21.96 

TEA: AN 8080/8085 CORESIDENT EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 
by Christopher A. Titus. Deals with an assembly language program 
and provides a detailed explanation so that the reader can effectively 
use the program presented to prepare assembly language programs. 
Includes a complete assembled listing of the program to be used on • 
the 8080-based microcomputer. 256 pages; 6T4 x 8'A; softbound. 
SAM 21628 $8.95 



J 



80 — 54 



BYTE November 1980 



PLEASE ORDER BY PART NUMBER 



PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 




PRIORITY ONE ELECTRONICS 

ORDERING INFORMATION 
• BY PHONE: (800) 423-5633, (213) 894-8171 
BY MAIL: 16723C Roscoe Blvd., Sepulveda, CA 91343 




MINIMUM ORDER 



$15.00 IN MERCHANDISE on prepaid U.S. orders. Payment may 
be made by check, money order, Mastercharge, VISA, and by 
bank transfer. (Call for details.) 



OPEN ACCOUNTS 

U.S. ONLY. $25.00 MINIMUM. We gladly accept purchase orders 
Irom government, schools, and lirms with a published Al rating 
Irom DUNN & BRADSTREET. All orders are FOB Sepulveda. 
California. Freight charges will be prepaid and added to the 
invoice. An application for credit is available upon request. 
Please include payment with your initial order; credit applica- 
tions take four weeks to process. 



COD 



We do not accept COD orders. 



SALES TAX 



Add 6% sales tax to all parts delivered in California. If the 
merchandise is for resale, you must include a signed standard 
resale permit card (not just a tax number) to qualify for 
exemption. 



PHONE NUMBERS 



ORDER DESK: To place an order from outside CA, AK, HI, 
Call: 

(800) 423-5633 

SALES DEPT : To place an order, inquire about product 
availability or to make a technical inquiry calf: 

(213) 894-8171 

CUSTOMER SERVICE: To inquire about an order, your 
account, or a missing or damaged package call: 

(213) 893-8202 



LARGE QUANTITY 
QUOTATION OR BIDS 

Priority 1 Electronics will quote on quantities in excess of the 
maximum amounts shown in the selection guide. 



PRICES 



Prices are net, FOB Sepulveda, California. Prices are subject to 
change without notice. Due to the wide fluctuations in the price 
of precious metals, we reserve the right to revise prices at the 
time of shipment, without notice, on items that contain gold or 
silver such as ICs, connectors, and wire. For up to the minute 
prices and for prices in excess of those shown, call PRIORITY 1 
ELECTRONICS, (213) 894-8171. (800) 423-5633. 



RETAIL STORE 



Visit our retail showroom anytime Monday-Friday9-6, Saturday 
10-5. You can pick-up your parts and brouse through thousands 
of items, many available only at the retail store. 



U.S. SHIPPING 
AND HANDLING 



All orders under 50 lbs. are shipped via UPS insured unless 
otherwise specified. For orders shipped via mail (not recom- 
mended) all packages to the U.S., its possessions and territories 
and Canada, are insured to $200. 00 Minimum mall shipping and 
handling charge is $3.00 For insurance coverage above 
$200.00, consult your local postmaster for rates and fees. 
Orders over 50 lbs. will be shipped via motor freight collect. The 
weights listed in the product descriptions are approximate fig- 
ures. To compute your shipping and handling charge, consult the 
table in the next column: 



UPS SHIPPING CHARGES 



For foreign postal charges, consult the table below: 



Up to 



Ground 



Air 



11b. 



S 2.50 $ 3.00 



2 lbs. 



$ 2.50 $ 3.09 



3 lbs. 



$ 2.50 $ 4.07 



4 lbs. 



$ 2.50 



S 5.07 



5 lbs. 



$ 2.85 



6.06 



6 lbs. 



S 3.21 $ 7.07 



7 lbs. 



S 3.57 $ 8.06 



8 lbs. 



S 3.94 $ 9.05 



9 lbs. 



S 4.29 



$10.05 



10 lbs. S 4.66 



$11.04 



11 lbs. 



$ 5.02 $12.04 



12 lbs. 



S 5.39 $13.04 



13 lbs. 



$ 5.74 $14.03 



$ 6.10 $15.03 



15 lbs. 



S 6.47 S16.02 



16 lbs. $6.83 $17.02 



17 lbs. 



$ 7.19 $18.02 



18 lbs. 



$ 7.55 $19.01 



$ 7.92 



$20.00 



20 lbs. $8.27 $21.00 



21 lbs. $ 8.64 S22.00 



22 lbs. $ 9.00 



$23.00 



23 lbs. $ 9.36 $23.£ 



24 lbs. 



$ 9.72 $24.99 



25 lbs. 



$10.08 $25.98 



Up to 



Ground 



Air 



REGION 



First pound 



26 lbs. 



$10.45 $26.97 



Each additional 
pound or fraction 

there of 



27 lbs. 



$10.£ 



$27.97 Africa 



$6.50 



$5.00 



28 lbs. $11.17 $28.96 Asia 



$6.40 



$5.00 



29 lbs. $11.53 $29.97 Australia 



$6.25 



$4.84 



30 lbs. $11.90 $30.95 Central America & Caribbean 



$3.85 



$1.85 



31 lbs. $12.25 $31.95 Europe 



S4.50 



$2.90 



32 lbs. $12.61 $32.95 Middle East 



$5.70 



$3.70 



33 lbs. $12.98 $33.95 South America 



$5.25 



$3.25 



34 lbs. $13.34 $34.94 'Canada & Mexico — Same as U.S. Air. 



35 lbs. $13.70 $35.93 These rates are subject to change with each USPS rate increase. 



36 lbs. 



$14.06 $36.93 



WARRANTY 



37 lbs. 



$14.43 $37.93 



38 lbs. $14.78 $38.92 



39 lbs. 



$15.15 



$39.92 



40 lbs. 



$15.51 



$40.91 



41 lbs. 



$15.87 $41.91 



42 lbs. $16.23 $42.90 



43 lbs. 



$16.59 $43.90 



44 lbs. 



$16.96 $44.90 



Since the Seller. PRIORITY I ELECTRONICS, does not control the use of 
its products, there are no express warranties which extend beyond the 
description ol the lace hereof. Seller disclaims any implied warranties 
ol merchantability or ol fitness lor any particular purpose. Since Seller 
cannot control the manner or use ol its products alter their sale. Seller 
shall not be responsible for any consequential or indirect damages. 
Since Seller is only acting as a distributor ol products manufactured by 
other companies. Seller expressly limits its liabilities to any guarantees 
extended by the manufacturer, which guarantees seller will pass 
through to the customer. Seller will at its option, either replace the 
goods sold or relund the purchase price. 

CLAIMS AND RETURNS 



45 lbs. 



$17.31 



$45.89 



46 lbs. 



$17.68 



$46.88 



47 lbs. 



$18.04 $47.89 



48 lbs. 



$18.40 $48.f 



49 lbs. 



$18.76 $49.88 



50 lbs. $19.12 $50.86 



These rates are subject to change with each UPS rate increase. 



FOREIGN ORDERS 

Minimum $25.00 must be PREPAID in one of the following three 
ways: 

1) Mastercharge. VISA, and their affiliated cards. (Don't forget 
the expiration date.) 

2) A MAGNETICALLY ENCODED BANK CHECK or MONEY ORDER 
payable in U.S. dollars through a U.S. bank. If an uncoded check 
or money order is sent, a 5.00 Collection Fee must be included. 
An unencoded check will also delay processing of your order for 
a minimum of four to six weeks. 

3) Bank Transfer. Call or write for details. 

NO OTHER METHOD OF PAYMENT IS ACCEPTABLE. 

Letters of credit and purchase orders from outside the U.S. will 
not be accepted. 

Foreign orders may be sent via Emery Air Freight Collect or via 
Airmail. All mail packages to Canada are insured for up to 
$200.00. All other foreign mail packages are not insured. If you 
desire insurance, please specify Emery. Where postal size and 
weight restrictions make it impossible, or postal costs make it 
impractical, we reserve the right to ship any package via Emery 
Air Freight Collect. (Any prepaid postage collected would be 
refunded.) 



Inspect all shipments immediately upon receipt. Missing car- 
tons or obvious damage to cartons should be noted on the 
delivery receipt before signing. Concealed damage or loss 
should be reported at once to the carrier and an inspection 
requested. All claims (or shortage or damage must be made 
within five days after receipt of shipment. Claims for lost ship- 
ments must be made within 15 days of receipt of invoice or other 
notification of shipment. You must save damage or pilfered 
cartons until claim is settled. No goods may be returned or 
exchanged without a Return Merchandise Authorization. Goods 
returned without an RMA number and/or not prepaid will be 
refused, which may result in additional delay, risk and expense 
to the customer. An RMA number may be received in writing or 
calling the PRIORITY 1 ELECTRONICS Customer Service Depart- 
ment. Monday thru Friday, 9 a.m. -12 p.m., 1 p.m. -4:30 p.m. at 
(213) 893-8202. If authorized, goods returned which are the result 
of customer error will be subject to a minimum of $15.00 or 15%. 
whichever is greater, restocking charge. 

PRIORITY 1 ELECTRONICS assumes no responsibility for any 
errors that may occur in this selection guide. Any product 
recommendation is not binding and shall not eliminate custo- 
mer responsibility to check the suitability of the products we sell 
for their particular application. ABSOLUTELY NO ADJUSTMENT 
CAN BE MADE ON PARTIALLY ASSEMBLED KITS. 

• 1980 Priority 1 Electronics. All rights reserved, no part shall be 
reproduced without written permission from Priority 1 
Electronics. 



Special thanks to all our friends in the industry 
whohavehelped to make us number £o*. 

Ditto, Larry, PA & MA, Terry, Tom & Dave, Scotl & Gregg, John, 
Ray, Willis & Fred, Steve and one guy who tried, Jim Nelson. 



ORDER TOLL FREE (800) 4235633 



BYTE November 1980 



80 — 55 



CA, AK, HI (213) 894-8171 • OUTSIDE CA (800) 423-5633 



r CUSTOMER NUMBER ^ 

THIS IS THE NUMBER THAT APPEARS DIRECTLY 
s ABOVE YOUR NAME ON PREVIOUS ORDERS. 




16723C ROSCOE BLVD., SEPULVEDA, CA 91343 



ORDER NUMBER 



PRIORITY lONEI ELECTRONICS 

PLEASE TYPE OR PRINT - DO NOT WRITE IN SHADED AREAS. 



s* 
o 

L 
D 

T 
O 



S*' 
H 



T 
O 



*On Credit Card Orders this must be the EXACT name as it appears on 
card and the address where the Bank mails your monthly statement. 



•IF SAME AS "SOLD TO", WRITE "SAME". 



PURCHASE ORDER* 


SHIP VIA GUPS DUPSBLUE(AIR) 
nFMFRYAIRCOl nOTHFR 


FOB 

Sepul 


TFRMSnChprkNn Fnclnspd 

□ VISA DMASTERCHARGEi □ Company P.O. Attached 


□TAXABLE 
□ EXEMPT 


□ VISA 

□ M.C. 


CARD« 








EXPIRES 


AUTH/PPD AMT 


DATE 


PHONE EXT. /V 
A G 

Y ( ) T ( 


) 


EXT. 


SIGNATURE 



QTY. 
ORDERED 



PART NUMBER 



DESCRIPTION 



WEIGHT 



UNIT PRICE 



AMOUNT 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15. 



ORDER BY PART NUMBERS EXACTLY AS SHOWN IN SELECTION GUIDE 



_ CHECK HERE IF YOU HAVE 

□ MOVED SINCE YOUR LAST ORDER. 


CHECK HERE IF THIS IS 
UYOUR FIRST ORDER FROM US. 


SEND 
□ CATALOG 


NOTES & SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS 


COMMENTS 


DATE SHIPPED 


INVOICED 


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P.O. NOS. 


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LOC. 


D&B. 



TOTAL 
WEIGHT 



Sub-Total 
(minimum $15.00) 

6% Sales Tax (Calif. Only) 

Shipping 

(consult table on reverse) 

(Minimum $2.50) 



TOTAL $ 



80 — 56 



BE SURE TO READ THE ORDERING INFORMATION ON THE REVERSE SIDE. 

BYTE November 1980 



IMflD^^ 



World's fastest troubleshooter 

A DMM SO UNIQUE ... SO VERSATILE . . . vari-pitch 

**JrZ. .L-Z~.!l -» \T.Tl xl.ml^Z, w~ — >! mbmvV-JL v JL Not i ust a bee P ■ • ■ not J ust instant ohms. MX333s VARI- 

SO SUPERIOR WE WERE TEMPTED TO PITCH audible tone changes frequency proportionate to the 

mii a if eAueTllllir tSi CE reading so you can literally troubleshoot by ear! The higher the 

vALfc I I wvmB I nl«U ELSE pj tcrl , the higher the reading. No need to take your eyes off the 

We believe the MX333, with the VARI-PITCH™ and LOGI-TRAK™ P r ° be ° r wait f ° r a r ?, adou t t0 sett ' e , vari-pitch responds 

, , .... *__»»■_ _ • _» )■ t„_» i »~,i-.. \t instant y, proportional y and accurate y in a votage, current, 

functions, to be the greatest time savmg tool in electronics today. It resistance and diode test ranges, it even provides analog-like 

has all the functions, ranges and accuracy you expect from the best audible response to variations for quick and easy adjustment 

along with the two additional features which will save enormous and nulling. 
amounts of troubleshooting time. And the MX333's 202 range gives i OGI TRAIT tc 

you 10 milliohm resolution for those critical low resistance tests. o„Jt^!kJ «_ri^!_Jl?_^^LL<-r-,-„-_ <™.~ -,-k_ 

i, ._ «.^ ■ ..„„ _ -..,,, _ • i <-,* Combines the features of a high performance logic probe 

Both MX series DMM s have 0.1% basic accuracy plus a 10A range, and voltmeter in one convenient function. Use any standard 10:1 

plus the intelligent case styling that has the size of a hand held, but high frequency scope probe to find high and low logic levels 

the shape of a better idea. With either unit you get more performance and positive or negative pulses as narrow as 5 nsec without 

per dollar than with competitive models. And the MX333 gives you taking your eyes off the circuit! The vari-pitch output tells it 

more, much more, than you ever thought possible! Effort cutting «"• ^nd unlike ordinary logic probes, LOGI-TRAK spots 

• ,'.»!___ ,u~t ...in --..-.,-.. i._..-- *,,, *»,„ „™.wi ground shorts, supply shorts, opens, marginal or ambiguous 

innovations that will save you hours by the second! « ogic states and $£_„-_, p J ses instantly! Then, without 

changing anything but the direction of your glance, it's easy to 
verify actual voltage on the digital readout! 

UNIVERSAL SIZE AND SHAPE 

MX333 and MX331 are the first digital multimeters designed 

from the gound up for LCD technology. The display's 45 ° angle 

is easy to read at any viewing point; from directly above to 

Jjr -AS - QUUrf - *. MA__C straight on. Powered by a single 9 volt battery, their compact 

•-'""'""'■ "~"' size and unique shape make than ideal for all portable 

~ I^^R V •W4fT T -: HB8 applications. 

S^^^ML ■_ —M-i i-li—n ~ ""'* Mil ii .in No matter how you use a multimeter; in your hand, clipped 

to your belt or on a shelf, no other DMM is as convenient as the 
^t__B_ ll X_-_-_-__-_---__-----__-l Hickok MX333 or MX331! And, with VARI-PITCH, MX333 is 

really out of sight in performance. 

CONDENSED SPECIFICATIONS: MX331 and MX333 
DC VOLTS (5 RANGES): 220mV to 1000V full scale, RESOLU- 
TION: 0.1 mV, ACCURACY: ±0.1% + 1 digit, INPUT IMPE- 
ii MMi is; P4\\\« - DANCE: 10MO. OVERLOAD PROTECTION: 1000V DC or peak 

^3^%TSf ■& ] tf^lmll *""'**» *" AC + up to 6kV transients all ranges. 

™ »_»__. .W^tfl.ftWIl "■••,,"'- AC VOLTS (5 RANGES): 200mV to 1000V full scale, RESOLU- 

TION: 0.1 mV, ACCURACY: ±1% + 2digits, 45 Hz to 1kHz, ±5% + 
5 digits to 5kHz, INPUT IMPEDANCE: 10MH, OVERLOAD 
PROTECTION: 1000V DC/750 RMS. 

RESISTANCE (7 RANGES): 20n to 20MI1 full scale 
except no 20(1 range on MX331, RESOLUTION: 
0.01 n on MX333, 0.1 n on MX331 , ACCURACY: 0.1 % 
+ 1 digit except 0.2% on 200O, 1% on 20Mn, and 3% 
on 20fl ranges. OVERLOAD PROTECTION: 500V 
DC on RMS all ranges plus 2A fuse on 20fl range. 
TEST VOLTAGE: Low power, 0.25V max of full 
scale. 

DIODE TEST (1 RANGE): Measures forward vol- 
tage drop across diode and transistor junctions at 
2mA nominal current. 

AC/DC CURRENT (5 RANGES): 2mA to 10A full 
scale, RESOLUTION: 1 M A, ACCURACY: ±1.2% + 1 

H —vHiK digit DC, ±2.5% + 1 digit AC, OVERLOAD PRO- 

. n « f|V WKM HpfK J__— m TECTION: 250V @2A all ranges except 10A, max 

\ M V\ \ \\ •■■■■■ l ^ ii,l "!5T^^ 15A on 10A range. 

I' JVJU \ VAVCJS2JC »*ac-333 -* GENERAL: Dimension*: 2.2 x 6.7 x 6 in. (5.6 x 17 x 

- n «_n awn fflWKrt s«i MJ «m_ 15-2 cm); Weight: 22 oz. (.7kg); Power: 9V battery 

200ft «a Wft a"" 1 m 10A ^j- ■■ (incl.) or Hickok AC adapter; Battery Life; 200 Hrs. 

200mv 2J!n »i wo "* !< ™ rt *"" , " n r u mm iW _V typical; Temperature: 0-50°C operating, -35 to 

°~ , mxt 7/////////////, m mmmm oc , ,-- W + 60°C storage. INCLUDES: Deluxe safety test 

* ^ '/WMWi . , , ■» leads, battery manual and belt clip. 

Ill i I I < * ' l I V M^VM, nMM $179 .00 

' ,^^MB a -'""* |g 1 HIC-MX333 DMM w/VARI-PITCH of LOGI-TRAK 235.00 

HIC-SP+7 10:1 Probe for LOGI-TRAK 33.50 

HIC-CC+4 Carrying Case 15.00 

.,..,..,-., . ... HIC-BC+3 ACAdapter 8.00 

______ — -— — --W HIC-VD+14 RFProbe 33.50 

HICKOK 




BYTE November 1980 80 — CV III 



we see the s-100 

a little differently. 

WE SEE THE S-100 AS AN INDUSTRY STANDARD. 

Systems builders who value performance, price, 
reliability and IEEE compatibility are getting some good 
news from CCS. 

The IEEE-certified S-100 is a real bus, for a very real, 
very dynamic industry. 

And CCS S-100 components deliver industrial quality at 
industrial, mass-produced prices. High performance plus full 
IEEE compatibility. 

There is no greater value for the quality conscious 
system designer. On any bus. From any manufacturer. 





2422 Disk Controller. Single 

and double density controller 
for up to four s%" or 8" single- 
sided drives, or two double-sided 
drives. Shipped with cp/m 2.2, 
the controller reads and writes 
IBM-standard single density. 
Automatically determines disk 
density - single or double. Sup- 
ports PerSci auto eject, plus 
fast-seek for voice coil systems. 

2016 16K Static RAM. Fully 
buffered board features 2114 
static RAMs for +5v operation. 
Bank select available by bank 
port or bank byte, for system 
expansion beyond 64K. Address- 
able in 4K blocks at 4K bound- 
aries. LED indicators for board 
selection and bank selection. 
Available in 200, 300, or 450 nsec 
versions. All versions support 
4MHz operation with no wait 
states. 



2810 Z80 CPU Board. Capable 

CPU for S-100 Systems operates 
at 2 or 4MHz, is fully Altair/lmsai 
compatible, z-80 monitor is 
available separately, includes 
auto addressing to 4K bound- 
aries, plus a serial port for serial 
devices, including terminals and 
printers. Supports both front- 
panel operation and power-on 
memory jump, plus wait-state 
generation for slower memories. 
Compatible with proposed ieee 
s-100 standards. 

2032A 32K Static RAM. Fast 

static memory operates with- 
out wait states at a full 4MHz. 
Supports full and partial bank 
select, for expansion beyond 
64K. Addressable in 8K blocks at 
8K boundaries. Address and data 
lines are fully buffered, and 
there are no DMA restrictions. 



2065 64K Dynamic RAM. Trans 
parent refresh with fail-safe 
extended wait state capability. 
250ns access time, for 4MHz 
operation with no wait states. 
Bank select (fully Cromemco 
compatible) for systems of up 
to 51 2K. And any 16K block can 
be independently addressed. 



2200A Mainframe. ROCk solid, 
heavy gauge cabinet includes 
12-slot, actively terminated 
S-100 motherboard, fan, and 
power supply. Power supply fea- 
tures 105, 115, or 125 volt AC 
input power,- provides +8vDC 
at 20 amps, ±16vDC at 4 amps, 
includes convenient, front 
mounted, lighted reset switch. 






California 
Computer 
Systems 




FROM 

PRIORITY C J ELECTRONICS 



■ CV IV BYTE November 1980 



The first personal computer 
far under $200. 



The Sinclair ZX80. 
A complete computer- 
only $199.95 plus $5.00 shipping. 

Now, for just $199.95, you can get a 
complete, powerful, full-function computer, 
matching or surpassing other personal 
computers costing several times more. 

It's the Sinclair ZX80, the computer that 
independent tests prove is faster than all 
previous personal computers. The compu- 
ter that "Personal Computer World" gave 
5 stars for 'excellent value.' 

The ZX80 cuts away computer jargon 
and mystique. It takes you straight into 
BASIC, the most common, easy-to-use 
computer language. 

You simply take it out of the box, con- 
nect it to your TV, and turn it on. And if 
you want, you can use an ordinary cassette 
recorder to store programs. With the man- 
ual in your hand, you'll be running programs 
in an hour. Within a week, you'll be writing 
complex programs with confidence. 

All for under $200. 

Sophisticated design makes the 
ZX80 easy to learn, easy to use. 

We've packed the conventional computer 
onto fewer, more powerful LSI chips — 
including the Z80A microprocessor, the 
faster version of the famous Z80. This 
makes the ZX80 the world's first truly port- 
able computer (6V2" x 8V2" x V/2" and a mere 
12 oz.). The ZX80 also features a touch 
sensitive, wipe-clean keyboard and a 
32-character by 24-line display. 

Yet, with all this power, the ZX80 is easy 
to use, even for beginners. 




Your course in computing. 

The ZX80 comes complete with its own 
128-page guide to computing. The manual 
is perfect for both novice and expert. For 
every chapter of theory, there's a chapter 
of practice. So you learn by doing— not just 
by reading. It makes learning easy, exciting 
and enjoyable. 

The ZX80's advanced design 
features. 

Sinclair's 4K integer BASIC has perform- 
ance features you'd expect only on much 
larger and more expensive computers. 
These include: 

■ Unique 'one touch' entry. Key words 
(RUN, PRINT, LIST, etc.) have their own 
single-key entry and are stored as a single 
character to reduce typing and save 
memory space. 

■ Automatic error detection. A cursor 
identifies errors immediately to prevent 




entering 

programs with faults. 

■ Powerful text editing facilities. 

■ Also programmable in machine code. 

■ Excellent string handling capability — up 
to 26 string variables of any length. 

■ Graphics, with 22 standard symbols. 

■ Built-in random number generator for 
games and simulations. 

Sinclair's BASIC places no arbitrary re- 
strictions on you— with many other flexible 
features, such as variable names of any 
length. 

And the computer that can do so much 
for you now will do even more in the fu- 
ture. Options will include expansion of IK 
user memory to 16K, a plug-in 8K floating- 
point BASIC chip, applications software, 
and other peripherals. 
Order your ZX80 now! 

The ZX80 is available only by mail from 
Sinclair, a leading manufacturer of consumer 
electronics worldwide. We've already sold 
tens of thousands of units in Europe, so 
demand will be great. 

To order by mail, use the coupon below. 
But for fastest delivery, order by phone 
and charge to your Master Charge or VISA. 
The ZX80 is backed by a 30-day money- 
back guarantee, a 90-day limited warranty 
with a national service-by-mail facility, and 
extended service contracts are available for 
a minimal charge. 



Price includes TV and cassette connectors, 
AC adaptor, and 128-page manual. 

All you need to use your ZX80 is a standard TV 
(color or black and white). The ZX80 comes complete 
with connectors that easily hook up to the antenna 
terminals of your TV. Also included is a connector for 
a portable cassette recorder, if you choose to store 
programs. (You use an ordinary blank cassette.) 




The ZX80 is a family learning aid. Children 10 and 
above will quickly understand the principles of 
computing — and have fun learning. 

Phone orders only: (203) 265-9171. We'll 
refund the cost of your call. 
Information: General and technical— (617) 
367-1988, 367-1909, 367-1898, 367-2555. 
Phones open Monday-Friday from 8 AM to 
8 PM EST. 



inclair 



Sinclair Research Ltd., 475 Main St., 
P.O. Box 3027, Wallingford, CT 06492. 



BY-11-0 

To: Sinclair Research Ltd., 475 Main St., P.O. Box 3027, Wallingford, CT 06492. 

Please send me ZX80 personal computer(s) at $199.95* each (US dollars), plus $5 

shipping. (Your ZX80 may be tax deductible.) 

I enclose a check/money order payable to Sinclair Research Ltd. for $ 

Name 



Address. 
City 



State_ 



.Zip_ 



Occupation: 

Intended use of ZX80:. 



- Age: . 



Have you ever used a computer? □ Yes □ No. 

Do you own another personal computer? □ Yes □ No. 'For Conn, deliveries, add sales tax. 



Circle 49 on inquiry card. 



Buy By Mail 
and Save! 



COMPUTERS 




INTERTEC SuperBrain® 32K . $2495 

64K RAM, List $3345 $2695 

64K Quad, List $3995 $3395 

NORTH STAR Horizon I® 

16K D.D. Kit $1259 

32K D.D. Kit $1579 

32K Assembled, List $2695 .... $2149 

Horizon 2 32K DD, Assm., $3095 $2439 
32K QD, Assm., List $3595 .... $2859 




CROMEMCO Z-2, List $995 ... $ 829 

System 2, 64K, List $3990 $3179 

System 3, 64K, List $6990 $5479 

ATARI® 400, List $630 $ 489 

800, List $1080 $ 839 

TI-99/4, List $1 150 $ 985 

DISK SYSTEMS 

THINKER TOYS® Discus 2D . $ 939 

Dual Discus 2D $1559 

Discus 2 + 2, List $1549 $1288 

PRINTERS & TERMINALS 
PAPER TIGER IDS-440 $ 849 

with Graphics Option $ 949 

CENTRONICS 730-1, List $995 . $ 639 

737, List $995 $ 849 

T.I. 810 $1575 

INTERTUBE II, List $995 $ 729 

PERKIN-ELMER Bantam 550 .. $ 789 

TELEVIDEO 912C $779 

920C $ 839 

HAZELTINE 1420 $ 839 

1500 $ 879 

SOROC 120 $ 745 

FLOPPY DISKS SPECIAL 

5Vt" Box of 10 ONLY $29.95 

(specify TRS-80, North Star, SuperBrain, etc.) 

Most items in stock for immediate delivery. Factory sealed cartons, 
w/full factory warranty. NYS residents add appropriate sales tax 
Prices do not include shipping. VISA and Master Charge add 3%. 
COD. orders require 25% deposit. Prices subject to change without 
notice. 

Computers 
Wholesale 

P.O. Box 144 Camillus, NY 13031 
S (315) 472-2582 



loads all parameters for the color 
memories at the indexed color code of 
2. The hue, intensity, and saturation 
are loaded at this address with the 
data 5, 7, and 2, respectively. 

In order to exploit the full 
capabilities of the frame buffer, we 
must have some method to access in- 
dividual elements of the buffer. And 
we must have the capability of 
loading all or portions of the frame 
buffer in order to support selective 
filling and erasing. If we do not pro- 
vide this function, it becomes very 
difficult to produce solid colored or 
shaded images, which is one of the 
important advantages of a raster-scan 
display. Furthermore, if we allow the 
host to directly load individual 
elements of the frame buffer, we can 
produce a full frame that implements 
algorithms such as depth queuing and 
shading that cannot be performed 
otherwise by the display processor at 
the pixel level. Thus it is apparent 
that we do need some sort of load- 
pixel primitive. In order to increase 
the utility of this primitive, however, 
we must introduce the concept of the 
viewport. 

Through the graphics-display 
registers, we can define a rectangular 
area on the display by a pair of X,Y 
coordinates (the left and right X 
boundary and the top and bottom Y 
boundary). Thus, rather than loading 
the full screen, we can reference the 
area bounded by a viewport. This 
feature permits us to load areas of the 
display or even to mask portions of 
the display. To further increase the 
generality of this primitive, we must 
also permit loading a single pixel. 
This feature allows us to change the 
color of the point we are currently at. 
We could do the same with the MOV 
primitive, but this instruction would 
be shorter. Finally, we can define our 
load-pixel primitive as: 



LPIX R,C„..C„ 



where: 



R = reference 
Viewport, or X, Y) 
C, = color data 



(Full frame, 



Along with this primitive, we must 
add that a predefined order of filling 
the pixels must be maintained, such 
as left to right, bottom to top. For ex- 
ample, the primitive: 



LPIXF,0,0,0,0... 



loads the entire display with a single 
color 0. 

The next primitives we need do not 
actually produce an image, but sup- 
port the previous primitives. First, 
since we have assumed the existence 
of graphics-display registers, we must 
allow the host to load the registers 
with a value. In this work, we do not 
specify the types or numbers of 
graphics-display registers, since they 
may vary from system to system. 
However, certain registers will be 
consistent, such as vector type and 
current X and Y position. 
Mnemonically, our load-register 
primitive can be represented as: 



LREG, N,V 



where: 



N = register name or number 
V = value to be loaded 

For example, the primitive: 

LREG X,4096 

loads the X register with the value 
4096. 

Since some of these registers con- 
tain status information, it is impor- 
tant that the host be able to read back 
the value in the register. For example, 
if the display processor supports a 
light pen, it may be necessary for the 
host to read back the X and Y posi- 
tion coordinates. Mnemonically, our 
read-register-primitive can be 
represented as: 



RREGN 



where: 



N = register name or number 
For example, the primitive: 
RREGY 



reads the contents of the Y register 
and returns the value to the host. 

Since we have assumed the ex- 
istence of subroutines, there must be 
some way of loading subroutines in 
the display-processor memory: thus 
we need a load-subroutine primitive. 
We obviously need the parameters of 

Text continued on page 276 
Circle 50 on inquiry card. > 



WordPro™ 
Word Processing Software 

Turn your Commodore CBM/PET computer 
into a highly sophisticated word processing system 



Everyone expected it would happen 
sooner or later. . .with WordPro it 
already has! Now all the marvelous 
benefits of an advanced stand-alone 
wordprocessor are available with the 
WordPro series of software and the 
systems they create. 

If you've already been shopping for 
software in the crowded word- 
processing marketplace, you've 
probably determined the features 
you really want. You'll find 
WordPro has them, and more. 

And if you haven't begun to shop 
yet, we urge you to compare, 
because only by comparison will 
you fully appreciate how complete 
and sophisticated WordPro 
software really is. 

WORDPRO GIVES YOU 
THREE LEVELS TO CHOOSE 
FROM 




WORDPRO SOFTWARE IS 
LOADED WITH THE 
LATEST INNOVATIONS 

Sophisticated systems programmed 
with leading edge wordprocessing 
features, WordPro is a series of 
programs designed specifically for 
use with the Commodore 
CBM/ PET computers, peripherals 
and compatible typewriter quality 
printers. 



WHAT MAKES WORDPRO 
THE BEST? 

Our research has shown that while 
many wordprocessing packages 
have comparable features to 
WordPro, none can surpass 
Wordpro's EASE OF USE AND 
FLEXIBILITY. Wordpro operators 
need not be familiar with computer 
commands or functions. WordPro is 
easy to learn for anyone with 
ordinary typing skills. 




WORDPRO 1 is ideal for 
hobbyists, students and 
organizations who can benefit from 
the advantages of a basic 
wordprocessor without the program 
refinements of a comercially 
oriented system. WordPro 1 is 
recommended for use with the 
CBM/ PET 8/ 16K, C2N cassette 
and interfaced printer. 




WORDPRO 3 converts the 
CBM/2001 32K computer into a 
highly sophisticated 40-column 
screen wordprocessor. This program 
incorporates the advanced features 
considered important to effective 
wordprocessing, including nearly 
every entering, editing, memory and 
printing feature available today. 
WordPro 3 is recommended for use 
with CBM/PET 32K (40-column) 
computer, CBM Dual Disk Drive, 
and a properly interfaced printer. 



WORDPRO 4 has it all! With this 
program, you will have everything 
you could want from a 
wordprocessor. . .and then some. 
WordPro 4 includes every feature 
found on WordPro 3, but with the 
added advantage of an 80-column 
display screen. The 80-column 
display simplifies text editing and 
makes entering text in columnar 
formats effortless. And with a few 
simple keystrokes, you'll be able to 
visualize on the screen exactly how 
your document will look prior to 
printing it out. WordPro 4 is 
designed for use with the 
Commodore CBM 8032 computer, 
CBM Dual Disk Drives, and a 
properly interfaced printer. 



Professional Software Inc. 

166 Crescent Rd., Needham, MA 02194 
(617) 444-5224 

'WordPro Dealer Inquires Invited* 

WordPro was developed by Steve Punter ot Pro-Micro Software Ltd., and Is marketed exclusively by 

Professional Software Inc. 

WordPro Is a registered trademark of Professional Software Inc. CBM Is a registered trademark of 
Commodore Business Machines. 



Now With Multi-Key Capabilities For Apple & Pet 

Since KRAM™ was introduced in 1979 it has fast become known as the 
users. Now, after hundreds of requests we have added MULTI-KEY , 



IBM/370 users have VSAM (Virtual Storage Access Method) to 
provide fast, flexible keyed-access to their data. Now SUPER 
KRAM (Keyed Random Access Method), from United 
Software of America, gives Apple and Pet users the same 
flexibility, substantially increasing the processing power of the 
Apple and Pet. 

Until SUPER KRAM the only "random access" capability in 
the Apple and Pet consisted of a crude form of "relative 
record" processing. While this is usable for very simple 
applications, it falls far short of the needs of today's business 
and analytical applications. Using SUPER KRAM records 
may be processed by any one of multiple "Key" values, which 
may consist of any kind of data: numbers, letters, special 
characters, etc. Even Apples's long-awaited DOS 3.3 doesn't 
have anything like this!! 



KRAM™ 2.0 Regular Features 

• Written in 6502 machine code 
Basic compatible 

• Create/Open a dataset 

• Put record by key 

• Add & delete records by key 

• Get any record by Full/Partial key 

• Access Dy any key in as little as 
.2 sec. (.1 sec. with Corvus disk) 

• Supports multiple disks 

• Read next or previous record 

• Dynamic space allocation 

• Dynamic space reclamation 

• Dynamic index compression 

• Files never need reorganization 

• Compatible with language systems 

KRAM™ 2.0 Only $99.95 



APPLE / ATARI 

"Precise, humanized, well documented an excellent value" are the applauds being given 



3-D 

ANIMATED 

COLOR 

GRAPHICS 




APPLE WORLD 

The Program made famous on National TV! 



by Paul Lutus 



Written in machine code. 



Look for the RED-WHITE-BLUE 
United Software Display at your local 
computer dealer, or send check or 
moneyorder, plus $3.00 shipping to: 

UNITED 

SOFTWARE 

OF 

750 3RD Avenue, AMERICA 

New York NY 10017 

(212) 682-0347 Telex 640055 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

KRAM is a trade mark of United Software of America. 




APPLE WORLD turns your Apple into a sophisticated graphics 
system capable of creating animated three-dimensional color 
images, projecting them in true perspective on the screen, rotate 
them, move them closer, further away, and many other exciting and 
imaginative things. 

Draws objects with 65,000 points per side. 

A powerful screen-oriented text editor is included to facilitate 
image formation. This program was recently featured on Tom 
Snyder's Prime Time Saturday TV Show and is now available for 
sale. 

APPLE WORLD'S powerful editor is so easy to use that children will 
love it. You can now "sketch" your dream house, boat, car, or 
fantasy empire. Then view it as it would be seen from 10,000 feet, or 
you can ZOOM in until the screen is filled with a doorknob. You 
could then go inside and move from room to room examining 
furniture placement as your screen rotates within the room. Images 
or specific parts of images can easily be saved to disk or printer. 

Does all this sound like science fiction? You won't think so after you 
have visited Apple World. 

Introductory Price $59.95 

36 page manual included 

For 48K Apple II or Plus with Disk 




TM 



By Ken Germann 



You've Asked For It, Now You Got It! 

quickest and most powerful access method for serious Apple and Pet 
MULTI-INDEX, functions, as well as increasing processing speed. 



SUPER KRAM'S "Added Features 

• MULTIKEY SUPPORT — Allowing simultaneous access to a KRAM 
file by more than one key field. 

• HI-SPEED READ — This feature allows increased I/O speed up 
to 60% faster during processing of SUPER KRAM read 

next, read previous, put and delete requests. 

• IMPROVED INDEX ARCHITECTURE — Allowing faster 
index searchers and more efficient disk space utilization. 

• INTEGRATED BASIC COMMANDS — Allowing SUPER 
KRAMtm commands to be coded in-line with Basic, providing 
easier usage of KRAM than ever before. 

• USER-SPECIFIABLE BUFFER POOL — Allowing the user to 
specify how many KRAM files are allowed open at one 
time; will support any number of KRAM files. 



• LOGICAL RECORDS (KEYS MAY BE NON-UNIQUE) — 
Records added to the KRAM files are immediately 
accessible by any of the defined keys for the file (Automatic 
Upgrade). 

• KRAM 2.0 files are totally compatible with SUPER KRAM 

Requirements 

Apple & Pet requirements - KRAM 2.0 and SUPER KRAM 
are designed to work with both Apple ll's, Disk II, and Corvus 
Systems 10 Megabyte Winchester Disk, and Commodore's 
2040, 3040, and 8050 Disk units. KRAM 2.0 and SUPER KRAM 
require 32K/48K Apple and a least on disk drive. 
(KRAM 2.0 requires Integer Basic in ROM). KRAM and 
SUPER KRAM work on any 40/80 column 16K/32K Pet. 



SUPER KRAM ™ Only $175 



BREAKTHROUGHS 

these sophisticated programs designed to meet the stringent needs of individuals and business professionals. 

NEW 3-D SUPERGRAPHICS 



& 3-D GAME DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM IN COLOR 



by Paul Lutus 

Watch colorful butterflys, birds, fly across your Apple or Atari 
screen with true 3 dimensional perspective. Have rocket ships 
fly out at you in this incredible high speed graphics package. 
3-D SUPERGRAPHICStm is a 6502 machine language program 
that will interface to your Basic or machine language 
programs or games using simple "DOS-like" commands. 
Features include: 

• Simple image entry through editor 

• Objects up to 256 points per side 

• Uses all hi-res colors 

• Allows mixed colored text & 
graphics for prompts and captions 

• Translates on 3 axes 

• Individual axis scales 

• 21 different commands 

• Rotate object by 1.4° to 360° increments at machine speeds 

For 48K Apple II or Plus with 
Disk II $39.95 for disk 
For ATARI 800 with 40K memory 
(disk optional) $39.95 for tape 




FOR COMMODORE 16K/32K COMPUTERS 
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM — A comprehensive, 
interactive system like those run on mainframes! Six modules 
comprising 42K of programming allow you to; create, edit, delete, 
display, print, sort, merge, etc., etc. - databases of up to 10,000 
records. Printer routines automatically generate reports and labels 
on demand. 60 pages of concise documentation are included. 
Requirements - 16-32K PET and 2040 Dual Disk (printer 
optional) COST $1 25 



OTHER SOFTWARE 

APPLE COMPUTERS 

Super Space Wars $ 9.95 

States & Capitals 9.95 

Moving Point 

Average 19 95 

Stock Options 24.95 

Finance 12.95 

Bonds 12.95 

COMMODORE PET 

Stock Options 24.95 

Finance 12.95 

Bonds 12.95 



Stock Analyzer 22.95 

Mortgage 1 4.95 

Space Intruders 
("Best Game of 1979") . .$19.95 

Jury/Hostage 9.95 

Kentucky Derby/Roulette 9.95 

Mlien I.Q./Tank 9.95 

Tunnelvision/Maze Chase 14.95 

Submarine Attack 9.95 

Battle of Midway 7.95 

Laser Tank Battle* 9.95 

Swarm 14.95 

Baseball 9.95 

Super Startrek 14.95 

PET Music Box 29.95 



Technical Fcnum 



A Line-Failure 
Indicator 



Hank Olson, POB 339, Menlo Park CA 94025 



Have you ever come back from work looking forward 
to an evening of home computing, only to find that 
nothing works? The program that was almost debugged 
during previous evenings is gone7 

While nothing short of nonvolatile memory will com- 
pletely solve this problem, the simple line-failure in- 
dicator described here will alert you to problems that oc- 
curred while you were away. A simple glance at the 
three-color display of LEDs (light-emitting diodes) will at 
least let you know what you are in for. The indicators 
light as follows: 

• green: power is on, no recent failures 

• yellow: power has failed and returned 

• red: power has been off for a short time 

• none: power has been off for a long time 



N.O. = NORMALLY OPEN 
N.C. = NORMALLY CLOSED 



Having different colored LEDs seems best from a human- 
interface point of view, even though their voltage re- 
quirements differ somewhat. 

The circuit of the line-status indicator is shown in 
figure 1. The basic power supply uses a common 6.3 V 
filament transformer and a bridge rectifier of four 
1N4001 diodes. The primary is controlled by SW1, a 
double-pole switch which prevents the battery from 
discharging when the unit is off. This supply must pro- 
vide the current to light one LED plus energize a small 
relay coil. This represents about 150 ohms, so the RC 
(resistor/capacitor) time constant of the power-supply 
filter is about 0.15 seconds. Therefore, if you return to 
find the yellow indicator on, you will know that there has 
been a line-voltage dropout of 0.3 seconds or longer. 

Looking at figure 1, we see that the green LED is held 
on by SCRl. The SCR gate can only be triggered into 
conduction manually by means of SW2. Once this push- 
button switch (SW2) is (momentarily) closed, a pulse of 
current enters the gate of the SCR from the 0.1 /*F 
capacitor; and the SCR goes into conduction. Since this 
SCR operates on DC, it will stay in conduction until the 
DC supply fails (meaning that there is an AC line 
dropout). 

When the DC supply fails, the relay Kl is de-energized, 
closing the "normally closed" contacts and lighting the 




Figure 1: This power-line-failure indicator uses a silicon-controlled rectifier to detect voltage dropouts. If power should fail for 
more than 0.3 seconds, the SCR ceases to conduct and the green LED is extinguished, while the red LED lights. The red LED remains 
on as long as power is out; its power is drawn from a set of rechargeable batteries. Should power return, the red LED goes out and 
the yellow one is illuminated to indicate this sequence of events. 



86 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 




At ^7951 how toughcan 
these new Tigers be? 



Introducing the new Paper Tiger™ 
445 with the most rugged printing 
mechanism ever put in a low-cost 
matrix printer. 

The 445 comes with a reliable ballis- 
tic-type print head and an advanced 
cartridge ribbon that lasts four times 
longer than many cassette or spool 
ribbons. Two separate heavy duty 
motors drive the print head 
and advance the paper. Plus you get 
true tractor paper feed. 

And the new 445 gives you the per- 
formance you expect from the Paper 
Tiger family of printers. You can soft- 
ware-select character sizes, print 
80- and 132-column formats, adjust 
paper width and length, even gen- 
erate six-part business forms. All at 
unidirectional print speeds to 198 
characters per second. 



Need more stripes? Specify DotPlot™ 
a sophisticated raster graphics option. 

If you've got an Apple**, TRS-80*** 
or other personal computer, get your 
paws on the tough new Paper Tiger™ 
445 from IDS. 

The people who invented low-cost 
matrix printing just growled. 

Call TOLL FREE 800-258-1386 (in 
New Hampshire, Alaska and Hawaii, 
call 603-673-9100.) ; 
Or write: 

Integral Data J» 
Systems, Inc., gifti 4£s {§ 
Milford, New , 
Hampshire 
03055. 

Paper 

■5 ^Integral Data Systems, Inc. 




Circle 51 on inquiry card. 



"Suggested U.S. retail price. 
"Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
* TRS-80 is a trademark of Radio Shack, a division of Tandy Corp. 




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I 


1 1 


ifN 


• ■ 




red LED. The 1N4454 serves to disconnect the two-cell 
nickel-cadmium (nicad) battery from Ul during power 
outages, so that the only load on the battery is the LED. 
Use of a relay to actuate the battery-to-LED circuit is the 
best method, because it closes the circuit with nearly zero 
resistance, while consuming no power in the process. The 
two-cell nicad, a General Electric DS25D, is a rather 
small unit made for printed-circuit board mounting and 
thus fits in easily. This tiny battery will light the red LED 
for several hours when fully charged. 

When AC power returns, DC is quickly restored to 
energize Kl and to charge the battery via ICl, the 
regulator. ICl is a voltage regulator, but it also has 
current-limit capability. The 10-ohm resistor between 
pins 1 and 8 of the regulator causes charge current to be 
limited to 20 mA, even if the battery is nearly discharged. 
As the battery charges and its terminal voltage ap- 
proaches the regulated voltage output to which ICl is set, 
current drops below 20 mA and tapers off in the 
"constant-voltage" charge mode. 

Meanwhile, the SCR remains nonconducting, which 
allows current to flow via the 360-ohm and 10 k-ohm 
resistors to the base of Ql, forward-biasing this transistor 
and lighting the yellow LED. Thus the yellow LED in- 
dicates that power has failed and returned. The red LED 
has, of course, been extinguished with the energizing of 
Kl. 

The final step in the sequence is when the person who 
uses this line-failure detector notices that the yellow LED 
is lit, and resets SW2. This act causes SCRl to conduct, 
diverting current from the base of Ql, extinguishing the 
yellow LED and lighting the green LED. 

Since it takes between 1.5 and 1.8 V to light an LED, I 
chose a battery consisiting of two nicad cells in series. 
This gives a battery voltage of 2.4 V, which is adequate 
to light LEDs of all colors, using series dropping resistors. 
Since the battery is charged in series with a 1N4454, the 
voltage-regulator output should be set (by means of the 
5 k-ohm variable resistor) to between +2.9 and +3.1 V. 
This accounts for the series forward-voltage drop in the 
1N4454. Note that an RCA-CA3085 is used as a 
regulator. An LM305H (National Semiconductor) will 
not substitute for this integrated circuit since it's not 
made to regulate below +4.5 V. The older National 
LM300H would work, however. 

Kl can be any small relay having a coil voltage from 4 
to 8 V DC, with a set of normally closed contacts. The 
series resistor is adjusted to drop the unregulated +8 V 
of the DC supply to the desired voltage of the relay coil. 
In my own case, a small relay (from an old radiosonde 
transmitter) which had a 400-ohm coil and which closed 
reliably on +4 V was used. A 390-ohm resistor was then 
used to drop the +8 V supply to the coil voltage of 
+ 4V.I 



Technical Forum is a feature intended as an interactive 
dialog on the technology of personal computing. The subject 
matter is open-ended, and the intent is to foster discussion 
and communication among readers of BYTE. We ask that all 
correspondents supply their full names and addresses to be 
printed with their commentaries. We also ask that cor- 
respondents supply their telephone numbers, which will not 
be printed. 



88 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 52 on Inquiry card. 



Look what's happened to 



HIPL0T 



TM 



DMP-4 
$1,385* 




DMP-5 
$1,685* 



DMP-7 
1,985* 



It's grown into a complete 
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In just two short years, The 
HIPL0T has become the most 
popular digital plotter among 
small systems users. With a 
record like that, what can we do 
for an encore? WE'VE IN- 
TRODUCED A COMPLETE LINE 
OF HIPL0TS...with a model 
suited for just about every plot- 
ting application. 

The HIPL0T DMP Series is a 
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with both "standard" and "in- 
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surface areas of 8V2" x 11" (DIN 
A4) and 11" x 17" (DIN A3). For 
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plotter, we have the "old stan- 
dard" DMP-2 (8 1 /z " x 1 1 ") and the 
"new standard" DMP-5 (11" x 
17"). For those needing a lit- 
tle more capability, there are 
the DMP-3 (8 1 / 2 " x 11") and 
the DMP-6 (11" x 17")-both 

TM HIPLOT and DM/PL are Trademarks 
of Houston Instrument 



Yes, they are UL listed! * * 

microprocessor controlled and 
providing easy remote position- 
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want this intelligence plus the 
convenience of front panel elec- 
tronic controls, we've provided 
the DMP-4 (8V2" x 11") and the 
DMP-7 (11" x 17"). 

The "standard" plotters come 
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Circle 53 for literature 

Circle 54 to have representative call 

sociated wth digital plotting. 

With the new DMP Series, 
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Prices for the DMP series 
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call toll free 1-800-531-5205. For 
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Telephone 059/27-74-45. 



•U.S. suggested retail prices only. 
•DMP 2, 3 and 4 UL listed 
DMP 5, 6 and 7 UL listing pending 



Language Control Structures 
for Easy Electronic Visualization 



Control structures are the 
program- flow manipulation features 
of the language that you use to beat 
your computer into submission. 
BASIC'S control structures are em- 
bodied in the RUN, GOTO, GOSUB, 
and RETURN keywords and a few 
functions, certainly an impoverished 
set. Highly structured languages like 
Pascal are rigidly limited to the con- 
trol structure of subroutines. Lowly 
structured approaches like assembly 
language are necessary to implement 



la 



Dr Thomas DeFanti 

Electronic Visualization Laboratory 

University of Illinois at Chicago Circle 

POB 4348 

Chicago IL 60680 

higher-level languages and real-time 
systems, because the lack of enforced 
structure allows an infinite variety of 
control structures to be used at a cost 
of great human effort. The execution- 
speed gain in using assembly 
language is more due to the efficient 
building of customized tables and 
linked lists than to efficiency in add- 
ing, subtracting, multiplying, and 
dividing numbers. 

Assembler coding is by no means 
easy. Note the word "easy": it's 



important because in one sense it 
means "accessible." In this case, it's 
your access to complex electronic 
visualizations. 

Electronic visualizations are impor- 
tant because producing and 
manipulating images, especially 
animated ones, is a truly multidimen- 
sional task which reflects our real- 
world interactions much more than 
maintaining an accurate laundry list 
or printing payroll checks. Producing 
them demands a lot from software. 



















r 


c Z> 






ft/Jj > J §l\\ 

■ SJ / i /* " i 

d 11 


\ 

5\v a 




Photos la and lb: Sample output from the GRASS/ Image Processor. Photo la was made by Guenther Tetz, and photo lb by Dan 
Sandin and the author. 



90 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 55 on inquiry card. 



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• 18 x 9 dot matrix; suitable for word 
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EPSON MX80 (List $645) SCall 

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and making their access easy requires 
paying attention to the provision of 
rich control structures in a language. 

Electronic Visualization is an inten- 
tionally broad term meant to conjure 
thoughts of computer graphics, 
animation, image processing, video 
synthesis, and even advanced word- 
processing. Anyone successfully pro- 
ducing images for communication is 
unlikely to reject a technique for 
reasons of algorithmic purity (as a 
computer scientist might feel forced 
to do). Computer hobbyists use the 
tools at hand, and electronic 
visualization is the means to the end 
and the end product of using these 
tools. Simultaneously, it can be both 
because we are seeing the vast 
increase of real-time imaging systems, 
even in microcomputer-based con- 
figurations; and controlling these 
real-time systems can be as feedback- 
intensive as playing a musical instru- 
ment or driving a racing car. 

Just to unify the concepts so far, 
think about this question: what 
besides the cosmetic packaging 
governs our choice of a musical 
instrument or an automobile? It is a 
combination of capability and user 



The most successful 
approaches to date are 
basically highly 
developed, beautifully 
evolved kluges. 



control, of course: having one 
without the other is useless. So why 
are the programming languages cur- 
rently available so impoverished on 
the control-structure side? 

Perhaps it is because computers 
were invented to process payrolls, 
not images. Television, on the other 
hand, is image-oriented and currently 
uses a host of presently emerging real- 
time digital techniques and increas- 
ingly flexible control structures. As a 
matter of fact, just about all the 
television you see these days is 
digitally processed for purposes of 
synchronization. 

Television is a high-speed medium 
conducive to parallel and pipeline 
processing. You are driving television 
rather than generating it. TV cameras 
are on all the time and you, as direc- 



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tor, are fading, switching, adding 
titles and constantly throwing away 
images that you don't want. Control 
is the name of the game. 

The television folk are not about to 
give up rich, real-time control struc- 
tures and the computer folk won't 
give up language. How to get them 
together is the essence of the task at 
hand. 

Getting Computers and Television 
Technology Together 

Looking at the history of control 
structures for computer graphics and 
for television, we see that most 
computer-graphics usage, with the 
obvious and exciting exception of 
video games, is some variety of non- 
real-time plotting. This is where the 
money is and where the language 
development for computer-aided 
design has been focused. No 
manufacturer of equipment for com- 
puter graphics (excepting the video- 
game people) now depends on anima- 
tion for solvency. Plotting is slow and 
often merely the side output of a large 
FORTRAN finite-element analysis 
program. Visual aesthetics are rarely 
the primary concern, if any concern 
at all. People who use such systems 
are highly skilled and highly paid 
technicians who became that way by 
having to deal with plotting packages 
as a condition of employment. If the 
job were easy, they wouldn't get paid 
so much. 

We are just reaching the point of 
electronically generating and 
manipulating images, in real time, 
under program control. How do we 
design languages to deal with real 
time? Or, more important, why do 
we want such a language, an 
alphanumeric string-oriented 
language, at all? Why not use picture- 
based languages with symbols for 
motions and timing? 

How Can You Control Images 
Easily? 

After about ten years of living with 
this obvious and nagging question, 
some conclusions became clear. First, 
purist approaches to electronic 
visualization are hopeless. Image con- 
trol employs a hybrid of languages, 
several input devices, picture- 
oriented commands, custom hard- 
ware, and a smattering of idiosyn- 
crasies. The most successful 
approaches to date are basically 



92 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 56 on inquiry card. 



The 



MAGIC WAND* 



ALMOST 
PERFEC. 

We've been saying it for a few months 
now, and the reviewers seem to agree. 

4 4 Until I saw the Magic Wand, if I were allowed to own one and 
only one editor, Word Star* would have been it. . . . My personal 
preference is for Pencil or Magic Wand for text creation. J 5 

Jerry Pournelle 
On Computing, Summer 1980 

4 4 The basic functions of the Magic Wand editor are as easy to learn 
as those of Electric Pencil*. . . . Magic Wand dominates in the area 
of print formatting. ? ? Larry Press 

On Computing, Summer 1980 

4 4 Of all the word processors I have used (and that includes a dozen 
or more), the Magic Wand is the most versatile. The Wand has 
almost all of the features of other processors, plus many new ones of 
its own. It measures up to even the word-processing software running 
on the largest mainframe computers.? ?Rod Hallen 

Microcomputing, June 1980 

4 4 The Magic Wand is one of the most flexible word processing 
packages available, and should be considered by any potential word 
processing purchaser. 5 ? Glenn A. Hart 

Creative Computing, August 1980 

Available for both the CP/M® and OASIS operating systems 

small business applications, vac. 

3220 Louisiana • Suite 205 • Houston, Texas 77006 • 713-528-5158 



Circle 57 on inquiry card. 



Electric Pencil is a trademark of Michael Shrayer Software, Inc. 
WordStar is a trademark of Micro Pro International. Inc. 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research Corp. 

BYTE November 1980 93 



highly developed, beautifully evolved 
kluges. We know what "purism" in 
coding FORTRAN and BASIC does 
to image production. Purism in 
television technique eliminates com- 
puter graphics as we know it. So how 
about using graphic symbols to save 
the day? 

Using symbols in a menu and some 
sort of manual-selection mechanism 
is an approach taken by many FOR- 
TRAN graphics systems. This limits 
the number of symbols to those 
defined in the menu and there is no 
user-level extensibility in that you 
cannot create new symbols out of 



sequences of old symbols, which 
eliminates the one truly unique 
feature of computers. To state it 
bluntly, you can't program with a 
menu. 

What happens, however, if you do 
find a system that provides for the 
combination of nonalphanumeric 
symbols in meaningful ways? In an 
extremely advanced case, it should 
look something like Japanese, and 
you might note that the language 
used to program computers in Japan 
is a phonetic alphanumeric transcrip- 
tion of their language. They do not 
program in their extremely beautiful 




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and rich symbol set. Eliminating 
alphanumeric languages is not such a 
hot idea, except in turnkey systems. 

The second conclusion gestating 
for the past ten years is that complete 
parallelism is necessary for control- 
ling images in meaningful ways. You 
simply must be able to develop 
sequences independently and merge 
them in ways that do not necessitate 
rewriting the programs. Xerox's 
Smalltalk and certain other languages 
have this capability, as do television 
technology and everyday life: making 
this parallelism easily accessible takes 
real care. 

The third conclusion is that a flexi- 
ble priority scheme is needed. Some 
tasks are more important than others, 
just as in real life and computer 
operating systems. It is essential to 
give this capability to the user of an 
electronic visualization system. 

Fourth, providing for user exten- 
sibility at several levels is the only 
way people will easily be able to use a 
system for applications not envi- 
sioned by the designer. I will discuss 
this later. 

Fifth, the system must be software- 
fault tolerant. Fault-tolerant hard- 
ware has been a research area of great 
importance to real-time control 
systems, yet language purists still 
think people should solve problems in 
structured, orthodox, algorithmic 
ways. A computer language should 
provide as many paths to a given 
communication as possible, as 
natural languages do, and the kind of 
error handling that a friend would 
offer. Allowing nonstructured, non- 
procedural, "seat-of-the-pants" pro- 
gramming is often the only salvation 
when the final goal is aesthetically 
defined, and is, perhaps, not at all 
clear. It has been called "fuzzy 
programming," and it's easy to throw 
in the recursive, value-returning, 
clever structured-programming 
capabilities as well, but limiting 
yourself to these latter approaches 
stifles human creativity, problem- 
solving, and sideways thinking. 

Zgrass — A Language for Easy 
Electronic Visualization 

Zgrass is a programming language 
and operating system written in 
assembly language for the Z80 
microprocessor by Nola Donato, Jay 
Fenton, and me. Not surprisingly, it 
embodies all the control structures 
mentioned so far in this article and 



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2a 



n 1 n TIMING FDR 1 
HDRIZDNTflL 
v LINE DF VIDEO 

J Jj '— | |+*++j 15 U5EC 

1 1 * 1 1 [ 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 rr | :: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f 1 1 1 



52.3 ♦ 10.79 = EH. 73 U5EC 




Photos 2a, 2b, and 2c: Sample output from the first Zgrass system, with a resolution of 
160 by 102 pixels, with 2 bits per pixel. Photo 2a was made by Copper Giloth, and 
photos 2b and 2c by Nola Donato. 



has been in development for ten 
years. 

Zgrass started out as GRASS 
(Graphics Symbiosis System), a 
language designed to bring the 
immense complexity of a Digital 
Equipment Corporation PDP-11 /45 
and as Vector General 3DR Display 
system within the grasp of artists and 
educators at Ohio State University. It 
has high levels of interaction, 
parallelism, priority, and tree- 
structured manipulations of vector- 
defined objects. Photos from this 
system can be seen in "About the 
Cover... And Some More of the 
Same," in the October 1977 BYTE, 
page 22. 

GRASS depends on $120,000 of 
equipment to run — rather expensive 
for a single-user system — but it is 
one of the first highly developed non- 
FORTRAN interactive graphics 
systems for use by artists. 

In 1973, Dan Sandin, inventor of 
the Image Processor, brought color 
television usage to our computer 
graphics work at the University of Il- 
linois at Chicago Circle. Dan and I 
developed most of the ideas about 
control structures presented here. 
Photos la and lb show some output 
from the GRASS/Image Processor 
system. 

Generating a complete program- 
ming language with parsers, com- 
pilers, and graphics takes a lot of 
human effort. More than ten person- 
years of programming were devoted 
to GRASS, aided by generous sup- 
port from the National Science Foun- 
dation, National Endowment for the 
Arts, and others. 

GRASS is totally oriented toward 
real-time generation and control of 
images for the simple reason that 
television cannot easily be slowed 
down for long and /or time-lapse ex- 
posures as can be done with film. The 
control structures for GRASS were 
developed ad hoc and became in- 
creasingly idiosyncratic. Nola 
Donato, a postgraduate student of 
mine, decided to teach me how to 
generalize many of the programming- 
language concepts. The result was 
GRASS3, which later became Zgrass. 

In 1977, I was led to Jeff 
Frederiksen at Dave Nutting 
Associates, who was developing a 
deluxe home computer for Bally Cor- 
poration using the custom integrated 
circuits they had developed for the 
Bally Arcade video game. The pros- 



96 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Don't play games 
with your company's money. 




Our entry level computer system is the first step in 
a full range of computer products. Not the last step in 
a full range of computer games. 

We call it VI P. The Vector Intelligent Partner. And 
with a price of just $3695, you can't get more computer 
for your money. 

VIP has all the assets and none of the liabilities of 
other entry level systems. It starts off with a lot more 
disk capacity. It has the same computational power, uses 
the same software as our larger systems, and can 
be upgraded at any time. So you avoid the 
expense of new hardware and software when 
you outgrow your current system. 

You'l I be able to do low cost word processing, 
mail list sorting, database management and 
accounting. You can even do software 
development. 

VIP is perfect for salesmen, real estate 
brokers, insurance agents, small business 
owners and corporate department heads. 
Because at Vector, improving your business is the 
best way to improve our business. 

For information contact Vector, 31364 Via Colinas, 
Westlake Village, CA 91362. Or call 213/991-2302. 



Economy Sized Computers 



Circle 59 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 97 




Photo 3: Sample output from a later version of Zgrass, with a resolution of 320 by 204 pixels with 2 bits per pixel. Photo 3 was made 
by Frank Dietrich. 



pect of developing a language for 

fun, one that had user-orientation as 
the benchmark rather than how many 
FOR-NEXT loops you could execute 
per unit time was too good to pass 
up. I was contracted to produce 
Zgrass, and in a year, Nola Donato, 
Jay Fenton (a legendary wizard of 
video games and pinball-machine 
operating systems), and I had 
generated 9000 lines of code. (Much 
of the work was done not in a lab but 
in a cabin in the woods of 
Wisconsin!) Examples of output from 
this system are seen in photos 2a, 2b, 
and 2c. Note that the resolution of 
this first Zgrass machine is 160 by 102 
pixels (ie: picture elements), with 2 
bits per pixel. 

Some confusion arose about 
whether we were producing a hob- 
byist machine or a home computer 
for consumers, so the project was 
suspended. Even now nobody really 
knows what a "consumer computer" 
is supposed to be. 

98 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Ire 



From consulting with less en- 
lightened would-be consumer com- 
puter manufacturers, I have perceiv- 
ed that they follow the rather 
negative view of consumerism. (Few 
people reading this article would be 
considered only consumers — I 
assume that BYTE readers are mostly 
hobbyists or professionals.) Con- 
sumerism is based on great market 
penetration, and the big question is: 
"How do you get 90% market 
penetration like color TV?" 

It is also based on consuming, that 
is, wearing out or getting sick of 
hardware and software so you go buy 
more and consume it. The user is 
expected to supply no creativity, just 
assume a passive, susceptible-to- 
entertainment pose — this reminds 
you of television watching, doesn't it? 
Well, anything requiring creative 
energy is akin to hobbyism. 

Consumer computers do exist in 
the form of video games that you can 
get bored with and buy more — even 
the advertisements invariably cite the 



number of new games to be available 
each month. I don't know how to 
write a programming language that 
wears out, though. User-extensibility 
is planned "nonobsolescence." Zgrass 
is not a consumer language by current 
standards. 

The project is on active status 
again, but this time with a hob- 
byist/professional orientation. We 
believe there are many people who 
want a recordable image-producing 
system for around $3000. The current 
configuration includes: 

• Z80 processor with 16 K bytes of 
EPROM and 48 K bytes of pro- 
grammable memory 

• custom graphics integrated circuits 
and floating-point hardware 

• dual UARTs (universal asyn- 
chronous receiver/transmitters) 
for connection to larger com- 
puters, printers, etc 

• RBG (red, blue, green) monitor for 
best color resolution 




Please send your free software catalog. 

(Check which software is of particular interest) 

□ C COMPILER. Optimized native code for VAX 11/780, PDP-11, LSI-11, Z80, 
8085, 8080. Full C language as defined in Kernighan and Ritchie, with com- 
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IAS, RSX-11D, RSX-11M, RSTS/E, RT-11, UNIX, Idris, CDOS, CP/M. From $600 

□ IDRIS OPERATING SYSTEM. System calls and file system identical to 
UNIX V6, including pipelines. Utilities include shell, editor, assembler, 
loader, archiver, compare, copy, grep, etc., plus system utilities for file 
system maintenance. Runs on LSI-11, PDP-11. From $1000. 

□ PASCAL COMPILER. Optimized native code for VAX 11/780, PDP-11, 
LSI-11, Z80, 8085, 8080. Full Pascal language as defined in Jensen and 
Wirth, with standard library. Includes C compiler and portable library, 
permitting intermixed C and Pascal. Cross compilers available. Runs 
under VMS, IAS, RSX-11D, RSX-11M, RSTS/E, RT-11, UNIX, Idris, CDOS, 
CP/M. From $750. 



Name_ 



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Street 

City 



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Idris is a trademark of Whitesmiths Ltd 
UNIX is a trademark of Beil Laboratories. 
CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Co 



VMS, RSX-11, RT-11. RSTS/E, VAX, 
PDP-11, LSI-11 are trademarks of Digital 
Equipment Corporation. 



Whitesmiths, Ltd 

Software for grownups. 

(212)799-1200 

ROB. 1132 Ansonia Station, New York, NY. 10023 



• alphanumeric terminal (which the 
user provides) 

• provision for floppy disks, tablet, 
other I/O (input/output) devices 

Eight Zgrass units in this configura- 
tion have been alive and well and tied 
into the Bell-Laboratory-developed 
UNIX operating system since January 
1980. Although I have only discussed 
software design, I must mention that 
the hardware to test the concepts real- 
ly exists! See photo 3 and note that 
the resolution is now 320 by 204 pix- 
els, with 2 bits used per pixel. 

Details of Zgrass Control Struc- 
tures 

Programs in Zgrass are called 
macros. Macros are stored as ASCII 
(American Standard Code for Infor- 
mation Interchange) character strings 
and normally contain executable 
Zgrass commands. The fundamental 
unit of execution in Zgrass is a com- 
mand, which is either an assignment 
statement or a function call. 

Zgrass does not require declaration 
of variable types (with the exception 
of array dimensioning). The software 
automatically does all conversions 



that make sense based on the context. 
Any argument can be a function call 
whose returned value is converted to 
whatever is needed, if at all possible. 
Literals, indirect references, 
variables, built-in commands, user- 
defined commands, and user-defined 
macros are all handled by the same 
parser, so the syntax is very predict- 
able. The fact that there are no 
restrictions on name length helps to 
produce easily read code. 

User-Level Extensibility 

Extensibility in Zgrass is achieved 
in two major ways. First, you can 
write macros which return values, 
produce graphics, or ask questions; 
or, through string-manipulation 
primitives written by Barb Wilson, 
you can generate other macros. 
Macros use arguments in exactly the 
same way as system commands, and 
are even named and called like system 
commands. 

To reiterate, macros are simply 
strings of ASCII characters. When a 
macro is called, an MIB (Macro Invo- 
cation Block) is automatically built. It 
gives information on the invoking 
function call, the passed-argument 



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list, and pointers to local variables, 
and provides room for the returned 
value. MIBs form a stack which im- 
plements the subroutining and block 
structuring of the language. When the 
macro returns, the MIB is deleted 
along with the local variables and 
unused literal arguments, if any, and 
control is passed back to the caller. 

If arguments are to be passed to a 
macro, they are read by the normal 
input command, and print statements 
are suppressed as long as there are 
arguments left. If no arguments are 
present or an insufficient number are 
passed, the print statements function 
normally and the macro asks for 
input from the terminal. This allows 
macros to be used whether or not you 
know the arguments wanted, with no 
extra code by the author of the 
macro. 

Macros can also be executed in 
parallel as background jobs. When 
called and suffixed by a ".B", the 
Macro Invocation Block is added to a 
background linked list. After that, 
the macro will run forever (it restarts 
at the beginning when it tries to 
return) until Control-C or the stop 
command selectively kills it. Photo 2c 
shows two sorting algorithms being 
compared for execution speed in real 
time, a tricky task in most languages, 
easy in Zgrass. 

The background parallelism is 
achieved by interleaving execution of 
the macro statements. The MIB con- 
tains all relevant context for execu- 
tion, including a pointer to the next 
command to execute, so switching 
MIBs after each line has been com- 
pleted is simple and gives the func- 
tional parallelism. If there are five 
background macros, each one gets a 
line executed, in turn, round-robin 
fashion. This construct is simple and 
straightforward with no bizarre side- 
effects except that unusually time- 
consuming commands will make the 
parallelism temporally step 
somewhat. Background interleaving 
is easily understood and used even by 
the most naive users. 

Meanwhile, the keyboard is still 
active. When the user types a com- 
mand line, it is executed at a higher 
priority than the background macros. 
If the user initiates a macro at 
keyboard level, it will finish before 
the background macros continue. In 
any event, the keyboard overrides the 
background, again in an obvious, 
predictable way. 



100 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 61 on inquiry card. 



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The user may also specify pro- 
grams to run as the result of a clock 
interrupt. When a macro call is suf- 
fixed by a ".¥", the Macro Invocation 
Block is chained into a list that is 
polled every 1/60 second. The user 
sets the frequency of execution from 1 
to 32,768 sixtieths of a second. These 
foreground macros execute on a 
higher priority level than the 
keyboard and background macros so 
they will start up just about on time 
(again, delayed only by a time- 
consuming graphics command). 
Foreground macros allow a keyboard 
command to be slipped in during con- 
text switching. 

Zgrass, then, has three effective 
levels of priority with parallelism at 
two of the three levels. Since the 
Macro Invocation Block maintains all 
context information, even recursive 
programming is possible at any level. 

One of the severe problems in 
interpretive, extensible languages like 
Zgrass is the overhead of parsing and 
looking up names in name tables. For 
this reason, Zgrass has a compiler 
which eliminates the overhead and 
dramatically increases speed. All the 
automatic conversions, priority, and 



parallelism continue to work. Com- 
piling does eliminate some of the 
interactive debugging features, so 
you usually debug on the noncom- 
piled version first. 

Zgrass System Extensibility 

Zgrass also allows extensibility at 
the system-command level. A system 
such as this should allow an experi- 
enced programmer to write new com- 
mands in assembler and interface 
them to the system easily, certainly 
without changing the EPROMs 
(erasable, programmable read-only 
memories). A transfer vector in low 
memory and a series of Z80 RST 
(special restart subroutine-call) in- 
structions allow communication with 
about one hundred system routines 
which do parsing, type conversion, 
graphics primitives, and so on. 

Documentation explains what 
these routines do, and anyone with a 
cross assembler (or patience for hand 
assembly) can write new commands 
of which the system has no prior 
knowledge. Such extensibility allows 
virtually infinite variety of specialty 
graphics commands, device drivers, 
and so forth to be written and 



SOFTWARE ENGINEERS 

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These positions require a BSEE or BSCS with a minimum of 1-3 years software design 
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language is considered a plus. 

SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 

Provide the design for new call processing features and systems, modular functional 
descriptions and interfaces, software architectural and data base design. 

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Design and develop software that maintains a system that's operated by stored pro- 
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..where science gets down to business 



distributed to others on audio tape, 
disk, or over telephone lines. Terry 
Disz wrote a debugging program used 
as a disk-resident command for set- 
ting break-points, dumping memory 
and registers and so on. This capabili- 
ty is not for everyone, but it's there. 

The maximum size of one of these 
user-written nonresident commands 
is 4 K bytes. Since the typical Zgrass 
machine has 30 K bytes of program- 
mable memory, the amount of poten- 
tial custom code is immense. All 
housekeeping for storage allocation 
and deletion, maintenance of tem- 
porary scratch-pad areas and general 
cleanup is done by system routines. 
You only concentrate on the details, 
obeying a few rules for writing 
position-independent code. 

One further type of extensibility is 
easy to get. Zgrass has an extra 
UART which talks to other com- 
puters quite nicely. Larger computers 
can send graphics and character data 
to your Zgrass machine. Zgrass units 
can even talk to one another at up to 
19.2 k bps! 

Error Handling, Debugging and 
Automated Instruction 

Zgrass was designed from the 
beginning to be a language for writing 
CAI (computer-aided instruction) 
programs. In particular, it was 
designed to be self -teaching to a fairly 
high degree. When Zgrass is used as a 
CAI system, the result of providing 
parallelism, string manipulation, and 
good error handling is that the stu- 
dent always has the power of the 
whole language to explore while the 
author of the CAI programs is also in 
control. 

Since macros are character strings, 
they can be built and executed. You 
can take student input, make it into a 
program (before the student even 
knows how to edit), let parameters be 
changed, show the results, and verify 
certain classes of results both during 
execution and after. The approaches 
we have taken to Zgrass CAI are 
beyond the scope of this article, so I 
will just mention the system features 
which make CAI possible. 

Error-handling routines normally 
generate error-message numbers on 
the terminal. There are about sixty of 
them and they are quite specific. Dur- 
ing regular programming, they are 
used in conjunction with single step- 
ping, variable printing and other 
debugging techniques to identify 



102 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 62 on Inquiry card. 



We designed a computer family 
that multiplies dealer sales." 




Geof Karl in 

Director of Systems Development 

"At ADDS, we've just designed a unique computer 
family that multiplies your selling power because it 
expands customers' computing power. 

"We call it ADDS Multivision-a trio of stacking, 
CP/M®-compatible computers that lets users upgrade 
without any change in their programs. It works like this: 

"MULTI VISION 1 (top module) is a get-started 
computer with a 5 MHz processor, 64K bytes of RAM 
and mini disk storage capacity of 700K bytes. It lists 
for $3,785 without terminal. 

"MULTIVISION 2 (top and bottom modules) pro- 
vides 5M or 10M bytes of hard-disk storage. Priced 
thousands less than other hard-disk systems, it lists for 
$7,995 with 5M bytes of disk. 

"MULTIVISION 3 (entire stack) tops off the line, 
giving you a multi-user system with up to 256K bytes 
of RAM that supports up to four display terminals 
simultaneously. 

"We even offer an ADDS-developed package that 
lets Multivision function as a word processor. 

"Since its introduction at the NCC, thousands 
have inquired where to buy Multivision. We'd like to 
give them your name." 

For information on dealer opportunities, write: 
S. Eric McErlain, Systems Division, Applied Digital Data 
Systems Inc., 100 Marcus Boulevard, Hauppauge, 
N.Y 11787 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 
See us at COMDEX '80, Booth 304. 



SOMETHING EXTRA IN EVERYTHING WE 00 




Circle 63 on inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 103 



Your vehicle for com 

The Challenger 8P DF. 



The general purpose microcomputer 
was first introduced as a computer 
for hobbyists and experimenters. 
However, as the industry has grown, 
microcomputers have become 
specialized for personal use or for 
small business use. There is virtually 
no computer for the serious experi- 
menter with one important exception, 
the Ohio Scientific Challenger 8R 

The C8P is unique in that it incor- 
porates the features of state-of-the- 
art personal computers, with the 
memory and disk storage capacity 
of business computers, along with 
the "mainframe" bus architecture 
and open ended expansion capability 
of industrial control computers. 

Personal Computer 
Features 

The C8PDF's specs 
beat all personal 
computers hands 
down. It executes 
instructions two 
to three times 
faster, and 
displays more 
alphabetic 
characters 
on its screen 
than other 



models. It has upper and lower case 
and graphics in 16 colors. The C8P's 
standard I/O capabilities are far 
more extensive than any other com- 
puter, with joystick and keypad inter- 
faces, sound output, an 8-bit D/A 
converter, 16 parallel I/O lines, 
modem and printer interfaces, AC 
remote control and security monitor 
interfaces and a universal acces- 
sory port that accepts a prom blaster, 
12-bit analog I/O module, solderless 
prototyping board and more. 

Ohio Scientific offers a large library 
of personal applications programs, 
including exciting action games 
such as Invaders and Star Trek, 
sports simulations, games of logic 



and educational games, personal 
applications such as biorhythms, 
calorie counter, home programs 
such as checking and savings 
account balancers and a home 
budgeter just to name a few. A new 
Plot BASIC makes elaborate anima- 
tions easy, and music composition 
program allows you to play complex 
multi-part music through the com- 
puters DAC. 

At the systems level the machine 
comes standard with OS-65D, an ad- 
vanced disk operating system with 
Microsoft BASIC and an interactive 
Assembler Editor. Optional software 
includes UCSD PASCAL and 
FORTRAN and an Information 
Management System (OS-MDMS). 
Dozens of independent software 
suppliers now also offer personal 
programs for the C8P 




puter explorations 



Business Computer Features 

The C8P DF utilizes dual 8" floppy 
disk drives which store up to eight 
times as much information as per- 
sonal computer mini-floppies, and 
an available double-sided option 
expands capacity to 1.2 megabytes 
of on-line storage. The C8P DF is 
compatible with Ohio Scientific's 
business computer software, in- 
cluding OS-65U an advanced oper- 
ating system, and an Information 
Management System (OS-DMS) with 
supplementary inventory, account- 
ing, A/R-A/P, payroll, purchasing, 
estimation, educational grading and 
financial modeling packages. The 
system also supports word process- 
ing (WP-3) and a fully integrated 
small business accounting system 
(OS-AMCAP V1 .6). The C8P DF's 
standard modem and printer ports 
accept high-speed matrix printers 
and word-processing printers directly. 

Home Control and 
Industrial Control 

The C8P DF has the most advanced 
home monitoring and control capa- 
bilities ever offered in a computer 
system. It incorporates a real time 
clock and a unique FOREGROUND/ 
BACKGROUND operating system 
which allows the computer to 
function with normal BASIC pro- 
grams, at the same time it is 
monitoring external devices. 
The C8P DF comes standard 
with an AC remote control 

interface, which 



allows it to control a wide range of 
AC appliances and lights remotely, 
without wiring, and an interface for 
home security systems which moni- 
tors fire, intrusion, car theft, water 
levels and freezer temperature, all 
without messy wiring. In addition, 
the C8P DF can accept Ohio Scien- 
tific's Votrax voice I/O board and/or 
Ohio Scientific's new universal 
telephone interface (UTI). The tele- 
phone interface connects the com- 
puter to any telephone line. The 
computer system is able to answer 
calls, initiate calls and communicate 
via touch-tone signals, voice outpu t 
or 300 baud modem signals. It can 
accept and decode touch-tone 
signals, 300 baud modem signals 
and record incoming voice 
messages. These features collec- 
tively give the C8P DF capabilities to 
monitor and control home functions 
with almost human-like capabilities. 

For process control applications, a 
battery back up calendar clock with 
automatic computer restart capabili- 
ties is available. Ohio Scientific's 
unique accessory ports allow the 
connection of a nearly unlimited 
number of 48 line parallel I/O cards 
and 12-bit high speed instrumenta- 
tion quality analog I/O modules to 
the computer by inexpensive 16-pin 
ribbon cables. 

Exploring New Frontiers 

Ohio Scientific's vocalizer software 
processes normal BASIC print state- 
ments with conventional spellings 
and speaks them clearly in real-time 




on computers equipped with the UTI 
(CA-15B or CA-14A). This voice out- 
put capability, combined with the 
C8P's remote control, remote sens- 
ing, telephone interface capabilities 
and reasonable cost open up new 
frontiers for computer applications. 

Documentation 

The C8P DF is not a beginner's com- 
puter and doesn't come with begin- 
ner's documentation. However, Ohio 
Scientific does offer detailed 
documentation on the computer 
which is meaningful for experts, 
including a Howard Sams produced 
hardware service manual that in- 
cludes detailed block diagrams, 
schematics, parts placement dia- 
grams and parts lists. Ohio Scientific 
is now also offering fully 
documented Source Code in 
machine readable form for OS-65D, 
the Challenger 8P's operating 
system allowing experimenters and 
industrial users to customize the 
system to their specific applications. 

What's Next? 

Ohio Scientific is working on a 
speech recognizer to complement 
the UTI system, with a several hun- 
dred word vocabulary. The company 
is also developing an 8 megabyte 
low-cost, add-on hard disk for use in 
conjunction with natural language 
parsing to further advance the state- 
of-the-art in small computers. The 
modular bus architecture of the C8P 
assures system owners of being 
able to make use of these new 
developments as they become 
available just as the owner of a 1976 
vintage Challenger can directly plug 
in voice output, the UTI and other 
current state-of-the-art OSI 
products. 

The C8P DF with dual 8" floppies, 
BASIC and two operating systems 
costs about $3000, only slightly 
more than you would pay for a dual 
mini-floppy equipped personal com- 
puter with only a fraction of the 
capabilities of the C8P 

For more information and the 
name of the dealer nearest you, 
call 1-800-321-6850 toll free. 



1333 SOUTH CHILLICOTHE ROAD 
AURORA, OH 44202 • [21 6] 831 -5600 



Circle 64 on inquiry card. 



problems. When teaching, however, 
the CAI program must trap errors. 
These fall into three types: syntax, 
nontermination, and logic. 

To trap syntax errors, you should 
use the ONERROR command which 
transfers the control to a diagnostic 
section of the program that you, as a 
CAI author, will have provided. 
There you can get the error number, 
the erroneous argument, and even the 
entire ASCII text of the line in error 
with the GETERROR command. You 
can then explain the problem to the 
user in whatever level of detail you 
wish. 

Indefinite loops are caught with the 
LOOPMAX command which sets a 
limit to the number of control 
transfers (ie: skips and GOTOs). 
Once the limit is exceeded, an error is 
generated and trapped as explained 



earlier. So, you can catch nonter- 
minating programs or be very 
meticulous and require efficiency 
from advanced students by lowering 
the LOOPMAX appropriately. 

Logic errors are trickier and the 
general case is impossible. However, 
if you choose suitable problems to 
solve, you can do some very nice 
verification. For graphic tasks, the 
CMPARA command can check a stu- 
dent's building of an image against a 
prototype. The CAI author can tell if 
the student's image is a proper subset 
of the prototype and let it continue. 
Once a stray pixel is written, 
CMPARA returns a value of —2 
which means the image is "mixed up," 
and you inform the student im- 
mediately. This approach clearly falls 
short of genuine artificial intelligence, 
but it is nevertheless quite useful. 



Several classes at the University of 
Illinois at Chicago Circle have been 
taught with great success using a 
GRASS-coded prototype (called 
GAIN, by Tom Towle). 

Conclusions 

Zgrass is a language/system 
designed to provide easy access to 
computer graphics and, in general, to 
computing. It has sophisticated real- 
time structures and control capabili- 
ty, and it's friendly, extensible, and 
fun. The language is more efficient 
than BASIC, more user-oriented than 
FORTRAN or Pascal, and it has the 
kind of language-control structures 
that will help you create your mind's 
fantastic visualizations on your video 
screen with more ease than ever 
before. ■ 



Glossary 

Color: The 256 colors available in 
Zgrass form an abbreviated 
spectrum. You can get four 
colors on the screen at any one 
time. The default colors are 
white, red, green, and blue. 
They are also known as color 0, 
color 1, color 2, and color 3. 
The values are stored in $L0, 
$L1, $12, and $L3 unless you 
modify $HB to use the right-side 
colors $R0, $Rl, $R2, and $R3. 

Color Map: The color map is the 
way Zgrass translates color 
thru color 3 to the 256 available 
colors. The hardware looks at 
the values of $L0 thru $13 
before it writes a pixel to the 
screen. If it is writing a 0, it uses 
the color stored in $L0; if it is 
writing a 1, it uses the color 
stored in $Ll, and so on. To 
change the color map so 1 refers 
to yellow instead of red, set $Ll 
to 127. There are actually two 
color maps, the$Lsandthe$Rs. 
You get to the $Rs by setting 
$HB. 

Color Option: The possible values 
for color option are thru 15. 
You may need to study your 
truth tables for inclusive-OR 
and exclusive-OR (XOR) logical 
operations to really understand 
what's going on. The following 
is functionally true, however: 



Color 

Option Meaning 

replace with color 
(white) 

1 replace with color 1 (red) 

2 replace with color 2 
(green) 

3 replace with color 3 
(blue) 

4 don r draw (actually XOR 
with 00) 

5 XOR screen with color 1 
(01 binary) 

6 XOR screen with color 2 
(10 binary) 

7 XOR screen with color 3 
(11 binary) 

8 change red to white, blue 
to green (clear bit 0) 

9 change green to white, 
blue to red (clear bit 1) 

10 OR with 01 (if red or 
white, stay red; if blue or 
green, stay blue) 

11 OR with 10 (if green or 
white, stay green; if red 
or blue, stay blue) 

12 replace with red only if 
white were there 

13 replace with green only if 
white or red were there 

14 increment the color there 
by 1 (white to red, red to 
green, green to blue, and 
blue to white) 

15 decrement the color there 
by 1 (white to blue, red 
to white, green to red, 
and blue to green) 



Macro: A string that is supposed to 
contain legal Zgrass commands. 
Most programming languages 
call such things "programs" or 
"subroutines, " but we call them 
macros. Macros are effectively 
user-defined commands. 
Macros can behave just like 
commands in the sense that you 
can pass arguments to macros 
with the INPUT command and 
return values with the RETURN 
command. You define a macro 
just like you define a string, 
with an assignment to a name or 
by using EDIT. 

String: A collection of characters 
(ie: numbers, letters, punctua- 
tion) delimited (ie: enclosed) by 
single or double quotes or 
balanced (ie: enclosed) by 
brackets or braces. If you have 
to use a string delimiter in a 
string, make sure that it is 
delimited by a different string 
delimiter or things will get very 
confused. Most likely it will 
consider the rest of your macro 
as part of the string. Examples: 

"THIS IS A LONGER STRING" 

"PRINT A*B*C 

SKIP -1 ;.TH1S STRING 

COULD BE A MACRO TOO" 

[THIS IS HOW TO PUT A 

QUOTE IN A STRING: " ' "/ 

I1234J 

11 



106 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 65 on Inquiry card. 



SupetSoft First in Software Technology 



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We still call it 'Tiny' but it's bigger and better than ever! This is 
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'Tiny' Pascal is fast. Programs execute up to ten times faster 
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SOURCE TOO! We still distribute source, in 'Tiny' Pascal, on 
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features or just gain insight into compiler construction. 

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speed. Requires: 36K CP/M. Supplied with complete user manual 
and source on discette: $85.00 Manual alone $10.00 



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A full, extended FORTH interpreter/compiler produces COMPACT, 

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machine readable source at no additional cost. 




SUPERSOFT 

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TFS lets you make multiple copies of any text. For example: 
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Text is entered using CP/M standard editor or most any CP/M 
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Object code only with user manual: $85.00 

Manual alone: $20.00 



TERM 

A complete intercommunications package for linking your computer 
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With TERM you can send and receive ASCII and Hex files 
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• Lists day's schedule (Screen or hard copy). 

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Beck Reviews 



Applied Mathematical 
Physics With 
Programmable Pocket 
Calculators 



by Robert M Eisberg 
McGraw-Hill Book Com- 
pany, New York NY, 
1976 

176 pages, softcover 
$9.95 



This book by Professor 
Eisberg of the University of 
California, Santa Barbara is 
interesting on three counts. 
First, it introduces the reader 
to numerical methods for 
differentiation, integration, 
and solution of differential 
equations. Second, these 
methods are applied to the 
general problems of 
mathematical physics, start- 
ing with the motion of an 
oscillator and finishing with 
Schrodinger's equation. 
Third, the programs for the 
solution of the equations in 
these fields are given for the 
Hewlett-Packard HP-25 and 
the Texas Instruments SR-56 
calculators. 

A reader's first reaction 
might be that the programs 
apply only to the solution of 
the problems of 
mathematical physics. 
However, the mathematical 
procedures that were aimed 
at these calculators may also 
be applied to any computer. 
Furthermore, the problems 
are in the field of physics, 
but the methods of solution 
of these problems should be 
of interest to the general 
reader. 

This book discusses the 
derivative and methods of 
obtaining it, followed by 
programs and examples. 
Problems for testing the pro- 
gram are also given. Pro- 
cedures for integration and 
summation are introduced 
with the appropriate pro- 
grams and examples for 
solution. 

The numerical procedure 
for the solution of second- 



order differential equations 
is developed without the 
great depth required for 
mathematical development. 
These equations are given 
for both undamped and 
damped motion, as well as 
the driven oscillator. The 
program development and 
the results obtained are in- 
teresting. 

The harmonic oscillator 
section is followed by the 
coupled oscillator. The ex- 
amples for the coupled 
oscillators and their motion 
are interesting not only for 
the study of the motion of 
such systems, but also for 
the solution of the 
simultaneous equations in- 
volved. 

The concept of central 
force motion is introduced, 
including orbital path deter- 
mination. This section con- 
cludes with alpha particle 
scatter due to repulsive 
forces. A "random" number 
generator program is in- 
troduced and applied to 
problems of entropy, or 
run-down evaluation. 

Finally, Schrodinger's 
time-independent equation is 
introduced and evaluated, 
and programs are given for 
the harmonic oscillator and 
the potential well. 

This is an admirable little 
book on mathematics ap- 
plied to physics and the pro- 
gramming of such material 
for the HP-25 and SR-56 
programmable calculators. It 
is also of great interest to 
the computer programmer 
because of the procedures 
discussed, which are adap- 
table to the computer. 



WB Agocs 

Department of Physical 

Sciences 

Kutztown State College 

Kutztown PA 19530 



The Little LISPer 



by Daniel P Friedman 
Science Research 
Associates Inc 
Palo Alto CA, 1974 



108 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 66 on inquiry card. 



WHYCIS COBOL 

LETS YOUR 
JVUCROGOMPUTER 

PERFORM LIKE A 



MAINF 



Now, you can use a microcomputer for 
sophisticated business applications 
. . . because now there's CIS COBOL. 
Micro Focus developed this COBOL so 
your microcomputer can run the same 
programs as a minicomputer or a 
mainframe. 

CIS COBOL is Micro Focus' Compact, 
Interactive, Standard COBOL which 
offers the advantages of COBOL . . . 
powerful data structure features, English- 
like language, existing programmer 
expertise ... to provide you with a full 
commercial language. You won't be 
restricted by size either: a 64K byte 
microcomputer will compile up to 8000 
lines of COBOL, more if the program's 
split into dynamically loaded modules. 

Choose a Compact Compiler. 

The Compact compiler runs on 32K byte 
microcomputer systems. Its powerful 
subset includes full support for random, 
indexed and sequential files. 

Or choose the 
Standard Compiler. 

The Standard CIS COBOL compiler 
requires a minimum 48K of user RAM. 
A super-set of the Compact compiler, 
implementing ANSI 74 COBOL to 
Federal Low -intermediate Level. 



The same CIS COBOL 
extensions for conversational 
working, screen control, interactive 
debugging, and special peripheral sup 
port are in both compilers. And there are 
more reasons to consider CIS COBOL: 

• It conforms fully to the ANSI 74 stand- 
ard, so programs are portable upwards 
and downwards to minis or mainframes. 

• Its interactive features enable main- 
frame programmers to get results fast . . . 
working on inexpensive microcomputers. 

Forms 

The FORMS utility lets you build a 
screen layout online at the CRT. Then 
it automatically generates COBOL 
record descriptions for inclusion in your 
program. 

Forms-2 

A superset of FORMS, it eliminates the 
need to write simple data entry and 
inquiry programs, because the programs 
can be automatically generated from 
screen definitions. 

Environment 

CIS COBOL products run on the 8080 
or Z80 microprocessors under the CP/M* 
operating system, and on the LSI-11 
or PDP-11 processors under RT-11. 
They are distributed in a variety of disk 
formats and come with a utility that 
enables you to use any make of CRT. 

OEMs 

Intel has adopted CIS COBOL and offers 
it (as iCIS-COBOL) for their Intellec and 




Intellec II systems. Ideal 
for OEM's or private label, 
COBOL was developed 
entirely by Micro Focus. Send 
inquiries for CIS COBOL object packs 
and application vendor terms to MICRO 
FOCUS or its licensed distributors. 
Distributor terms also available from 
MICRO FOCUS. 



Send me more information for: 

□ Single Copy Users 

□ Reseller and Distributor Licensing 

Name 

Title 

Company 

Address 

City/State 

Zip/Phone 



-•I 

! 



Computer ModeL 
Version of DOS 



MICRO FOCUS™ 

Micro Focus Inc. • 1601 Civic Center Drive • 
Santa Clara • CA 95050 • Tel: (408) 984-6961 • 
Telex: 171-135 MISSION SNTA 

U.K. Office • 58 Acacia Road • St. Johns Wood • 
London NW8 6AG • Tel: 01 722 8843 • Telex: 
228536 MICROF G 
L______ ______ J 



CIS COBOL distributors include: Vector Graphic, Onyx Systems, Altos Computer Systems, Lifeboat Associates, Research Machines, Telecomputing, Modular Business Systems, Rah, Midlectron, 
Rostronics and Johnson-Laird Inc. flntellec is a trademark of Intel Corp. *CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Inc. 



58 pages, softcover 
$3.95 

It might seem a little odd 
to review a six-year-old 
book, but there is a good 
reason for it in this case: 
LISP has only recently 
become available for 
microcomputers. John Allen 
(guest editor of the August 
1979 BYTE special issue on 
LISP) has promised that his 
LISP Company will unveil a 
full line of LISP systems. It 
will start with a Z80 version 
and proceed to much more 
capable LISPs for the new 
16-bit microprocessors. 
Also, LISP interpreters from 
other sources exist for Z80, 
6800, and AM-100 pro- 
cessors. 

The next question is how 
does one learn LISP? 
Reference manuals give too 
much detail and not enough 
feel for the language. Most 
introductory material gives 
too little detail and not 
enough feel for the 
language, and nearly all 
books on LISP make the 
mistake of telling the student 
what LISP functions are and 



what they do instead of how 
to use them. There is an 
alternative to all this. One 
can obtain The Little 
LISPer, study it for a short 
time, and come away with a 
firm grasp of the essentials 
of LISP. This grasp is suffi- 
cient to make sense out of 
the rest of the material con- 
cerning LISP and LISP-based 
systems that one might en- 
counter. 

The Little LISPer was 
originally written to provide 
a two-week course for non- 
programmers. It is one of the 
best introductions to any 
language that I have ever 
read. I went straight through 
it the day I got it. The se- 
quence of topics (interleav- 
ing functions, data struc- 
tures, programming prin- 
ciples, recursive program- 
ming techniques) is laid out 
with a deft touch that has 
the student progressing 
much faster than he realizes. 
This organization of the 
material allows the reader to 
build up a sophisticated 
sense of the patterns in- 
herent in LISP structures 



the electric pencil II 

^^ ^™ B 19B0 Mfihael Shrayet 

Jgj for the TRS-80 Model II* Computer 

MX 



The Electric Pencil is a Character Oriented Word Processing 
System. This means that text is entered as a continuous string 
of chrracters and is manipulated as such. This allows the user 
enormous freedom and ease in the movement and handling of 
text. Since lines are not delineated, any number of char- 
acters, words, lines or paragraphs may be inserted or deleted 
anywhere in the text. The entirety of the text shifts and 
opens up or closes as needed in full view of the user. Car- 
riage returns as well as word hyphenation are not reguired 
since each line of text is formatted < 



As text is typed and the end of a screen line is reached, a 
partially completed word is shifted to the beginning of the 
following line. Whenever text is inserted or deleted, existing 
text is pushed down or pulled up in a wrap around fashion. 
Everything appears on the video display screen as it occurs 
thereby eliminating my guesswork. Text may be reviewed at 
will by variable speed or page-at-a-time scrolling both in the 
forward and reverse directions. By using the search or the 
search and replace function, any string of characters may be 
located aid/or replaced with any other string of characters as 
desired. Specific sets of characters within encoded strings 
may also be located. 

When text is printed, The Electric Pencil automatically 
inserts carriage returns where they are needed. Numerous 
combinations of Line Length, Poge Length, Character Spacing, 
Line Spacing <xtd Page Spacing allow for any form to be 
handled. Right Justification gives right-hand margins that 
are even. Pages may be numbered as well as titled. 



the electric pencil 

-a Proven Word Processmij Svstem 



The TRSDOS versions of The Electric Pencil II are our best 
es*r! You can now type as fast as you like without losing any 
characters. New TRSDOS features Include word left, word right, 
word delete, bottom of page numbering as well as extended 
cursor controls for greater user flexibility. BASIC files may 
also be written and simply edited without additional software. 

Our CP/M versions ire the same as we have been distributing 
for several years aid allow the CP/M user to edit CP/M files 
r CONVERT utility for an additional 
t required if only quick and easy word 
ired. A keyboard buffer permits fast typing 




Serial Diablo, NEC, Qi 



CP/M TRSDOS 
ne $ 300.00 $ 350.00 



Features 

TRSDOS or CP/M Compotible • Supports Four Disk 
Drives * Dynamic Print Formatting " Dioblo, NEC & 
Qime Print Packages * Multi-Column Printing * Print 
Value Chaining • Page-ot-a-time Scrolling • 
Bidirectional Multispeed Scrolling * Subsystem with 
Print Value Scoreboard * Automatic Word & Record 
Number Tally • Global Search & Replace * Full Margin 
Control * End of Poge Control • Non Printing Text 
Line & Paragraph Indentation * 
Underlining ■ Boldface 



All other printers $ 275.00 $ 325.00 

The Electric Pencil I is still available for TRS-80 Model I 
users. Although not as sophisticated as Electric Pencil If, it 
is still an extremely easy to use oid powerful word processing 
system. The software has been designed to be used with both 
Level i (I6K system) and Level II models of the TRS-80. Two 
versions, one for use with cassette, and one for use with disk, 
are available on cassette. The TRS-80 disk version is easily 
transferred to disk and is fully inteructive with the READ, 
WRITE, DIR, and KILL routines of TRSDOS. 

TRC Cassette $ 100.00 

TRO Disk S 150.00 





MICHAEL SHflAYFR SOFTWARE. INC. 

1198 Los Robles Dr. 

Palm Springs. CA. 92262 

(7141 323-1400 



almost without noticing. 

Other features that con- 
tribute to the relaxed, but 
speedy, progress of the stu- 
dent are the organization of 
the entire text into carefully 
constructed sets of questions 
and answers and the light 
humorous touch of the ex- 
amples. 

LISP operates on list 
structures, and most of the 
data used in the book are 
lists of foods. One of the 
problems for the reader is to 
determine the list that results 
from inserting the atom 
ROAST after the atom 
CHUCK in a list beginning: 

(HOW (MUCH WOOD). . . 

Unfortunately the text 
breaks off too soon, leaving 
the reader with a clear sense 
of things he was just about 
ready to do, but will have 
to find out about elsewhere. 
In any case, the author 
says the reader is "better 
prepared than he realizes" to 
learn the details of a full 
LISP system and many more 
advanced programming 
techniques. It is only 
necessary to become familiar 
with the full range of 
features of a complete LISP 
system before diving into 
the world of artificial in- 
telligence and numerous 
other fields. 

LISP is a realization and 
extension (in notation, not 
computing power) of 
Church's lambda calculus, 
one of the most powerful 
mathematical tools in ex- 
istence. It is generally con- 
sidered a remarkable 
achievement to teach a 
powerful mathematical 
technique to nonmathemati- 
cians. As far as I am con- 
cerned, though, this kind of 
teaching should be normal, 
and the usual "math is hard 
and you're too dumb to 
learn it" approach should be 
thrown away. The fact is 
that most people are not too 
dumb to learn mathematics 
of whatever sort, but few 
people are clever enough to 
learn improperly presented 
mathematics. It seems that 
even fewer are clever 
enough to present it well. I 
am delighted to have an op- 
portunity to point out an in- 



stance of top-quality text- 
book writing and to offer 
my congratulations to 
Daniel Friedman. 

Mokurai Cherlin 

APL Business Consultants Inc 

POB 1131 

Mt Shasta CA 96067 



Mathematical Elements 
for Computer Graphics 

by David Rogers and 
] Alan Adams 
McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, New York 
NY, 1976 

Softcover, 239 pages 
$12.95 



One of the ironies of com- 
puter graphics is that it is 
the aspect of computer use 
that most attracts people 
who do not like mathe- 
matics, while it is one of the 
few fields of computing 
(contrary to popular belief) 
that require mathematics. 
Mathematical Elements for 
Computer Grapics is a good 
sourcebook of the mathe- 
matics, the formulae, and 
the algorithms required to 
implement graphics packages 
and applications on com- 
puters of any size. It is 
especially well suited to 
personal-computer use, since 
all of the algorithms are 
presented in BASIC. 

Rogers and Adams assume 
several things about the 
reader. First, they assume 
that the reader is writing, or 
wants to write, software for 
a line-drawing display (such 
as those produced by Tek- 
tronix). If you have a 
television-technology display 
(like most small-computer 
users), you will need to 
devise the software to make 
it draw lines. They also 
assume that the reader has a 
substantial background in 
mathematics. Unfortunately 
for this subject, a substantial 
mathematical background 
means three terms of 
college-level calculus plus 
matrix algebra. Also, the 
algorithms are presented in 
Dartmouth BASIC, which 
requires a fair amount of 
conversion before it will 



110 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 67 on Inquiry card. 



Circle 68 on Inquiry card. 



When It Comes 
To Add-on Memory. 



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Has It All 



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work in Microsoft BASIC or 
BASIC-E. 

For those of you who 
have not yet been scared 
off, you will learn 
algorithms and techniques 
for: scaling, rotation, curve 
representation, three- 
dimensional displays, three- 
dimensional transformation, 
and surface description and 
display. Of course, I am 
only summarizing; Rogers 
and Adams break these 
topics down into 65 sec- 
tions, plus algorithms. 

So why buy (or borrow) 
this book ? If you want a 
text to teach yourself com- 
puter graphics, this is the 
wrong book. It will not 
really tell you how to put all 
of the algorithms together 
into a usable package or ap- 
plication. But, if you 
already know something 
about computer graphics 
and need a reference to give 
or compare formulae and 
algorithms, then this is 
definitely the right book. A 
caveat is in order: I have 
not checked any of the 
algorithms or programs for 
typographical accuracy. 
Which is to say, it's a good 
reference, but not a good 
text.B 

John A Lehman 
716 Hutchins #2 
Ann Arbor MI 48103 



BYTE's Bugs 



Duplicated NAND Gate 

A drafting error marred 
Steve Ciarcia's article "A 
Build-It-Yourself Modem for 
Under $50" (August 1980 
BYTE, page 22). The pin 
numbers for a section of an 
integrated circuit were incor- 
rectly marked, duplicating 
the numbers for a different 
section. 

In figure lb on page 28, 
the NAND gate of IC4c 
should have had its input in 
dicated as being on pins 8 
and 9, with output on pin 
10. The pin numbers for 
IC4d are correct as shown.! 



112 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 69 on inquiry card. 



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completely assembled at $895.00, FOB Benton Harbor. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 

Circle 70 on Inquiry card. 



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paper rack, paper, and ribbon — so you're all ready to 
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The following is a list of books received at BYTE Publications dur- 
ing this past month. Although the list is not meant to be exhaustive, 
its purpose is to acquaint BYTE readers with recently published titles 
in computer science and related fields. We regret that we cannot 
review or comment on all the books we receive; instead, this list is 
meant to be a monthly acknowledgement of these books and the 
publishers who sent them. 



Bit-Slice Microprocessor 
Design, Jim Brick and John 
Mick; McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, New York NY 
1980; 7% by Wi inches (20 
by 24.5 cm), 398 pages, 
hardcover, ISBN 
0-07-041781-4, $18.50. 

Computer Peripherals for 
Minicomputers, Micro- 
processors, and Personal 
Computers, C Louis 
Hohenstein; McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, New York 
NY 1980; 6 by 9 inches (15.5 
by 23 cm), 312 pages, hard- 
cover, ISBN 0-07-029451-8, 
$19.50. 

Early British Computers, 
Simon Lavington; Digital 
Press, Bedford MA 1980; 
5 3 /4 by 8V4 inches (15 by 21 
cm), 130 pages, softcover, 
ISBN 0-932376-08-8, $8. 

A Guide to Structured 
COBOL with Efficiency 
Techniques and Special 
Algorithms, Pacifico A Lim; 
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 
New York NY 1980; 6 by 9 
inches (15.5 by 23 cm); 272 
pages, hardcover, ISBN 
0-442-24585-8, $18.95. 

Master Handbook of Elec- 
tronic Tables & Formulas, 
third edition, Martin Clif- 
ford; Tab Books, Blue Ridge 
Summit PA 1980; 6 by &Y* 
inches (15.5 by 21 cm), 313 
pages, softcover, ISBN 
0-8306-1225-4, $8.95. 

More Chess and Com- 
puters: The Microcomputer 
Revolution, The Challenging 
Match, David Levy, Monroe 
Newborn; Computer Science 
Press, Potomac MD 1980; 
5V4 by 8% inches (13.5 by 
20.5 cm), 117 pages; soft- 
cover, ISBN 0-914894-07-2, 
$12.95. 

Practical Area Navigation, 
Paul Garrison; Tab Books, 
Blue Ridge Summit PA 
1980; 6 by 9Vi inches (15.5 
by 23 cm), 224 pages; soft- 



cover, ISBN 0-8306-2286-1, 
$5.95. 

Practical BASIC Pro- 
grams, Lon Poole; Osborne/ 
McGraw-Hill, Berkeley CA 
1980; 8% by 10% inches 
(20.5 by 26.6 cm), 171 
pages, softcover, ISBN 
0-931988-38-1, $15. 

Project Whirlwind: The 
History of a Pioneer Com- 
puter, Kent C Redmond and 
Thomas M Smith; Digital 
Press, Bedford MA 1980; 7% 
by Wi inches (18.6 by 24.5 
cm), 280 pages, hardcover, 
ISBN 0-932376-09-6, $21. 

Some Common BASIC 
Programs, third edition, 
Mary Borchers and Lon 
Poole; Osborne/McGraw- 
Hill, Berkeley CA 1980; 8% 
by 10 3 /4 inches (20.5 by 27.5 
cm), 195 pages; softcover, 
ISBN 0-931988-06-3. 

Structured BASIC and 
Beyond, Wayne Amsbury; 
Computer Science Press, 
Potomac MD 1980; 6 by 9 
inches (15.5 by 23 cm), 310 
pages, softcover, ISBN 
0-914894-16-1, $10.95. ■ 



BYTE's Bugs 



The First Shall Be Last 

The Washington Area 
Computer Society (WACS) 
meets on the last Friday of 
the month (not the first) on 
the campus of the Catholic 
University of America in 
Washington, DC, in the 
first-floor lecture room in 
Keane Hall, starting at 7:30 
PM. Incorrect information 
about the meeting time had 
been published in a past 
issue of BYTE.B 



114 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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Almost every single program 
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most of these changes are covered in 
one of the Tables and Appendices 
included in Volumes III, V, VI, 
VIII, and X. 

Volume VI — Disk programs are 
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The disk programs in Volumes VI, VII and X are 
written in (CP/M) M Basic and Disk Extended 
Microsoft Basic. Other programs written in 8K 
Basic. 



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USE TODAY 



Programming Quickies 



Complex Number 
Subroutines 



William R Harlow, Department of Mechanical and Industrial 
Engineering, 836 Rhodes Hall, University of Cincinnati, 
Cincinnati OH 45221 

I teach numerical methods to engineering students at 
the University of Cincinnati, where we have an Amdahl 
computer. Also, various departments have purchased 
Heath, IMSAI, Radio Shack, and Wang systems. 
Although the big system has built-in hardware to per- 
form complex operations, the smaller systems must have 
them implemented as subroutines. 

Besides the four fundamental operations of addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, and division, there are 
several important functions of a complex variable. These 
include log(z), e', sin(z), cos(z), z", and others. Since 
addition and subtraction are so easy to handle, they are 
not included in the routines listed here. 

Listing 1 gives a set of BASIC routines to do the com- 
plex operations listed in table 1. Other functions not 



Listing 1: Subroutines for manipulation of complex numbers. 
See table 1 for a description of the functions calculated. Note 
that some of the routines use the constant §PI, which should be 
set to 3.1415926535. 



1000 REM 

1010 M1=A1*A2-B1*B2:M2=A1*B2+A 

2000 REM 

2010 D=A2«+B2*2 

2020 01=<A1*A2+B1*B2)/D: Q2«<A2 

35000 REM 

3010 R=SGR(Alt2+Blt2>: I=SGN(A1 

3020 ON .[ GOTO 3060,3060,3070, 

3030 B=ARCTAN(B1/A1>-HPI: GOTO 

3060 B=(-(tPI/2) :G0T0 3120 

3060 B=ARCTAN(B1/A1> ': G0TU 3120 

3070 B=ttPI: GOTO 3120 

3080 B=0:G0T0 3120 

3090 B=ttPI+ARCTAN(Bl/Al> : GOTO 

3100 B«*PI/2'. GOTO 3120 

3110 Pl,P2=0:GOT0 3120 

3120 R0=P*L0G<R> : R=EXP<R0> 

3130 P1=R*C0S(P*B) : P2=R«8IN<P* 

4000 REM 

4010 I=SGN(Al)+3«SGN(Bl)+4 

4020 IF 1=4 THEN 4120 

4030 L=.5*L0G<Alt2+Blt2> 

4040 ON I GOTO 4060,4070,4080, 

4060 L2=ARCTAN<Bl/Al>-ttPI: GOTO 

4060 L2=<-ttPI/2>: GOTO 4130 

4070 L2=ARCTAN<B1/A1>: GOTO 413 

4080 L2=(ttPI) : GOTO 4130 

4090 L.2=0: GOTO 4130 

4100 L2=HPI+ARCTAN(B1/A1>: GOTO 

4110 L2=t*PI/2; GOTO 4130 

4120 PRINT "L0G(Z) IS UNDEFINE 

4130 L1=L: RETURN 

6000 REM 

6010 E1=EXP(A1)*C0S<B1) ! E2=EXP 

6000 REM 

6010 U1 = <EXP(B1>--EXP(-B1) )/2: U 

6020 S1=SIN<A1)*U2:S2=C0S<A1>* 

7000 REM 

7010 Ul = <EXP<Bl>-rXP<-Bl>>.- ;u 

7020 C1=C0S(A1)*U2; C2=SIN<A1>* 

8000 REM 

8010 IF B1O0 THEN 80S0 

8020 IF AK0 THEN 8040 

8030 R1=SSR<A1 ) : R2=0: RETURN 

8040 R1=0: R2=S«R(-A1) : RETURN 

8060 R=S0R(Al+2+Bl1'2) 

8060 R1=S0R< <R+Al>/2> : R2=8GN(B 



2*81 ; RETURN 



*Bl-Al«B2)/0: RETURN 

)+3*SGN(Bl)+4 

3110,3080,3090,3100,3060 

3120 



B> : RETURN 



4120,4090,4100,4110,4070 
4130 

4130 
0" i STOP : RETURN 

<A1>*SIN(B1>: RETURN 

2= < EXP ( Bl > +EXP ( -B 1 ) ) /2 
Ul : RETURN 

2=<EXP(B1 )+EXP<-Bl ) )/2 
<-Ul>: RETURN 



1 )»SHR( (R-Al )/2) : RETURN 



Other 






Operation Variables 






Line Number type Input; Use Used 


Output 




1000 product z,xz 2 A1,B1;A2,B2 


M1.M2 




2000 quotient Z! / z 2 A1,B1;A2,B2 D 


Q1.Q2 




3000 power z' A1.B1 P,R,I,B 


P1.P2 




4000 natural logarithm Ln z A1.B1 l,L 


L1.L2 




5000 exponential e* A1.B1 


E1.E2 




6000 sine sin z A1.B1 U1.U2 


S1.S2 




7000 cosine cos z A1.B1 U1.U2 


C1.C2 




8000 square root z" 2 A1.B1 R 


R1.R2 




Table 1: Table of complex number operations performed by subroutines in listing 1. In the "Input" 


column (Al, Bl) refers 


to the complex number Al+Bli, where i is the square root of —1. In the "Output" column, the two 


numbers listed are the 


real and imaginary parts of the answer; eg: the output variables Ml and M2 of the multiplication 


routine mean that the 


result of the multiplication is the complex number MJ+M2i. 





116 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE November 1980 117 



included could be the hyperbolic and inverse 
trigonometric functions. The square root of a complex 
number was included even though it is a special case of 
z". The only complicated ones are the power and the 
logarithm. This is due to the angle utilized. 

The subroutines have been given large line numbers so 
that they may be put at the end of a program. Users can 
certainly renumber these lines or use only those needed 
for a particular problem. 

Two rather simple problems (see listings 2 and 3) are 
included to demonstrate the use of the functions. Both 
make use of Newton's method to solve for the roots of a 
function. This is done using the following iterative for- 
mula to obtain a better approximation of z, z l+1 , from the 
current approximation, z*: 

z ktl =z k - f(z k )/f(z k ) where k=l,2,... 

An initial or starting value of z is selected (z=x+iy). 
Thus z t «■ Xi + iy t is used in /(zj and f(z t ). This will 
generate a z 2 which is fed back into the right-hand side of 
the equation to give a z», and so on. 

The method is rapid in convergence and quite stable. If 
a certain z k should make f(z k ) very small or zero, 
however, it is best to restart with a new z,. In the pro- 
grams shown, a test to stop cycling is made on the f(z): 

IF SQR(Flt2+F2t2) <1E-6THEN . . . 

This statement stops the iteration when the complex error 
has a magnitude of less than 10~ 6 . ■ 



Listing 2: Example program using the subroutines of listing 1. 
The program given in listing 2a attempts to find a root of the 
function f(z)=e' — z 2 . Note that its derivative f(z)= g(z)=C— 
2z. Listing 2b shows two separate runs of the program with 
starting points of (1,1) and (—1,0); the final results are under- 
lined. Due to the cyclic nature ofe', there are an infinite number 
of solutions to this problem. 



(2a) 



10 INPUT " 

12 PRINT 

IS PRINT TABQ4): X, Y 

20 A1=X: Bl-Y 

30 GOSUB S000 

40 P=2 

50 GOSUB 3000 

60 F1=E1-Pl: F2=E2-P2 

65 IF SQK<Flt2+F2t2KlE-6 

70 G1=E1-2*A1: G2=E2-2*B1 

B0A1=F1:B1=F2: A2=G1!B2=G2 

90 GOSUB 2000 

100 K»X-at:Y«Y-Q2 

110 GOTO 15 

120 STOP " ROOT 



KEY IN X.Y 



DETERMINED. KEY RUN FOR A NEW SET" 



(2b) 



2.912389622376 

2.187132232955 

1.760811047732 

1.603663701734 

1.58722527008 

1.588042823737 

1.58804726466? 



2.575157181739 

2.174648753578 

1.808824533853 

1.596954184978 

1.54253028231 

1.S40223443863 

1.540223501065 



X, - -1 Y, m 

-.733043605249 

-.7038077863239 

-.7034674683272 



6809 i-100 aita 



TM 



SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER 

• MEETS I.E.E.E. S-100 STANDARD 

^ • 10 addressing modes 
<§> • 24 indexed sub modes 
^r • auto increment/decremen 
• constant indexing from PC 



J>* 



"tt 



4K/8K/16K ROM • 2K RAM 

ROM/RAM relocatable on 4K boundary 

• ACIA; PIA; 8080 SIMULATED I/O 

• 20 PARALLEL I/O LINES • 256 I/O PORTS 

ACIA provides RS-232 lines for asychronous com 
munications with limited modem control at 8 select 
able baud rates; I/O locatable at any 4K boundary 

P.C. Board & Manual $69.95 
with Monitor $99.95 

• ASSEMBLED & TESTED WITH 2K RAM 
& MONITOR $349.50 

„ „ %jW ItltffJ 

• adsMON: ADS MONITOR 

Examine and change registers and memory; punch 
and load in Motorola format; user definable inter- 
rupt service and more 
$39.95 in 2716 EPROM 

llillll 

MasterCharge/VISA Accepted 
Illinois residents add sales tax Add 2.5% for shipping 

Ackerman Digital Systems, Inc 

110 N. York Rd., Suite 208, Elmhurst, III. 60126 (312) 530-8992 



118 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 72 on inquiry card. 



Listing 3: Example program using the subroutines of listing 1. 
The program given in listing 3a attempts to find a root of the 
function l(z)=2z 2 +(-6 - i>z + (20 - i) = (2z + 4 - U(z - 
5). (Its roots are (—2 + 0.5\) and 5.) The derivative 
i'(z)=g(z)=4z + (—6 —i). Two runs of the program are 
shown in listing 3b, with the final results underlined. 



(3a) 



10 INPUT " KEY IN X, Y ",X,Y 

12 PRINT 

15 PRINT TABC14); X, Y 

20 A1»X: B1=Y 

40 P-2 

50 GOSUB 3000 

60 Fl=2*Pl:F2=2«P2 

70 A2=-6: B2=-l 

80 GOSUB 1000 

90 F1=F1+M1-20:F2=F2+M2+S 

95 IF S0R(Fl1'2+F2t2)<lE-6 THEN 200 

100 Gl=4»Al-6: G2=4»B1-1 

110 Al=Fl: B1=F2! A2=Gl:B2=G2 

120 GOSUB 2000 

130 X=X-01: Y=Y-B2 

140 GOTO 15 

200 STOP "ROOT DETERMINED. KEY RUN FOR A NEW SE1 



(3b) 



i 

-3.307692307727 

-1.45941644561 

-1.434942737807 

-2.053130882705 

-2.00036624035 

-2.00000001228 



Y, - 1 



-4.461538461515 
-1.379310344755 
.532192367931 
.4886935917174 
.499806328929 7 
■ 4999999788526 



Xi - 2 



Y, - 2 



2.207547169882 
2.830440251643 
4.902563504007 

4.604564248345 
5.015324400454 
4.999923902019 
4.9999999991/7 



-2.226415094319 
1.193459119487 

-1.877088064073 

-. 193451138577 
2.68292464E-02 
1.12126O02E-04 

-2.49665620E-0V 



BYTE's Bits 



International Systems 

and Courseware 

Exchange 

One of the greatest deter- 
rents facing organizations 
that desire to purchase a 
microcomputer is the fact 
that the development of 
systems applications soft- 
ware is costly and time- 
consuming. In an attempt to 
find a solution to this situa- 
tion, John Earle Associates 
Inc has met with educators, 
professionals, and business 
people to discuss means for 
alleviating this problem. 
These discussions culminated 
in the establishment of the 
International Systems and 
Courseware Exchange 
(ISCE). The purposes of the 
ISCE are to enable schools, 
businesses, and professionals 
to license others to use their 
proprietary courseware and 
systems for an annual fee on 
a lease basis, and to recover 
the developmental costs of 
the software through the 
licensing fee. All schools, 
governmental agencies, doc- 
tors, lawyers, engineers, ac- 
countants, businesses, 
manufacturers, and free- 
lance developers of systems 
applications, courseware, or 
games are welcome to par- 
ticipate, as providers or as 
users; or as is the case 
within many businesses and 
schools, they may be includ- 
ed in both categories. 

A free catalog will be pro- 
vided to each individual or 
organization with listings in 
the catalog. Catalogs will be 
available to others for $10. 

The first catalog contain- 
ing listings of software and 
all information necessary to 
order or submit programs 
will be published in January, 
1981. Catalog entries dealing 
with administrative or 
business applications should 
be mailed to Howard R 
Baldwin, Registrar, Univer- 
sity of Akron, 3220 Miles 
NW, Canton OH 44718. 
Catalog entries concerning 
educational or professional 



applications should be sent 
to Swen A Larsen, Dean of 
Science and Technology, 
World University, Barbosa 
esq Guayama, Hato Rey, 
Puerto Rico 00917. For a 
copy of the catalog or for 
more information, contact 
John Earle Associates Inc, 
POB 12213, Loiza Station, 
Santurce, Puerto Rico 
00914. 



Pass the Salt and the 
Computer, Please 

Eleven of the nation's 
newspapers affiliated with 
the AP (Associated Press) 
are experimenting with elec- 
tronic delivery of news to 
the home. Through the joint 
efforts of the newspapers, 
the AP, and CompuServe 
Inc, an information net- 
working firm, a daily elec- 
tronic edition will be 
published for at least six 
months. The results of this 
test will be shared with the 
1300 daily newspapers and 
3500 radio and television 
stations that are a part of 
the AP news cooperative. 

The newspapers par- 
ticipating are The Columbus 
Dispatch; The Washington 
Post; Los Angeles Times; 
The Neio York Times; 
Chicago Sun-Times; The St 
Louis Post-Dispatch; The 
Minneapolis Star and 
Tribune; The Atlanta Jour- 
nal and Constitution; The 
Norfolk Virginian-Pilot and 
Ledger-Star; San Francisco 
Chronicle; and The Middle- 
sex News (Framingham, 
Massachusetts). Each news- 
paper contributes news items 
and computing expertise to 
produce the news that is 
delivered to the Compu- 
Serve computers. Customers 
with a terminal and modem 
merely have to place a 
telephone call to link up 
with the electronic editions. 
Home users are charged $5 
per hour, billed in 1-minute 
increments. The service 



operates from 6 PM to 5 
AM weekdays and all day 
on weekends and holidays. 
The experimenters hope 
that the test will provide 
substantial information on 
marketing the service, pro- 
motion, design of the data 
base, and new sources of 
advertising revenue. For 
more information, contact 
CompuServe Inc, 5000 Ar- 
lington Centre Blvd, Colum- 
bus OH 43220, (614) 
457-8600. 



Tuition-Free Program 

for Women in 
Electrical Engineering 

A brochure from the 
University of Dayton 
outlines a National Science 
Foundation-sponsored Fast- 
Track program for women 
interested in electrical 
engineering. To qualify, an 
applicant must hold a 
bachelor's degree in 
mathematics, physics, or a 
related science. Participants 
earn a certificate that serves 
to advance them to an 



academic level equivalent to 
that of an electrical 
engineering graduate. 
Credits earned can be ap- 
plied toward a bachelor's 
degree in electrical engineer- 
ing. A Fast-Track staff at 
the university offers counsel- 
ing and guidance, assists in 
part-time work placement, 
arranges for partial living 
expense stipends and place- 
ment in engineering jobs at 
program conclusion. The 
program commences January 
5, 1981, and lasts thru 
December 19, 1981. Copies 
of the brochure, entitled 
Women Interested in 
Engineering, can be obtained 
by writing or calling Carol 
M Shaw, Assistant Dean, 
School of Engineering, 
University of Dayton, 
Dayton OH 45469, (513) 
229-2736. ■ 



SAVE AT THE APPLE COMPUTER SUPERMARKET... 

"Computers 'R' us" 

UNBEATABLE MAIL ORDER DISCOUNTS 
„ A SUBSIDIARY OF CONSUMER COMPUTERS 




CHRISTMAS 

SUPER 

SALE 



APPLE II PLUS 

OR APPLE II STANDARD 




16K 



1049 



i 



DISK II DRIVE S/IOC 

^/CONTROLLER "WO^ 

. PASCAL %jm*%r 
SYSTEM > «l^5 



OFFER 
EXPIRES 
DEC. 31 
1980 



SEE PAOI 391 
FOR MORI PRODUCTS AND 
ORDERING INFORMATION 



ORDER TOLL FREE: 1-800-854-6654 

CALIFORNIA, BACKORDER OR TECHNICAL INFO: (714) 698-8088 

CREDIT CARD USERS PLEASE SEE ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS ON PAGE 391 



Circle 73 on inquiry card. 



November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 119 



Manufacturing and marketing micro products is 
our only business. 



QT is committed to 
building uncommon 
features and quality 
into each of its micro 
user products. Were 
offering you the 
lowest prices on the 
QT System + 
and other fine pro- 
ducts. It's our new 
beginning. 




- Look At These QT 

System + Features: 
2 Megabyte storage (standard) 

• Up to It) Megabytes storage 
available • Mainframe with power 
supply and tan • Televideo 920C 
terminal • CPU-Z80-4MHZ • Two 
8" disk drives • Floppy disk con- 
troller (double density) • Dynamic 
Memory (48K — expandable to 
64K) • 2K Monitor program and 
Disk Bios on 2716 EPROM 

• RAM/ROM/PROM, up to 8K in 
any combination on CPU • Hairi 
Disk Compatible • 2 Serial/2 
Parallel Ports • Real Time Clock 

• EPROM Programmer • CP/M 
2.2 or 1.4 Operating System 

• MP/M' Compatible • Full line 
of business software available 

SYSTEM + SS (1 Megabyte) 
Sgl Side/Dbl Oen 14295.00, 
SYSTEM + DS (2 Megabytes) 
Dbl Side/Dbl Den S4995 00 




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■ Silence + Mother Boards 

No need tor termination • Very 
high crosstalk rejection • 6. 8. 12 
and 18 slots available • Has 
operated to 14 MHZ quietly 

Bare 6-Slot 8-Slot 12-Slol 18-Slot 

Bd S24.95 526.95 S29 95 $49 95 

Kit S39.95 $54.95 S69.95 S99 95 

A&T S49 95 $69.95 S89 95 SI39.95 

■ SBC+ 2/4 

1K RAM On Board • 2 Program- 
mable Timers • Power On jump to 
On-Board IK or 2K EPROM 
(2708-2716) • 2 Separate Parallel 
Ports • Programmable Baud Rate 
Selection (110 to 9600) • Serial 
1/0 Port (RS-23ZI. 
Bare Board S60.00 KM S190 00 

IK Mem. Hit St?. 00 Ail S28I1.0H 

Expandable + Dynamic 
Memory (16K to 64K) 
Uses 3242 Refresh Chip with 
delay line • Quiet tour layer PC Bd 
• Supports 16K. 32K. 48K 01 64K 
ol memoiy • 24 Addiess lines pel 
IEEE specifications • Bank on oil 
signal selected by I port 40 
(Hex) per industry standard 

Bare Board $70 .00 48K Kit $480 00 
16KKU S280.00 «K fl.1 1 S5l.ll no 
16KA&I S325.00 64K Kil S525 1)0 
32KKH $360 00 63KA&JS625 00 

"KASI S Wo mi 
_ I/O + 
Two Independent SYNC ASYNC 
Serial Ports • One Strobed 
8-Bit Parallel Input Pert With 
Handshaking • Three B-Bit 
Parallel Ports lUnderitcated. User 



16-Bit Timers 



Bate Board $89 00 
Kit $275 00 



RAIY1+ 65 

2 oi 4MHZ • 16K Static RAM 

• Uses 2114L static RAMS • Ad- 
dressable in 4K steps • Memory 
pi election in 1K increments 

• Features bank selection 

2MH2 4MH2 

Bare Hoard $20. W Kil $225 UU 

Kit S200.00 AX1 S250 011 

A&1 S240.00 

■ Clock/Calendar + 

[lay, Week. Month, Yeai • 24 
Hour I ime. or 12 Hour AM PM 
(selectable) • Interval Interrupt 
Timet 1024 H: lappiiixiinately I 



Bate Board $45 1111 A& 1 S150 11 

Kit sum no 

~~ Mainframe + IMF + 

• Cabinet • 30A Pwt Supply • 12 
oi 18 Slot M nt he i ho.t id • Fan 
cooled • AC Line Fillet to 
eliminate I Ml • A&l • Power and 
Reset Switches on trout panel 

Mt + 12 $450 oo 

Mt + 18 $500 nn 

Mt + W llMiithi'ihrd $40o nn 

■ Mainframe + Mi + Ml) 

Accepts ? Each h'«" lltsk Drives 

• 18A Pwi Supply • 6 12 Slot 



isinn • Disk lliivc ('owe 
AC line tiltei to Bltmtti.it 
wei and reset switches 



mi ♦ Mm.' $500 nn 

Ml + MPS S450 00 

Mt + MOW llMuthritjrit $*00 Oil 

■ DDC-8 + 

Availdhle in Blown oi 1 RS 80 
Colors • Disk Cabinet tor Simile 
8" Drive • Data Cable • Fan" 
• Accepts Petset Shugait, 
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lines + $250 on 
Also Available S-100 (Snuttl 
Pioto Board + Ask tor out 
catalog 

WARRANTY: 1 ye.u against 
detects in material and wotkm.ii 
ship from date of shipment on a 
01 products 



Letters continued from page 20: 

Impressive Bar-Code Maker 

IBM manufactures a type element that 
could possibly be used to prepare bar- 
code text that would also be readable by 
humans. This type element is not listed 
in any of IBM's typeface catalogs. It is 
called a special-application element, and 
I guess IBM figures that you know they 
have it if you want it. The intended ap- 
plication is for the preparation of text 
for input on a Dataflow Optical Reading 
System. 

This element is currently available 
only in the standard 88-character for- 
mat. IBM sales representatives in 



Michigan could not find out if it was go- 
ing to be manufactured in the new 
96-character format too. This point is 
not very important, since there are not 
too many of the new 96-character Selec- 
trics in the computer-users' market. The 
new Selectric III will use the 96-character 
element only, so it won't be of much use 
to anyone in the market to upgrade, 
since they would lose their investment in 
the type elements they had. 

The element is called DF-2 OCR and 
the part number is 1167659. IBM's cur- 
rent price is $18 for one element, or $16 
each for three or more. 

IBM recommends that you use a Tech 
III ribbon (IBM number 1136391) with 



the DF-2 OCR element; the High-Yield 
Correctable Film carbon ribbon just 
doesn't make an adequate impression all 
the time. The DF-2 OCR is a 10-pitch 
element, by the way, so don't order it 
unless you have 10-pitch capacity. I 
would be interested in hearing from any 
readers who interface the HEDS-3000 to 
their computer and use this element to 
generate the input data. 

Michael Essig 
POB 828 
Jackson MI 49204 



Figure 1: An example of the IBM. DF-2 OCR output, using the High-Yield Correctable Film Ribbon. 



The IBM 

III III Mil I! I II 



DF-2 

9 tl I I I I 



Type element is 
hi milium iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiii mm 



ij n i p u f> optical character recognition type 

illllllllllllllll IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIS I Illllllllllllllll IIIUIIIIIIl IHIIIIIIIIIilSMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII lllillllllllll 



face combining conventional characters with a 
■iiiiiiiiinii iiitiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiBi iiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniin! iiiiiiinii- nil 



bar-code 
liiiiiiniii iiiiiiniiiiii 



to meet the 

is* ■ is imiiiiuiiii iiiiiiiiii 

IBM recommends the 

II I !k llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll iiiiiiiiii 



requirements of the DATAFLOW Optical Reading System. 

iuii!iii!i in ninmitiiiui mill!! iiiiji iiiiiiiiii ii i9ii ii nil us n iiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiii iii imiiiii!iniiiiiii in iiiiiiiiiimiiiiii 

use of their 1FCH III ribbon to obtain the highest print <J U a J „'. ,t v . 

iiiiiim turn illinium mi iginiin n n n iiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiii nun iiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiisiiiiiiiiiinii ii'iiiiiiniiiii iiiiniiiiiiiniiiiiiiiii 



ABCDEFGHIJ KLMNOPQRSTUVWXY^ 

I I II | II II II 1 1 II III II II I! II 1 1 III Ii lil III III 1 1 II III 11 II II 

abcdefoh! j k Imnopq rstuvwxyz 
iiiiiiii i iiimiiisiiiii inn la n itiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiii linn iibiiiiii 



>< # $ % A & * ( ) ■+ 
illllllllfililllllllllllllllllll I 

1234 5 67890 
inn minium iiiiiiiiii iii 



IIIIIIIII3! Elllilll 



, . / 

lllllllll 



STOP! 




Did you remember to remove 
your Priority One insert? If not 
please turn back to page 80 and 
tear it out. 



m 



• LOW COST 



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INSTANT ADS 

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low cost computer publication for individuals and businesses. 
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Instant Ads — If you don't want to wait a few days for the next 
CIA issue— just dial our special computer hot line number 
(reserved for subscribers) anytime, 24 hours a day, and our 
computer will tell your computer (with 300 baud modem) all 
about the ads received by the CIA since our last issue. Call 
as often as you like. The only additional expense to you is 
the price of a direct dial phone call. But remember, if you 
don't want to pay for the phone call, you only have a few 
days to wait because the CIA is published TWICE each month. 

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122 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 75 on Inquiry card. 









INT(X N X SIN(X 2),X) 




Surprised? You should 
be. Because until now, no 
software could solve any- 
thing but the most basic 
arithmetic problems without 
a series of complicated 
steps. 

A big disadvantage? If 
you use a microcomputer for 
scientific, educational or en- 
gineering applications, you 
bet it is. That's why Microsoft 
has come up with a solution 
of its own. muMath. 

muMath is a symbolic 
math package you'll recog- 
nize immediately as a major 
advance in microcomputer 
software. 

muMath lets you effi- 
ciently and accurately per- 
form the most complex 
mathematical operations: 
Exact, infinite precision ra- 
tional arithmetic. Unbound 
variables. Complex expres- 
sions (even equations may 
be included). Exact solution 
of algebraic equations. Plus 
logarithmic, exponential and 
trigonometric simplifications 
and transformations. 

That's right. It does in an 
instant what took you years 




to learn at school. Rational 
arithmetic. Algebra. Trigo- 
nometry. Transcendental 
functions. Symbolic differen- 
tiation (including ordinary 
and partial derivatives.) 
Symbolic integration of in- 
definite and definite integrals. 
Matrix arithmetic and 
algebra. 

Trigonometric simplifica- 
tion? But of course. Just type: 



?SIN(2*Y)*(4*COS(X) A 3 

-COS(3*X)+SIN(Y)XOS 

(X+Y+#P1)-COS(X-Y)); 

Then instantly muMath 

returns: 

@4*SIN(Y) *COS(X) *COS(Y). 

Adding fractions? Need 
you ask? 

?1/3+5/6+2/5+3/7; 
©419/210. 

muMath is written in 
muSIMP, which is included in 
the muMath package. 




10800 NE Eighth 

Suite 819 

Bellevue.WA 98004 

206-455-8080 

Telex 328945 



We set the standard. 



muSIMP is an applicative, 
recursive language, ideal for 
describing complex mathe- 
matical concepts. 

Because of its highly 
interactive nature and hier- 
archical structure, muMATH 
is an excellent math teaching 
device, from simple arith- 
metic to calculus. 

muMATH is currently 
available for the CP/M® 
operating system. 

The complete system, 
including muMATH and 
muSIMP on disk and docu- 
mentation is $250. Runs 
under CP/M. 

Just what you need? We 
thought so. Shoot some 
questions at us about 
muMATH. We have all the 
answers. 

Also new from Micro- 
soft: the muLISP interpreter 
for CP/M. An efficient and 
reliable LISP system fully 
capable of supporting ser- 
ious artificial intelligence 
efforts. $200. 



CP/M is a registered trademark of 
Digital Research. 



Circle 76 on inquiry card. 



BYTE's BOMB Cards 



From the first year of BYTE to the 
present we have put great stock in your 
monthly comments that accompany 
BOMB (BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box) 
cards. We really do read every one of 
them, and we are often influenced by 
your comments. What follows is a 
representative sampling from the cards 
over the past few issues. By the way, if 
you'd like to add your votes on this 
month's articles to our tally, simply fill 
out the BOMB card at the back of the 
magazine, using the article table on the 
second-to-last page as a guide.... CM 

Pournelle: 

• The User's Column is a very good 
idea — keep on! 

• Pournelle is great! 

• More Pournelle please. I'm subscrib- 
ing. 

• Very interesting theme. No more 
Pournelle, please. 

• [Pournelle wrote the] best article on 
TRS-80 since BYTE began. 

• Are Pournelle's articles only to be 
semiregular7 I vote for more. 

• Pournelle alone will get me to 
subscribe. 

• Pournelle has no finesse. 

• Pournelle helped me decide between 
Radio Shack, Apple, and Atari... 
TRS-80 and Omikron here I come. 

• Jerry Pournelle's column told me far 
more about TRS-80 add-ons than I have 
managed to learn in many weeks of 
searching. 

Ciarcia: 

• Mr Ciarcia has done it again. 

• Don't lose Steve, he's worth his 
weight in gold! 

• You should put two or three more 



Steve Ciarcias on the payroll. 

• Ciarcia 's article was excellent, but on- 
ly Bo Derek gets a 10. 

CAI: 

• [I was] glad to have some really good 
info on CAI I 

• There were too many articles on CAI. 

• CAI makes as much sense as 
substituting computer-game playing for 
physical education. Education is achiev- 
ed through dint of personal dedication 
and mental application of effort. 
Chrome-plated push-button gee-gaws 
cannot substitute for same. 

Others: 

• Excellent editorial. 

• The editorial by Dr Braun rated a ten. 

• Editorials should be rated. 

• Your product description of the Apple 
III was terrific — and they say regular 
magazines can't get new products 
published quickly. 

• I found the product description of the 
Apple III outstanding. 

• Not being so good at hardware and 
"systems stuff," I found the July issue 
more readable than usual. 

• Surprisingly, the standard of the July 
issue was exceptionally low. 

• After I finish this BOMB card, I'm go- 
ing to fill out the subscription form. 

• The quality of articles in BYTE is 
slowly going downhill. 

• [July was the] best overall issue of 
BYTE in a while I 

• [July was] a rather dull issue — let's 
keep it on a professional level. 

• Indeed you are starting to speak 
English instead of "highbrow." 
How About... 

• More hardware! 

• More language-oriented articles! 

• More homebrew articles! 

• More on 16-bit processors! 



• Emphasis on personal applications? 

• Less educational material — more 
technical articles? 

• Publishing 'Tavorite Benchmarks" as 
they come in. 

• Publishing information about the 
Signetics 2650 microprocessor? 
Coming up: 

• I would like to see articles on 
homebrew graphics terminals. 

• I would appreciate more articles on 
the new 16- and 32-bit microprocessors. 

• I would very much like to see in-depth 
articles on speech recognition. 

• When will you publish more articles 
on artificial intelligence? 

• It would be nice if more articles could 
appear on fantasy games.... 



CP/M Vendors? 

As the developers of CP/M and 
MP/M, we at Digital Research are 
preparing a list of vendors of CP/M- 
compatible software. We would ap- 
preciate the help of BYTE readers in 
compiling this list for distribution to all 
interested persons who contact us. 

If you are currently marketing CP/M- 
compatible software, please send us any 
or all literature pertaining to your soft- 
ware. If you have any questions, please 
contact Curt Geske, at Digital Research, 
POB 579, Pacific Grove CA 93950, or 
(408) 649-3896. 

Thank you. 

Marilyn Darling 
Digital Research! 



r" S-100 USERS: GIVE YOUR COMPUTER THE GIFT OF SIGHT! "^ 



The DS-80 Digisector® is a random 
access video digitizer. It works in 
conjunction with a TV camera (either 
interlaced or non-interlaced video) and 
any S-100 computer conforming to the 
IEEE standards. Use it for: 

• Precision Security Systems 

• Moving Target Indicators 

• Computer Portraiture 

• Fast To Slow Scan Conversion 

• Robotics 

• Reading UPC Codes, schematics, 
paper tape, musical scores 

TH mO©t^§) 




IMAGE PROCESSED BY DS-80 



CHECK THESE FEATURES: 

□ High resolution — a 256 x 256 pic- 
ture element scan 

□ Precision — 64 levels of grey scale 

D Speed — Conversion time of 14 
microseconds per pixel 

□ Versatility — scanning sequences 
user programmable 

□ Economy — a professional tool 
priced for the hobbyist; comes fully 
assembled, tested and burned in, 
with fully commented portrait print- 
ing software. 

Price: $349.95 MasterCharge and Visa 



P.O. BOX 1110, DEL MAR, CA 9201 4 71 4-942-2400J 



124 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 77 on inquiry card. 



A Few Extraordinary Products for Your 6800/6809 Computer 

From Percom . . . 

Low Cost 
Mini-Disk Storage 
in the Size You Want 




Percom mini-disk systems start as 
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MOTHERBOARD — accommodates five 
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The Percom SBC/9™ is an SS-50 bus compatible, stand- 
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T " trademark of Percom Data Company, Inc. 

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Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. 



plugged into an SS-50 bus. Features 
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Other features: 

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selected Greek letters and 
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• Well-formed, easy-to- 
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True baseline descenders 

• Character-store (display)j 
memory included on card. 

• Provision for optional 
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EPROM for user defined 
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• Comprehensive users! 
manual includes souro 
listing of Driver software 
Driver — called WINDEX™ 
— is also available on mini- 
diskette through the Per- 
com Users Group. 




PEflQOM 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY. INC. 

211 N. KIRBY GARLAND. TEXAS 75042 
(214)2723421 



Products are available at Percom dealers nationwide. Call toll-free, 

1-800-527-1592, for the address of your nearest dealer, or to 

order direct. _.~_, _ 

Circle 79 on inquiry card. 



Circle 78 on inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 



125 



Graphic Color Slides 

Part 1 



Color slides of graphs, bar charts, 
and other visual aids are a valuable 
addition to various public presenta- 
tions. When made using conventional 
methods, the slides are expensive to 
produce and difficult to modify. But 
when the slide is produced by 
photographing a computer-generated 
color image (as described in my arti- 
cle, "Making Color Slides with an 
Intecolor Microcomputer," January 
1980 BYTE, page 20), the slide can be 
produced inexpensively and the im- 
age can be modified easily. Points, 
lines, bars, and curves can be drawn 
to represent numeric data. 

Unfortunately, writing the pro- 
gram that creates the screen image 
can be tedious and time-consuming. 
Many aspects of the program design, 
such as the selection of suitable scales 
and the conversion from user-units to 
screen-units, can be done by the com- 
puter. The subroutines given here in 
listing 1 have been written to provide 
a common set of routines that can be 
used to generate different kinds of 
graphs on a Compucolor II computer 
with a minimum of effort. 

Design Considerations 

Ergonomic texts (ie: those that 
analyze human engineering factors) 
suggest that scales are most conve- 
nient for the user if they are subdivid- 
ed in steps that are powers of ten — 1, 
10, 100, 0.1, 0.001, etc. Double- and 
half -size steps (2 and 0.5) are also ac- 
ceptable for intermediate ranges, 
although other scale intervals (such as 
0.75, 1.5, 3, 4) should be avoided. 
Based on this, I have written 

126 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Alan W Grogono 

Associate Professor 

Department of Anesthesiology 

Upstate Medical Center 

State University of New York 

750 E Adams St 

Syracuse NY 13210 



Writing the program that 
creates the screen image 
can be tedious and time- 
consuming. 



subroutines to select a suitable step 
size from the series: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 
5, 10, 20, 50.... 

The ideal number of steps depends 
upon the application. On graph 
paper, where fine measurements may 
be made, a large number of smaller 
steps is useful. On a video monitor or 
in a color slide, however, a smaller 
number of large steps is preferable 
because it is less confusing; around 
four to eight steps seem to be ap- 
propriate. The scale should start and 
end at a multiple of the step size. 

A program that satisfies these 
criteria should be easy to write; some 
readers might want to stop at this 
point and write their own. Unfor- 
tunately, there are several pitfalls for 
the unwary. At several stages of the 
calculation and graph preparation, it 
is necessary to avoid calculation er- 
rors (for example, producing 2.99999 
or 3.00001 instead of 3). Similarly, 
scale zero might be calculated as 
1.000E-06, which looks odd if printed 
on a graph scale. 

The first step of the scaling process 
is to calculate the range of the data, 
R, and make an initial guess for the 
value of the step size, JUMP. This 
value can be obtained from table 1, or 
it can be calculated from the follow- 



ing equation: 

JUMP = 4 * 10t(INT(0.434295 
*LOG(R/1.21))) 



(This is essentially line 10315 of the 
BASIC program in listing 1; the con- 
stant 0.434295 is used to obtain the 
base-10 logarithm from the Com- 
pucolor BASIC LOG function, which 
returns the natural or base-e 
logarithm.) 

Once the initial value of JUMP has 
been calculated, it is repeatedly divid- 
ed by 2 until the resulting value for 
JUMP is less than or equal to one- 
fourth the value of the range R; this 
assures that the graph will have at 
least four steps in the range. The con- 
stant 1.21 is chosen to give the rela- 
tionship between R and JUMP shown 
in table 1. 

Implementation Notes 

The program has been written, 
tested, and employed to illustrate this 
article on a Compucolor II. The 
BASIC interpreter recognizes two- 
letter variable names but tolerates 
longer names (ie: AXIS, AXES and 
AX are all equivalent). Names were 
chosen to avoid BASIC reserved 
words such as INT, OR, ON, STEP. 
Thus the variable COLOR has been 
spelled COLOUR, and JUMP has 
been used in place of STEP. For 
graphics work this version of the 
language employs the word PLOT 
followed by one or more arguments. 
Table 2 lists the more important plot- 
ting codes. 

Text continued on page 138 




BRAIN 



Once in a great while someone comes along 
with a simple improvement for an already great 
product. Take our SuperBrain, for example. Really a 
simple concept. A high-powered, low cost micro- 
computer packaged in an attractive desk top 
cabinet. So how do you improve on that? 

WE DID IT... 

It wasn't enough that our SuperBrain had 
such standard features as twin double density 
5 1 / 4 " drives with over 300,000 bytes of disk 
storage. A full 32K of dynamic RAM - expandable 
to 64K in seconds. A CP/M* Disk Operating 
System which assures compatibility to literally 
hundreds of application packages presently availa- 
ble. A crisp, 12" non-glare screen with a full 24 
line by 80 column display. A full ASCII keyboard 
with a separate keypad and individual cursor 
control keys. Twin RS232C serial ports for fast 
and easy connection to a modem and/or a printer. 
And, dual Z80 processors which operate at 4 MHZ 
to insure lightning-fast program execution. No, it 
wasn't enough. So we made it better. 

ANNOUNCING SUPERBRAIN QD... 

Our new 00 model has all of the features of 
our phenomenally popular SuperBrain with the 
addition of double-sided disk drives and an extra 
32K of dynamic RAM. So, for only a modest in- 
crease in price, you can order your next SuperBrain 
with more than twice the disk and memory storage 
capability. But, best of all, the new QD model has 
the same tough, rugged construction and 
exceptional quality that made our SuperBrain 
such a success. 





HOW DID WE DO IT? 

The secret of SuperBrain QD's incredible disk 
storage lies within our new double-density double- 
sided disk drives. A total of nearly 720,000 bytes 
of data are formatted on two specially designed 
5Ya" drives. And that's more than enough to get 
you started with most serious small business 
applications. And SuperBrain QD's standard 64K of 
dynamic RAM will handle even the most complicat- 
ed programming tasks. 

Of course, if you're into megabytes instead of 
kilobytes, you may think neither SuperBrain is right 
for you. Not so! Intertec offers 20-96 megabytes of 
hard-disk storage which connects in seconds to 
either the SuperBrain or SuperBrain QD. So, your 
original investment is always protected. As you 
grow. No matter how much your needs expand. 



BUT IS IT RELIABLE? 

Our best salesmen are our present users. Not 
only have SuperBrain users been impressed with 
the inherent reliability of the system, they tell us 
that no other microcomputer system available 
today offers such a unique modular design con- 
cept. Just about the only tool required to easily 



maintain the system is a common screwdriver. And 
Intertec's total commitment to product service and 
customer support, with service outlets in most 
major cities, insures your original investment will 
be a valuable one for many years to come. 

THE DECISION IS YOURS. 

Whether your next SuperBrain is a regular 
model or our OD version, you will have the 
satisfaction of knowing you purchased what is 
becoming one of the world's most popular micro- 
computer systems. And regardless of which model 
you choose, you'll probably never outgrow it be- 
cause you can keep expanding it. 

So, call or write us today for more infor- 
mation. Intertec systems are distributed worldwide 
and may be available in your area now. 

Circle 80 on inquiry card. 



3 



NTE3TEC 
["DATA 
= SYSTEMS. 



2300 Broad River Rd., Columbia, SC 29210 
(803) 798-9100 TWX: 810-666-2115 




' Registered uaflemam ot Digital Research !nc 



By Netronics 

ASCII/BAUDOT, 
STAND ALONE 




Computer 3|&» 



Terminal 



The Netronics ASCII/BAUDOT Computer Terminal Kit is a 
microprocessor-controlled, stand alone keyboard/ terminal 
requring no computer memory or software. It allows the use of 
either a 64, or 32 character by 16 line professional display for- 
mat with selectable baud rate, RS232-C or 20 ma. output, full 
cursor control and 75 ohm composite video output. 

The keyboard follows the standard typewriter configuration 
and generates the entire 128 character ASCII upper/lower case 
stt with 96 printable characters. Features include onboard 
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a drive capability of one TTY load, and the ability to mate 
directly with almost any computer, including the new Ex- 
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The Computer Terminal requires no I/O mapping and 
includes Ik of memory, character generator, 2 key rollover, 
processor controlled cursor control, parallel ASCII/BAUDOT 
to serial conversion and serial to video processing — fully 
crystal controlled for superb accuracy. PC boards are the 
highest quality glass epoxy for the ultimate in reliability and 
long life. 

VIDEO DISPLAY SPECIFICATIONS 

The heart of the Netronics Computer Terminal is the micro- 
processor-controlled Netronics Video Display Board (VID) 
which allows the terminal to utilize either a parallel ASCII or 
BAUDOT signal source. The VID converts the parallel data to 
serial data which is then formatted to either RS232-C or 20 ma. 
current loop output, which can be connected to the serial I/O 
on your computer or other interface, i.e.. Modem. 

When connected to a computer, the computer must echo the 
character received. This data is received by the VID which 
processes the information, converting to data to video suitable 
to be displayed on a TV se't "(using an RF modulator) or on a 
video monitor. The VID generates the cursor, horizontal and 
vertical sync pulses and performs the housekeeping relative to 
which character and where it is to be displayed on the screen. 
Video Output: 1.5 P/P into 75 ohm (EIA RS-I 70) • Baud Rale: 
110 and 300 ASCII • Outputs: RS232-Cor20 ma. current loop 
• ASCII Character Set: 128 printable characters— 



!"tr<4 / ()**,-./0123456789:;<=>? 
WBC0EFWI3KLrl«P«STUUWXVZC\r. 

v abcdef9hutdBn<w$tuwx¥z{!HI 



BAUDOT Character Set: A BCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ 
RSTU V WX YZ-?:*3$#().,9014!57;2/68* 
Cursor Modes: Home, Backspace, Horizontal Tab, Line Feed, 
Vertical Tab, Carriage Return. Two special cursor sequences 
are provided for absolute and relative X- Y cursor addressing • 
Cursor Control: Erase, End of Line, Erase of Screen, Form 
Feed, Delete • Monitor Operation: 50 or 60Hz (jumper 
selectable. 

Continental U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut 

CALL TOLL FREE 800-243-7428 

To Order From Connecticut Or For Technical mm, _ 
r Assistance, Etc. Call (203) 354-9375 



Netronics R&D Ltd., Dept. B11 

333 Litchfield Road, New Milford. CT 06776 

Please send the items checked below — 

D Netronics Sland Alone ASCII Keyboard/Computer 
Terminal Kit, $149.95 plus $3.00 postage & handling. 

D Deluxe Steel Cabinet for Netronics Keyboard/Termi- 
nal In Blue/Black Finish, $19.95 plus $2.50 postage 
and handling. 

□ Video Display Board Kit alone (less keyboard), $89.95 
plus $3 postage & handling. 

D 12" Video Monitor (10 MHz bandwidth) fully assem- 
bled and tested, $139.95 plus $5 postage and handling. 

D RF Modulator Kit (to use your TV set for a monitor), 
$8.95 postpaid. 

D 5 amp Power Supply Kit In Deluxe Steel Cabinet 
( ± 8VDC @ 5 amps, plus 6-8 VAC), $39.95 plus $2 
postage & handling. 

Total Enclosed (Conn. res. add sales tax) $ 

By- 

□ Personal Check Q Cashiers Check/Money Order 
D Visa D Master Charge (Bank* ) 

Acct. # 

Signature 

Print 

Name 



_Exp. Date . 



Address . 
City 



. Zip 



I 

Lv na mam D Send Me More Information mm, a^ J 

128 November 1980 © BYTE Publicationa Inc 



7000 ERASE/REVIEW IMAGES 
9000 COMPLETE GRAPH OUTLINE 

16000 DATA ENTRY 

10100 EQUATION PLOTTING 

10200 FIND LITTLE AND BIG 

10300 CALCULATE DATA FOR BORDERS 

10500 DRAW BORDERS 

10700 CONVERT USER UNITS TO GRAPH 

10800 GRAPH UNITS TO TEXT POSITION 

11000 PLOT POINTS 

11100 PLOT VECTORS 

11200 PLOT V-BARS 

11300 PLOT X-BARS 

11500 SAVE ON DISK 

11800 SELECT COLORS 

11900 PAUSE 



3* X 



Listing 1: Collection of plotting subroutines and driver program for the Compucolor II. 
See text and listing remarks for further description of the subroutines. 

5 REM KV 5 REM GRAPHS. CO A. W. GR0G0N0. AUG. 1979 

6 REM SUBROUTINES VI 
40 RESTORE : CLEAR 200: DIM I$<12) 

50 DATA 1,2, 6, 4: FOR 1= 1T0 4: READ COLOUR CD :NEXT I 
60 REM WRITE: 60 DIMCARRAVC25, D) TO USE EQUATION SUB 
90 PLOT 29, 27, 24, 15, 14, 2, 255, 6, 1, 12, 3, 16, 3 : REM CLEAR PAGE 

100 REM 

101 REM 

110 REM SUBROUTINES 
120 REM 
130 REM 
140 REM 
150 REM 
160 REM 
170 REM 
180 REM 
190 REM 
200 REM 
210 REM 
220 REM 
230 REM 
235 REM 
240 REM 
250 REM 
260 REM 
270 END 

490 REM WRITE EQUATION AT 500, EG: 500 V= X"2 
510 RETURN 

6900 REM 

6901 REM 

6902 REM ERASE/REVIEW IMAGES 

6903 REM 

7000 PLOT 2, 255, 27,24,6, 11, 14,12, 3, 11, 7: REM IMAGE ERASE/REVIEW 
7005 FOR 1= 1T0 12:I$a>= CHR$ C48+ I- 7* <I> 9)>:NEXT I 

7010 PRINT "ERASE/REVIEW IMAGE S":PRINT 

7020 PRINT ,, "1. REVIEW IMAGES. ": PRINT 

7030 PRINT ,, .INPUT "2. ERASE IMAGES. ENTER NUMBER: ";I 

7040 IF 1= 2THEN 7100 

7050 1$= "REVIEWED" :G0SUB 7200 

7060 FOR 1= L0WT0 HIGH: PLOT 3, 64, 29, 27, 4 : REM LOSE CURSOR 

7070 PRINT "LOAD SCREEN. D IS; "+ I*(I):PL0T 27, 27: REM IMAGE 

7880 INPUT "";I*:NEXT I: RETURN 

7100 I*= "ERASED" :G0SUB 7200 

7110 PLOT 27, 4: FOR 1= HIGHT0 L0WSTEP - 1 

7120 PRINT "DEL SCREEN. D IS; "+ I*<I):NEXT I 

7130 PLOT 27, 27: PRINT "IGNORE FCS ERROR - EFNF"; 

7140 PRINT " DURING RENAMING" : PLOT 17,10,27,4 

7150 J= HIGH- L0W+ 1.F0R 1= L0WT0 12- J: REM CLOSE GAP 

7160 PRINT "REN SCREEN. D IS; "+ I$<I+ J)+ "TO SCREEN. D IS; "+ I$(I) 

7180 NEXT I: PLOT 27, 27: RETURN 

7200 PLOT 6,5* I- 4,12, 27, 4: PRINT "DIR":REM DIRECTORY 

7210 PLOT 27, 27: PRINT , "IMAGES ARE LISTED SCREEN. D IS; N "; 

7220 PRINT "WHERE N IS THE NUMBER. ".PRINT 

7230 PRINT , "ENTER #S OF FIRST AND LAST IMAGES TO BE "; 1$; ":" 

7235 PRINT : PRINT , , "FOR A ENTER 10, FOR B ENTER 11 ETC. " 

7240 PRINT :PRINT ,, : INPUT "FIRST ";L0W:REM 

7250 PRINT :PRINT ,,: INPUT " LAST ";HIGH:REM 

7260 PRINT : PRINT ,, : INPUT "PUSH RETURN TO ADVANCE"; I*: RETURN 

Listing 1 continued on page 130 




Meet IMP 2, the stylish impact printer 
with three way paper handling. 



Designed for desk top use, this sleek unit combines 
an ultra-low profile with a unique fan-cooled printing 
system that can knock out 80, 96, or 132 columns of 
crisp hardcopy with continuous throughput of one line 
per second. 

Three way paper handling. IMP 2 features three way 
paper handling for forms, single sheets and paper rolls, 
with tractors adjustable from 1.5 inch to 9'/2 inches. 
Software control of forms length, printer select/deselect 
together with a choice of three standard interfaces 
make IMP 2 the most versatile printer available in its 
price range. 

Interfaces abound. IMP 2 provides parallel, RS232C 
and 20mA current loop as standard equipment. But if 
you need something special, we can supply interfaces 



for just about any system — high speed serial, Apple, 
Pet, TRS-80, IEEE 488. . . you name it. 
Versatile character sets. 96 ASCII character set is 
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graphics, under software control. Options include full 
page buffering and special character sets. 

Service — a big difference. No other printer 
manufacturer offers Axiom's combination of low cost 
plus nation-wide service and distribution — in the USA 
and 18 overseas countries. 

Psssst — the price!!! With all this performance, the price 
is low. Just $795 for IMP 2 ($695 for IMP 1, without 
tractor feed). And that's the single unit price. 

Better phone, write or mail the bingo card today! 



AXIOM 

AXIOM CORPORATION 



Circle 81 on Inquiry card. 



5932 San Fernando Road, Glendale, CA 91202 
Tel: (213) 245-9244 • TWX: 910497-2283 



The days of complicated, unreliable, 
dynamic MM are gone: 




the ultrabyte memory board 



Cinn QK I complete kit \ 

O I JJ *J **•* \withl6K memory J 

Netronics consistently offers innovative products at un- 
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ONE CHIP DOES IT ALL 
JAWS solves the problems of dynamic RAM with a 
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REMARKABLE FEATURES OF JAWS 
Look what JAWS offers you: Hidden refresh . . . fast 
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data outputs ... 200 NS 4116 RAMs . . . on-board 
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8080. 8085, and Z80 bus signals . . . works in Explorer, 
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I GIVE YOUR COMPUTER A BIG BYTE OF MEMORY | 
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UN0ECI0E0? TRY a mm m JAWS in your computer oh our 
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CONTINENTAL US A CREDIT CARD BUYERS OUTSIDE CONNECTICUT CALL 



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GNNETRONICSl 



CALL TOLL FREE 800-243-7428 

From CoMweticul Or For fontanel, (203) 354-9375 Dept 

"JRESEARCH& bh 
(DEVELOPMENT LTD \ 

333 Litchfield Road, New Milford.CT 06776 
Please send the items checked below 
G JAWS 16K RAM kit, No. 6416. $199.95* 
" JAWS 16K RAM fully assembled, tested, burned in. 

No. 6416W, $229.95.* 
" JAWS 32K RAM kit. No. 6432, (reg. price $329.95). 
SPECIAL PRICE $299.95.* 
! JAWS 32K RAM fully assembled, tested, burned in. 
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□ JAWS48K RAM kit. No. 6448. (reg. price $459.95). 
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□ JAWS 48K fully assembled, tested, bumed in. No. 
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D JAWS 64K RAM kit. No. 6464, (reg. price $589.95). 
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□ Expansion kit. JAWS 16K RAM module, to expand 
any of the above in 16K blocks up to 64K. No. 16EXP. 
$129.95* 

"All prices plus $2 postage and handling. Connecticut 
residents add sales tax. 
Total enclosed: $_ 
H Personal Check 

□ VISA 

Acct. No. 

Signature 

Print Name 

Address 



Money order or Cashiers Check 

□ MASTER CHARGE (Bank No ) 

Exp. Date 



City 

State 

□ Send me more information 



Zip 



CALCULATES LIMITS, SCALE VALUES AND 
DRAWS OUTLINE WITH TIC MARKS, SCALES, 
TITLE AND AXES LABELS 



Listing 1 continued: 

3988 REM 
8989 REM 
8996 REM PREPARE COMPLETE GRAPH OUTLINE 

8991 REM 

8992 REM 

8993 REM 

8994 REM 

8995 REM 

9600 REM GRAPH OUTLINE 
9010 GOSUB 10200: REM DATA RANGE 
9020 GOSUB 10300: REM AUTOSCALE 
9030 GOSUB 10500: RETURN :REM FRAME 

9980 REM 

9981 REM 

9982 REM ENTER: 

9983 REM 

9984 REM 

9985 REM 

9986 REM 

9987 REM 

9988 REM 

9989 REM 

9990 REM 

9991 REM 

10000 PLOT 6, 1,12, 14, 3, 18, 13: REM DATA ENTRV 

10010 PRINT "DATA ENTR V" 

10015 PLOT 10, 9, 9: INPUT "GRAPH TITLE: "• TITLE* 

10020 PLOT 10, 9, 9: INPUT "NUMBER OF DATA POINTS: "; NUMBER 

10021 DIM ARRAY (NUMBER+ 2, 2> 

10024 PLOT 10, 9, 9: INPUT "X-AXIS UNITS, INDEPENDANT: ";LABEL*<0> 

10025 IF CHOICE= 1THEN LABEL* <1>= "NUMBER" : GOTO 10030 

10026 PLOT 10, 9, 9: INPUT "V-AXIS UNITS, DEPENDANT: ";LflBELf«L> 
10028 LABEL*<2>= LABEL* <1) 

10030 FOR ITEM= 1T0 NUMBER: REM ENTER POINTS 

10040 IF ITEM- 1< > 10* INT (<ITEM- IV 10) THEN 10O60:REM PAGE 

10050 PLOT 12, 10, 10: PRINT "POINT", , LABEL*<0> : REM 

10055 IF CH0ICE< > 1THEN PLOT 28:PRINT ,,,,""; LABEL*<1> 

10060 IF ITEM- 1= 5* INT ((ITEM- 1)/ 5) THEN PLOT 10: REM SPACE 

10070 PRINT : PRINT ""-ITEM, ,: INPUT "".; ARRAV< ITEM, 0> .REM 

10075 IF CHOICE* 1THEN NEXT ITEM: RETURN 

PLOT 28, 18, 9, 3> 9, 9 : 1 NPU I " " ; ARRAY '. I T EH, 1 ) 
ARRflV ( I TEM, 2 > = ARRAY < I TEM, 1 ) : NEXT I TEM : RETURN 



TITLE* 

NUMBER OF DATA POINTS 

LABEL*<0> FOR X-AXIS 

LABEL* (1) FOR V-AXIS 

ARRAY (NUMBER, 2 > OF DATA POINTS 

NOTE: IF CHOICE =1 THEN ONLV 1 AXIS IS ENTERED 



itiwytt 
10085 
10090 REM 
10691 REM 
18092 REM 

10093 REM 

10094 REM 

10095 REM 

10096 REM 

10097 REM 

10098 REM 
10100 PLOT 6, ! 
10110 PRINT "I 
10120 NUMBER= 
10130 IF V< > 

10132 PLOT : 

10133 PRINT 

10134 PRINT 

10135 PRINT 

10136 PRINT 



WRITE EQUATION 

TESTS 
INPUT 
INPUT 



IS THE EQUATION WRITTEN 
LITTLE CO) 
BIGC0) 



CALCULATES ARRflV C2« 



FROM EQUATION 



. 14, 12, 
Q U A 



3, 12, 7: REM EQUATION PLOTTING 
T I N P L T T I N G" : PRINT :REM 
1 : V= . 9999 : GOSUB 490 
. 9999THEN 10140: REM JUMP IF EQUATION AT LINE 500 
16, 11: PRINT "TYPE EQUATION AT LINE 500": PR I NT 
, "USING THE RULES OF BASIC. ": PRINT : PRINT 
.."EXAMPLE: 500 Y=X"2-3*X" : PRINT :REM 

, "NOW TYPE 500 ": PRINT 

, "THEN TYPE RUN AND PRESS RETURN" : END 

Listing 1 continued on page 132 



130 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 82 on inquiry card. 




EVERYG 
WINS 



Selecting software for 
your Ohio Scientific computer 
is a chancy task at best. There 
are few trustworthy vendors with 
a national reputation. There are 
no consistent quality standards 
and the documentation is often 
cryptic and inaccurate. If you 
are lucky enough to find a good 
package, there's no guarantee of 
ongoing support. A wrong 
choice results in months of 
wasted time, effort, and money. 

With the Software Federa- 
tion, you no longer take that risk. 
The Software Federation was 
formed by three of the largest 
Ohio Scientific hardware dis- 



S oft ware Packages 

BUS-I Original of popular series, sold "as is" $99 
BUS-II Unlicensed version of BUS-I SI 50 
BUS/DMS Most current version of BUS series, 

completely reworked, DMS compatible $850 
fig- FORTH A complete Forth Interest Group version for 

0SI. Not a kludge SI 75 
MEMTEST/2 New edition of popular memory test $50 
WP-INT Interface between WP-2 and OSI-DMS for 

form letters $80 
Amway Distributors Package $995 
DATA DIRECTOR Complete rewrite of OSI-DMS Nucleus 

by BBS, command oriented, very interactive $995 
System Exerciser Self-prompting test routines for end 

user troubleshooting S60 
Med-Bill/Farogher Single doctor client billing $995 
Manufacturing Control System Hard disk based 

Standalone inventory with job costing and 

bill-of-materials $3500 
Fast Floppy Dumper Floppy disk backup for hard disk 

systems $125 
WP6502 65U word processor from DQFLS $ 1 25 
USUS Software Exchange Library 6 disk set of UCS0 

Pascal programs, includes USUS membership $80 
Mailer Text processor, keyed files & sort capability, good 

mass mailer, DMS compatible $190 
Payroll Very thorough package for floppy or hard disk, 

DMS compatible $495 
General Ledger Multi-division.'department support, 

journal based, floppy or hard disk. DMS 

compatible $495 



tributors to select and market 
quality software through reput- 
able dealers nationwide. 



The Software Federation 
soloes the dealer's problems by 
providing low cost access to high 
quality software with the sort 
of demonstration packages, 
documentation, and support 
that the dealer needs to success- 
fully sell machines. 



Affiliated Dealers 

TriComp Inc. Denver, CO 80221 

Total Data Systems Ft. Collins, CO 80525 

Data Services Computer Carp. Denver. CO 80239 

Tra-Sta Computer Shoppe Pueblo CO 8 1005 

Business Data Systems, Inc. Boulder CO 80301 

Tek-Alds Industries Inc. Arlington His H. 60004 

KMH Galesburg, IL61401 

Practical Computer Springfield, IL 62703 

Datobus Grayslake, IL 60038 

MAP Systems Peoria Hts. , IL 6 1 6 1 4 

Business Computer of Joliet Cresthill, IL 60435 

Cyberrronics Houston, TX 77084 

CSB Houston, TX 77057 

Computer Management Systems Mitchell SD 57301 

Frisch Computer St. Paul, MN 55 1 1 3 

Farragher & Assoc. Milwaukee, Wl 532 1 3 

Specialized Computer Systems Jackson. Ml 49204 

Community Computers Arlington, VA 22201 

Delta Data Distributors Memphis, TN 381 18 

International Automation New Kensington, PA 15608 

Whitlock International, Inc. Detroit Ml 48219 



The Software Federation 
soloes the independent ven- 
dor's problems by providing a 
proprietary method of software 
protection, aggressive enforce- 
ment of software licenses, a 
strong dealer base, primary 
support, and national 
advertising. 



The Software Federation 
solves the user's problems by 
providing quality software, 
exceptional documentation, 
after-the-sale support, and 
optional software maintenance 
services. 

Why risk making the wrong 
choice? With the Software Fed- 
eration, everyone wins! 

See the dealer in your area 
for a complete turnkey demon- 
stration. 



Software Federation 

44 University Drive 
Arlington Hts., IL 60004 
Phone: 312/259-1355 




OUR PRICES 

ARE 

TOO LOW 

TO 

ADVERTISE! 

CHECK THEM— CALL TOLL FREE 

800-243-7428 

LOOK WHAT WE OFFER! 



» HAZELTINE 

Terminals 

► CENTRONICS 

Printers 

► LEAR-SIEGLER 

Terminals/ Printers 

> DATAPRODUCTS 

Printers 

> ANADEX 

Printers 

BE SMART- 
DON'T BUY 
UNTIL YOU 
CHECK OUR 
PRICES! 



MASTERCHARGE 

VISA COD 

PERSONAL CHECK 
MONEY ORDER 



RtNETRONICS 

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, LTD. 
333 Litchfield Rd.. New Milford, CT 06776 



Listing 1 continued: 



10140 

10142 
10143 
10145 

10150 
10160 
10170 
10180 
10190 

10191 
10192 
10193 
10194 

10200 
10210 

10215 
10220 
10225 
10230 
10235 
10240 
18288 
10289 
10290 
10291 
10292 
10293 
10294 
10295 
10296 
10297 

10300 
10310 

10315 
10320 
10325 
10330 
10340 
10350 
10360 
10370 
10380 
10390 
10395 
10480 
10481 
10482 
10483 
10484 
10485 
10486 
10487 
10489 
10490 
10491 
10492 
10493 
10494 
10495 



IF TITLE*< > 
PRINT : PR I NT 
PRINT : PRINT 
PRINT : PRINT 
PRINT : PR I NT 
X= LITTLE 03): 
ARRAY (ITEM, 0> 



""THEN 10145 

,,"ENTER TITLE <E. G: EQUATION) : 

,, : INPUT "".; TITLE* 

, , : INPUT "ENTER LOWEST X VALUE: 

, , : INPUT " HIGHEST X VALUE: 

FOR ITEM* 1T0 25:G0SUB 490: REM 

= X: ARRAY (ITEM, 1>= Y 



■;LITTLE(0) 
';BIG(0) 
FROM EQUAN 



CALCULATE FRAME FROM LITTLE(AXIS) AND BIG(AXIS) 



JUMP(AXIS) 
LOWCAXIS) 
HIGH(AXIS) 
SCALE(AXIS) 
GAPS (AX IS) 



IS STEP LENGTH 
IS SCALE LOW 
IS SCALE HIGH 
IS SCALE LENGTH 
IS NUMBER OF STEPS 



X= X+ (BIG(0)- LITTLE(O))/ 24: NEXT ITEM: RETURN :REM INC X 

REM 

REM 

REM FIND LITTLE(AXIS) AND BIG(AXIS) 

REM FROM ARRAY < NUMBER, 1) IN BOTH AXES 

REM 

FOR AXIS= 0TO l.QQSUB 10210: NEXT AXIS: RETURN :REM LO, HI 

LITTLE(AXIS)= ARRAYd, AXIS):BIG(AXIS)= ARRAYd, AXIS) 

FOR ITEM= 1T0 NUMBER 

IF ARRAY(ITEM,AXIS)> LITTLE (AX IS) THEN 10230 

LITTLE(AXIS)= ARRAYdTEM, AXIS) 

IF ARRAY ( ITEM, AXIS K BIG(AXIS)THEN 10240 

BIG(AXIS)= ARRAY < ITEM, AXIS) 

NEXT ITEM: RETURN 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

FOR AXIS= 0TO 1:G0SUB 1O310:NEXT AXIS: RETURN :REM SCALE 

RANGE= (BIG(AXIS)- LITTLE(AXIS) V 1.21 

JUMP(AXIS)= 4* 10" (INT (.434295* LOG (RANGE))) 

DEF FN I(I)= JUMP(AXIS)* INT (1/ JUMP(AXIS)+ .0001) 

FOR 1= 1T0 3:JUMP(AXIS)= JUMP(AXIS)/ 2 

HIGH(AXIS)= - FN K- BIG(AXIS)) 

LOW(AXIS)= FN KLITTLE(AXIS)) 

SCALE(AXIS)= HIGH(AXIS)- LOW(AXIS) 

GAPS(AXIS)= INT (1.0001* SCALE(AXIS)/ JUMP(AXIS)) 

IF GAPS(AXIS)< 4THEN NEXT I 

EVEN= 2* JUMP(AXIS)* INT (- SCALE(AXIS)/ JUMP(AXIS)/ 2. 1) 

HIGH(AXIS)= LOW(AXIS)- EVEN 

SCALE(AXIS)= HIGH(AXIS)- LOW(AXIS) : RETURN 

REM 

REM 

REM DRAW BORDERS WITH SCALES AND TITLES 

REM 

REM USER MAY ALTER 

REM MINSCREEN(AXIS) AND MAXSCREEN(AXIS) BUT 

REM SELECT VALUES TO MAKE 

REM RANGE A MULTIPLE OF 24. ALSO: 

REM 

REM IN AXIS VALUES MUST BE MULTIPLES OF 2 

REM IN 1 AXIS VALUES MUST BE MULTIPLES OF 4 

REM 

REM RATI 0( AX IS) IS CALCULATED FROM 

REM RANGE AND SCALE (AXIS) 

REM 

Listing 1 continued on page 134 



132 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



The best 
news since 

CPM... 

customizable 

full screen 

editing 



North Star 
Heath H8/H89 
Super Brain 



Sorcerer 

TRS-80 Model I 

TRS-80 Model II 



Most other CP/M Systems with 
CRT or Memory Mapped Displays. 



See us at Northeast Computer Show Booth 418 



Changes You Make On the Screen Become 
The Changes to the File. 

Full screen editing is the fastest and easiest method of 
editing all types of text files. Straight forward enough for 
novices, yet also the choice of professionals. VEDIT is a 
proven full screen editor with unequalled features. You will 
appreciate that you can easily edit 1 times faster than with a 
command editor. Since VEDIT is customizable, it adapts to 
your applications and preferences, instead of requiring you 
to adapt to it. 

VEDIT is ideally suited to program development and it's 
special features make it the most valuable development tool 
a programmer can have. VEDIT appeals to word processing 
users too. Many simple text editing tasks, such as mailing 
lists, are faster and easier to do with VEDIT than with more 
complex word processors. 

Features of VEDIT: 

Full screen editor with status line and cursor. The screen 
continuously displays the region of the file being edited. 
Changes are made by first moving the cursor to the text you 
wish to change. You can then overtype, insert any amount of 
new text or hit a function key. These changes are 
immediately reflected on the screen and become the 
changes to the file. 

Full array of cursor movements with single 
key movement to begin and end of lines and to 
tab positions. 

Function keys for character delete, line delete 
and allowing line splitting and concatenating. 
Text movement is very easy using a text 
register. 

Flexible command mode allows global 
search and substitute, repetitive editing 
operations. 

File handling allows files to be merged on input, split on 
output, drive selection and more. Blocks of text are readily 
copied from one file to another. 

Disk buffering can automatically perform Read/Write for 
files larger than available main memory. 

Tabs settable to any positions. Tab key inserts tab 
character or spaces to next tab position. 

Extensive 60 page, clearly written manual with sections for 
both the beginning and experienced user. 

You Customize the Fastest Editor for 
Word Processing, C-Basic, Fortran and 
Assembler: 

Keyboard layout for all cursor and function keys. 

Your screen size. (Up to 70 lines, 200 columns). 

Default Tab positions and various parameters. 

Scrolling methods. 

Cursor type, blinking, reverse video. 

Its ideal for diverse hardware, keyboards and applications. 

For OEMs too. 

Ordering: Specify your CRT terminal type, video board or 
microcomputer, the 8080/Z80 or Z80 code version, and disk 
format required. 

Standard Package: Disk and manual $110 

Manual: Price refunded with software purchase $ 15 
PUCEOH V-100: 24 X 80 Video display board . . .$445 

VISA and MASTER CHARGE Welcome. 
Attractive Dealer Terms. 



Compuview Products, Inc. 

618 Louise / Arm Arbor, Michigan 48103 Call Anytime - (313) 096-1299 



Circle 83 on inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 133 



Now-Break Through The 64K 
Micro-Memory Limit! 



SIXTEEN 

Bank Selectable 16K Static RAM 




SAVE $50.00 

LIMITED TIME OFFER 

Don't buy any more antique RAMs (RAM without 
bank select) — now there's Netronic's new 
SWEET SIXTEEN board featuring a universal soft- 
ware bank select system. SWEET SIXTEEN is 
capable of addressing 2,048 different banks. 
With SWEET SIXTEEN boards you can add mem- 
ory beyond the 64K limit, or expand to a multi- 
terminal system. 

LOOK AT THESE FEATURES: 

• 300 NS, low power 21 14's. 

• Software Bank Selector — Universal decoder 
works with Cromenco. Alpha Micro. Netronics, most 
other systems, or your design. Onboard dip 
switches: Bank Select Enable; Reset Enable; Reset 
Disable, Port Address; Port Data. 

• All Inputs And Outputs meet the proposed IEEE 
standards for the S-100 bus. 

• 4.0 MHz Operation. 

• Schmitt Trigger Buffer on all signals for maximum 
noise immunity. 

• Addressable On 16k Boundaries, 0-64k. dip 
switch selectable. 

• Phantom Option, dip switch selectable. 

• PWR MWRITE Option, dip switch selectable. 

• LED Indicator to display status. 

• Glass Epoxy PC Board with gold-plated contacts 
and double-sided solder mask. 

• Fully Socketed. 

• Four Separate Regulators for maximum stability 

10-Day Money-Back Policy For Wired & Tested 
Unit: Try a fully wired board — then either keep it. 
return it for kit, or simply return it in working condi- 
tion. 



Continental U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers 



Outside Connecticut: 



CALL TOLL FREE: 
800-243-7428 

From Connecticut Or For Assistance: 
(203| 354-9375 
Please send the items checked below: 

□ SWEET SIXTEEN kit; No. S-16 (reg. price 
S249.95)nowS199.95* 

D SWEET SIXTEEN, fully assembled, tested, 
burned in; No. S-16W (reg. price $289 95) 
now S239.95* 

*Plus S2 postage & insurance. Connecticut residents 
add sales tax. 

Total Enclosed: S 

□ Personal Check □ Money Order/Cashiers Check 

D VISA D Master Charge (Bank No. ) 

Acct. No. Exp. Date 

Signature 

Print 

Name 

Address 

City 

State Zip 



I5.NETR0NICS 

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, LTD. 
333 Litchfield Rd., New Milford, CT 06776 



PLACE IS CALCULATED FOR 
TIC MARKS AND SCALE NUMBERS 



Listing 1 continued: 

10496 REM 

10497 REM 
19498 REM 

10560 PLOT 2.. 255, 27, 24, 29, 15.. 6, COLOUR Q >, 12: REM DRAW FRAME 
10505 MINSCREEN(0)= 18:MAXSCR£EM<0)= 114 
10510 MINSCREEN(1)= 16:MAXSCREEN(1)= 112 

10515 FOR AXIS* 0TO 1:RANGE= MAXSCREEN(AXIS)- MINSCREEN(AXIS) 
10520 RATIO (AXIS)* RANGE/ SCALE (AXIS): NEXT AXIS 
16522 PLOT 3, (MAXSCREENC0H MINSCREEfKO))/ 4- LEN (TITLE*)/ 1 2 
10523 PLOT 29- MAXSCREENd)/ 4: PRINT TITLE* 
10525 FOR AXIS= 0TO 1 

10530 PLOT 6, COLOUR (l), 2, 250- 4+ AXIS, MINSCREEN(AXIS)- 1 
10540 PLOT MINSCREENd- AXIS)- 1 
10545 PLOT MAXSCREEN(AXIS)+ 2- 2+ CAXIS= 1) 
10550 PLOT MAXSCREENd- AXIS)* 2- 2+ (RXIS= 0) 
10555 PLOT MRXSCREEN(AXIS)+ 2- 2+ (AXIS= 1), 255 
10560 J= JUMP (AXIS)/ 2 

10565 FOR PLACE* LOW<flXIS)TO HIQH<AXIS)+ JSTEP JUMP(AXIS) 
10570 GOSUB 10700: REM TIC MARKS 

10580 GRAPH CI- AXIS)= MINSCREENd- AXIS)- 2: REM OUTSIDE FRAME 
10590 PLOT 6, COLOUR CD : GOSUB 11010 
10600 PLOT 6, COLOUR ( 2): REM NUMBERS 

10620 IF ABS ( PLACE X JUMP ( AX I S ) / 2THEN PLACE* 0:REM NO EXPON 
10630 GRAPH (1- AXIS)= MINSCREENd- AXIS)- 8+ 4+ AXIS 
10640 GOSUB 10800 : PLACE*= STR* (PLACE) 
10650 PLOT 3, TEXK6)- LEN (PLACE*)/ (2- AXIS), TEXT(l) 
10660 PRINT PLACE*: NEXT PLACE .NEXT AXIS 
10662 PLOT 3, MAXSCREEN(0)/ 2- 4- LEN (LABEL* (8)) 
18664 PLOT 34- MINSCREEN(l)/ 4: PRINT LABEL*(0) 
10666 PLOT 3, MINSCREEN(0)/ 2- 6,29- MAXSCREEN(l)/ 4 
10670 PRINT LABELED: RETURN 

10688 REM 

10689 REM 

10690 REM CALCULATE SCREEN GRAPH POSITION 

10691 REM 

10692 REM CONVERTS PLACE IN USER UNITS 

10693 REM TO GRAPH (AXIS) FROM 

10694 REM RATIO(AXIS), LOW (AXIS), MINSCREEN(AXIS) 

10695 REM 

10700 J= RATIO(AXIS)* (PLACE- LOW(AXIS)) :REM CONVERT USER UNITS 
10710 GRAPH(AXIS)= MINSCREEN(AXIS)+ J+ . 0001: RETURN 

10790 REM 

10791 REM 

10792 REM CALCULATE SCREEN TEXT POSITION 

10793 REM 

10794 REM CONVERTS GRAPH(AXIS) PLOTTING UNITS 

10795 REM TO TEXT (AXIS) FOR CURSOR POSITION 

10796 REM 

10800 TEXT(0)= GRAPH (0)/ 2: REM GRAPH UNITS TO CURSOR POS 
10810 TEXT(1)= INT (31.75- GRAPH(i)/ 4): RETURN 

10988 REM 

10989 REM 

10990 REM PLOT POINTS OR LINES 

10991 REM 

10992 REM ARRAV (NUMBER,!) IS PLOTTED EITHER 

10993 REM AS POINTS OR AS CONTINUOUS LINE 

10994 REM 
11000 FLAG= 1: GOSUB 11150 : RETURN :REM POINTS 

11010 PLOT 2, GRAPH (0), GRAPH (1), 255: RETURN :REM POINT 

Listing 1 continued on page 138 



134 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 84 on inquiry card. 



The Perfect Fit 



The Micromodem II data communications system 
and the Apple II* computer. What better combination to 
maximize the capabilities of your personal computer! 

This popular direct connect modem can transmit 
data between an Apple II and another Apple II, a 
terminal, another microcomputer, minicomputer or 
even a large time-sharing computer anywhere in North 
America. The Micromodem II has unique automatic 
dialing and answer capabilities which further increases 
the communications possibilities between the Apple II 
and another computer or terminal. 

You can send and/or receive messages or data 
when you are out of your office, home or out of town. 
Your branch business locations can communicate with 
each other regarding inventory and other matters over 
the phone. Or you can communicate with friends 
across the country. And you can access information 
utilities like the SOURCE for various business and 
personal applications. 

The Micromodem II consists of two parts. One part 
includes the printed circuit board which holds the 
Micromodem II, ROM firmware and the serial interface. 
The board plugs directly into the Apple II providing all 
the functions of a serial interface card plus 
programmable auto dialing and auto answer 
capabilities. The on-board ROM firmware enables the 
Micromodem 1 1 to operate in any of three modes to 
perform different tasks-terminal mode, remote console 
and program control mode. 



The other part of the Micromodem II datacomm 
system is a Microcoupler which connects the 
Micromodem board and Apple II to a telephone line. 
The Microcoupler gets a dial tone, dials numbers, 
answers the phone and hangs up when a transmission 
is over. There are none of the losses or distortions 
associated with acoustic couplers. The Microcoupler is 
compatible with any North American standard 
telephone lines and is FCC-approved for direct 
connection in the U.S. It works with standard dial 
phone service or Touch-tone service. 

The Micromodem II is completely compatible with 
Bell 103-type modems. Full and half-duplex operating 
modes are available as well as speed selectable 
transmission rates of 1 1 and 300 bps. 

Why not increase your Apple It's capabilities by 
outfitting it with the sophisticated Micromodem II data 
communications system? The Micromodem II is 
available at retail computer stores nationwide. For the 
store nearest you, call or write: 



©Hayes 



Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc. 

5835 Peachtree Corners East, Norcross, Georgia 30092 (404) 449-8791 

Ty Micromodem II is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 

* Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 

The Micromodem li can also be used with the Bell & Howell computer. 




136 BYTE November 1980 



Bubble Price Break 

Intel reduces prototyping prices of 1 -megabit bubble 

memories by 40% now. And guarantees a volume price 

of $595 for complete component sets by August 1981. 



Fast-breaking bubble technol- 
ogy. You've been hearing about 
it for years. Now Intel announces 
the kind of break you've been 
waiting for: a price break. 

On August 11th, Intel lowered 
its 100-unit price for the BPK72 
Bubble Memory Kit by 40% to 
$995 — less than 100 millicents 
per bit. 

By August 1981, the price of 
megabit bubble memories ordered 
in 5,000-unit lots will be an 
unprecedented $595. That's 60 
millicents per bit. Not "projected." 
Not "expected." Guaranteed. 

One year later, for 25,000-piece 
orders, the unit price will be $295 
— cutting the per-bit price in half 
once more. Again, we guarantee it. 

How can Intel guarantee such 
a sharp price reduction? Simple. 
Intel was the first to bring produc- 
tion 1-megabit bubble memories 
to market. We've been delivering 
them for over a year, for a wide 
range of applications, and now 
we're moving prices down the 
manufacturing learning curve. 

Get more than bubbles 

Intel's bubble memory is a 
complete set of bubble compo- 
nents for microprocessor-based 
applications. This set consists 
of six special support ICs: a con- 
troller, a formatter/sense amp., 
three packages for coil driving 
and a current pulse generator. It 
interfaces to Intel® and other 
microprocessor system buses via 
the controller, which handles up 
to eight bubble memory packages, 
and provides built-in power fail 
protection and error correction. 

The bubble element and its 
small set of associated ICs can be 



treated as a peripheral subsystem. 
This allows designers to con- 
centrate on higher level system 
objectives, instead of spending 
time learning the intimate details 
of bubble device interfacing. Thus 
minimizing expense in hardware 
and software development. 

Add more value 
to your product 

With Intel's solid-state bubble 
memory, all that moves is the 
information. That means high 
reliability and low maintenance 
for your products, even in harsh 
or unclean environments — the 
kind where disks and tapes won't 
go. And since the memory is 
completely nonvolatile, your data 




remains secure when the power 
goes off. No battery backup or 
replacement is necessary. 

Furthermore, Intel's bubble 
memory system is small, light- 
weight and silent. By packing 
over 1 million bits into less than 
100 square centimeters of board 
space, it allows you to reduce 
the size, weight and power con- 



sumption of your products. 

As the natural mass storage for 
LSI microprocessor-based systems, 
Intel's megabit bubble memory 
makes it practical to design more 
features into your equipment. 
So now you can build in program- 
mability. Portability. Reduced 
service and repair costs. All with 
ensured data integrity, even in 
hostile environments. Consider 
what that means in your 
applications. 

Start designing now 

Everything you need to start 
designing your next generation 
product is included in our Bubble 
Memory Prototype Kit (BPK72), 
available now from distributor 
stock. It contains all the compo- 
nents necessary for a 1-megabit 
system, plus a printed circuit board 
and complete documentation. 

To find out how bubble mem- 
ories can give you that competitive 
edge in your next project — and 
to receive our bubble brochure, 
contact your local Intel sales 
office/distributor. Better yet, have 
one of our field sales engineers 
give you a firm quote based on 
exactly what you need for your 
next product. Write Intel Cor- 
poration, 3065 Bowers Avenue, 
Santa Clara, CA 95051. Or call 
(408) 987-8080. 



Intel delivers 
solutions. 

Europe: Intel International, Brussels, Belgium. 
Japan: Intel Japan, Tokyo. United States and Canadian 
distributors: Alliance, Almac/Stroum, Arrow Electronics, 
Avnet Electronics, Component Specialties, Hamilton/Avnet, 
Hamilton/Electro Sales, Harvey, Industrial Components, 
Pioneer, L.A. Varah, Wyle Distribution Group, Zentronics. 



Circle 85 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 137 



IS PLOTTED EITHER 
HORIZONTAL BARS 



Listing 1 continued: 

11020 PLOT 2, 242, GRAPH i&h GRAPH <1>j 255: RETURN .REM VECTOR 

11106 FLAG= 0:GOSUB 11150: RETURN .REM VECTORS 

11150 PLOT 6, C0L0UR<3>:F0R ITEM= 1TO NUMBER: FOR AXIS= 0TO 1 

11160 PLACE= ARRAVC ITEM, AXIS): GOSUB 1070O: NEXT AXIS 

11170 ON 2+ >:iTEM= 10R FLAG= DGOSUB 11010,11020 

11180 NEXT ITEM: RETURN 

11188 REM 

11189 REM 

11190 REM PLOT BAR GRAPHS 
11131 REM 

11192 REM ARRAV ( NUMBER, 1) 

11193 REM AS VERTICAL OR AS 

11194 REM 

11200 FLAG= l:GOSUB 11310: RETURN :REM V- 
11300 FLAG= 0:GOSUB 11310: RETURN :REM X-BAR 
11310 COLOUR* 2: FOR ITEM= 1TO NUMBER 

11320 COLOUR= COLOUR+ 1+ 2+ <COLOUR= 4): PLOT 6, COLOUR (COLOUR) 

11330 FOR AXIS= OTO 1:PLACE= ARRAVdTEM, AXIS) 

1134S GOSUB 10700: NEXT AXIS 

11350 PLOT 2,250- FLAG* 4, MINSCREEN<FLAG) :REM X OR V BAR 

11360 FOR 1= GRAPHC1- FLAG)TO GRAPhKl- FLAG)+ 1 

11370 PLOT I, GRAPH (FLAG): NEXT I: PLOT 255: NEXT ITEM .RETURN 

11490 REM 

11491 REM 

11492 REM SAVE IMAGES ON DISK 

11493 REM 

11494 REM IMAGES SAVED AS SCREEN. DIS 

11495 REM 

Listing 1 continued on page 140 



A 10 Megabyte Winchester 
hard disk based, 
S100 Computer for 

$7500??? 

YOU BET!!! 



We'll give you 20 to 1 
(storage that is)! 





na 
nc 



NNC Electronics 15631 Computer Lane 
Huntington Beach CA 92649 (714) 893-4120 




Photo 1: Variation of text height and 
color. Both text height and color can be 
changed under program control. 

Text continued from page 126: 

Subscripts for array variables com- 
mence at 0. In consequence, if 
NUMBER = 25 and AXES = 1, then 
the BASIC statement DIM ARRAY 
(NUMBER, AXES) will define an ar- 
ray with dimensions 26 and 2. 

Values of or —1 are assigned to 
results of logical operations: for 
false and —1 for true. This poperty is 
used in line 11170 of listing 1. 

It is also possible to change the 
height and color of displayed text (as 
shown in photo 1); this is done occa- 
sionally within the body of the pro- 
gram in listing 1. 

The Subroutines 

Listing 1 contains the subroutines 
that together can be used to produce a 
graph on the color video-display 
screen. Subscripted variables, when 
used with a subscript of 0, refer to 
some horizontal component of the 
graph; a subscript of 1 refers to some 
vertical component of the graph. Cer- 
tain calculation subroutines (for ex- 
ample, 10200 and 10300) can be ac- 
cessed at a line ending in "00" to per- 
form calculations for both the X and 
Y axes, or they can be accessed at the 
corresponding line ending in "10" to 
calculate for only one axis. 

Some of the more important 
subroutines are described briefly in 
the paragraphs that follow: 

• 7000 — Review or erase images; this 
subroutine enables graphs stored 
on disk to be reviewed (displayed) 
or erased from the disk. 

• 9000 — Prepare complete graph 
outline; this subroutine consists of 
three subroutines that examine the 
data and draw the appropriate 
graph frame (see also subroutines 
10200, 10300, and 10500). 

• 10000— Data entry; the title of the 
graph, the axes' labels, and data 



138 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Listing 1 continued: 



11560 
11510 

11520 
11530 
11549 
11730 
11781 
11782 
11783 
11784 
11785 
11786 
11787 
11788 
11800 
11802 
11884 
11806 
11810 
11820 
11830 
11840 
11850 
11860 
11870 
11890 
11891 
11892 
11893 
11894 
11895 
11896 

11900 

11910 
11920 



PLOT 6, C0L0UR<2>,3, 0, 31, 11. 3, 13, 31: REM SAVE ON DISK 

INPUT "ENTER S TO SAVE, OR PRESS RETURN: ".; I*: PLOT 28,11 

IF IK > "S"THEN 11540 

PLOT 27, 4: PRINT "SAVE SCREEN. [J IS 6000-6FFF" :PLOT 27,27 

RETURN 

REM 

REM 

REM SELECT COLORS 

REM 

REM COLOURED FRAME 

REM COLOURS) SCALE 

REM COLOUR <3> GRAPH 1 

REM COLOUR < 4 ) GRAPH 2 

REM 

PLOT 6, 4, 3, 0, 31, 11, 3, 16, 31 : REM COLOR SELECTION 

INPUT "ENTER C TO CHANGE COLOR: ".; K* 

PLOT 6, C0L0UR<2>,3, 0,31, 11: IF K*< > "C'THEN RETURN 

PLOT 6, 38, 12, 3, 23, 7, 14: PRINT "COLOR SELECTION" 

PRINT : PRINT ,, : INPUT "TOUCH COLOR FOR BACKGROUND: ".; If- 

1= <ASC <I*>- 16 )* 8: PLOT 6, 1, 12, 3, 16, 11: REM BKD 

PLOT 6, 1/ 8+ 9+ 2+ 4* (I> 40) 

DATA "FRAME", "SCALES", "GRAPH1", "GRAPH2" : RESTORE 11840 

FOR J= 1TO 4: READ I* : PLOT 3,16,9+ 2* J: PRINT "FOR ".; I*.; 

INPUT "".; J*:COLOUR(J)= 1+ ASC (J*)- 16 

PLOT 6, COLOUR*: J >, 3, 32, 9+ 2+ J: PR I NT I$:NEXT J: RETURN 

REM 

REM 

REM PAUSE 

REM 

REM "PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE" 

REM BLINKS BRIEFLV AT BOTTOM OF GRAPH 

REM 

PLOT 6, COLOUR <1>, 31, 3, 18, 31 : REM PAUSE 

PRINT "PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE" : FOR 1= 1TO 1000: NEXT I 

PLOT 15, 3, O, 31, 11 : INPUT " ".; I* : RETURN 



PLOT 2 


Enter graph-plotting mode 


PLOT 2, X, Y 


Point at X,Y 


PLOT 2, 242, X, Y 


Vector to X,Y 


PLOT 2, 250, XO, Y, XM 


Horizontal bar at Y from XO to XM 


PLOT 2, 246, YO, X, YM 


Vertical bar at X from YO to YM 


PLOT 3, T, L 


Cursor to tab T at line L 


PLOT 6, C 


Defines the color of both the foreground and background 


PLOT 8 


Cursor to home 


PLOT 9 


Tab 8 spaces 


PLOT 10 


Line feed (move cursor down one line) 


PLOT 1 1 


Erase line 


PLOT 12 


Erase page 


PLOT 14 


Double-height text 


PLOT 15 


Normal-height text, with blink mode off 


PLOT 16 thru PLOT 23 


Changes color of foreground or background (whichever is 




active) 


PLOT 27, 4: PRINT 




"[disk commands]": 




PLOT 27, 27 


Execute floppy-disk command 


PLOT 27, 10 


Write text vertically 


PLOT 27, 24 


Write text horizontally 


PLOT 28 


Cursor up 


PLOT 29 


Enable background color 


PLOT 31 


Blink on 


PLOT 255 


Cancel graph-plotting mode 


Table 2: Table of plot codes 


in Compucolor BASIC. Many functions associated with 


the color video-display screen are achieved by the use of the PLOT command. The 


table of PLOT commands here includes all those used in listings 1 and 2. 



Range of Values, R, 
to Be Plotted 

0.121<R<1.21 
1.21 sR<12.1 
12.1 <R<121 
121 <R<1210 
1210 <R<12100 



Initial Value 
for JUMP 

0.4 

4.0 

40.0 

400.0 

4000.0 



Table 1: Initial value for step size 
(JUMP) given the range (R) of the 
variable to be plotted. The table can be 
continued in both directions by either 
multiplying or dividing all the 
numbers in a line by 10. Once the in- 
itial value for JUMP is found, it is 
repeatedly divided by 2 until the step 
size used subdivides the range into at 
least four intervals — that is, until 
]UMP< (R/4). 



are entered in this subroutine. Cer- 
tain applications (eg: histograms) 
require only one set of data to be 
entered. If CHOICE = 1, then the 
subroutine fills only ARRAY («,1), 
that is, the data entries are placed 
in ARRAY (0,0), ARRAY (1,0), 
ARRAY (2,0), and so on. If 
CHOICE is not equal to 1, then 
this subroutine expects two sets of 
data to be entered, filling both AR- 
RAY (n,0) and ARRAY (n,l). The 
Y-axis data is duplicated in a third 
column, ARRAY («,2), thus allow- 
ing this data to be manipulated 
later without being destroyed. 
10100 — Equation plotting; this 
subroutine tests to see that no 
equation exists, then invites the 
user to write an equation at line 
500. The equation takes the form 
Y = (some arithmetic expression 
using X). Once the equation exists, 
the subroutine asks for a title and 
the X-axis limits. The program 
then uses the equation to calculate 
twenty-five equidistant data points 
to fill ARRAY (n,l). 
10200— Find big and little; this 
subroutine determines the largest 
and smallest values for the data 
and stores them in arrays BIG (n) 
and LITTLE (n). 

10300 — Prepare values for frame; 
the step size (JUMP) is calculated 
in accordance with the constraints 
described above. This value is used 
to determine the HIGH and LOW 
values for the scale. GAPS is the 
number of JUMPS in the length of 
the axis (variable SCALE). 
10500 — Draw borders with scales 
and titles; this subroutine draws 



140 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Listing 2: Demonstration program for the subroutines of listing 1. This short program, 
when added to the program in listing 1, allows the user to make a graph of a collection 
of points, an equation, or a series of vertical bars. 

5 REM KV 5 REM GRAPHS. CO R. W. GR0G0N0. RUG. 1379 

6 REM DEMONSTflTION PROGRAM FOR USE WITH SUBROUTINES 
48 RESTORE : CLEAR 266: DIM t#<12) 

58 DATA 1,2, 6, 4: FOR 1= 1T0 4: READ COLOUR U> :NEXT I 

90 PLOT 29, 27, 24, 15, 14, 2, 255, 6, 1, 12, 3, 16, 3 : REM CLEAR PAGE 

280 REM 

GRAPH T V P E:":PRINT 

XA' SCATTER" 

PLOT EQUATION" 

V-BAR GRAPH" 
: INPUT "ENTER 1-3: ";K:PL0T 28,11 
3THEN 340 
366 IF K< > 2THEN 390 

370 RESTORE : CLEAR 200: FOR 1= 1TO 4: READ COLOUR (I) :NEXT I 
380 K= 2: DIM ARRAV<25, 1> :REM DIMENSIONS FOR EQUATION 
390 ON KGOSLIB 10600, 10100, 10000 : REM PREPARE DATA ARRAV 
400 GOSUB 9000: REM FRAME 

410 ON KGOSUB 11000, 11100, 11288 : REM SCATTER, LINE, V-BARS 
428 GOSUB 11900: REM PAUSE 
430 GOSUB 11500: REM SAVE 
440 GOSUB 11800: REM SELECT COLORS 
458 IF K*= "C'THEN 400 
468 GOTO 5 



298 REM 




300 PRINT 


"SELECT 


310 PRINT 


: PRINT ,, "1. 


320 PRINT 


: PRINT ,, "2. 


330 PRINT 


: PRINT ,, "3. 


340 PRINT 


: PRINT ,,, :I 



350 IF K< 10R K> 



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the borders for the graph with its 
scales, labels, and title. The length 
of each number or word is em- 
ployed to ensure appropriate posi- 
tioning. The value of RATIO, cal- 
culated here, is used in the 
subroutine at line 10700. 

• 10700 — Convert units to screen; a 
value on one of the axes (in 
variable PLACE) is converted to its 
corresponding screen position 
(stored in variable GRAPH). 

• 10800-Converts units for text posi- 
tion; a screen position variable, 
GRAPH, is converted to its cor- 
responding cursor position and 
stored in variable TEXT. 

• 11000 and 11100— Plot points or 
lines; the data points in ARRAY 
are plotted as separate points 
(11000) or as points joined by lines 
(11100). 

• 11200 and 11300— Plot Y-bars or 
X-bars; the quantities in ARRAY 
are plotted as vertical (11200) or as 
horizontal bars (11300). 

• 11500 — Save image on disk; this 
subroutine transfers the finished 
graph to disk for recall later. 

• 11800 — Select colors; the colors 
for the background, frame, scales, 
and graphs are selected with this 
routine. 

• 11900 — Pause; this subroutine 
causes the words "PRESS 
RETURN TO CONTINUE" to 
flash briefly beneath the graph. 

A Demonstration Program 

The program in listing 2 was writ- 
ten to demonstrate the color-graphics 
subroutines. Graph type 1 allows 
data to be entered and displayed as 
separate points. The program initially 
selects the colors shown in photo 2a, 
but the user can select his own colors, 
as shown in photo 2b. 

Photos 3a and 3b illustrate the use 
of the equation-plotting subroutine, 
graph type 2. Photo 3a shows the 
program colors for the first range 
selected ( — 2 to +2); photo 3b shows 
a different set of colors selected by the 
user for the longer range ( — 4 to +4). 
Photo 4a shows how a variable, such 
as income, can be displayed as a 
Y-bar, as an example of graph type 3. 
Photos 4b and 4c show the same data 
using different colors selected by the 
user. 

The brevity of listing 2 shows that 
minimal program writing is required 
to produce these graphs. In fact, if 
only one type of graph is required 



142 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE November 1980 



143 



(eg: points joined by lines), then the 
total program would be: 



300 GOSUB 10000 


REM DATA 


ENTRY 




310 GOSUB 9000 


REM FRAME 


320 GOSUB 11100 


REM PLOT 


LINES 




330 GOSUB 11900 


REM PAUSE 


340 END 





Of course, this assumes the presence 
of the subroutines given in listing 1. 

2a 



In such a program and in the dem- 
onstration program, the X-axis and 
Y-axis graph scales are determined 
automatically by the program except 
where the user selects the X-axis limits 
for the equation. 

Summary 

The subroutines in listing 1 were 
written to illustrate the principles 
used in determining neat graph scales, 
and emphasis has been placed on 
these calculations. The frame is 




Photo 2: Examples of point-plotting mode. The computer automatically chooses the 
colors of photo 2a, but the user can override this to select any other color combination, 
as in photo 2b. The slight "pincushion" effect can be eliminated by the addition of a cor- 
rective kit supplied by Compucolor. 




Photo 3: Examples of equation-plotting mode. The range of both the X and Y axes can 
be changed, as can the choice of colors. Photo 3a illustrates the standard colors as 
selected by the computer; photo 3b shows another graph with colors of the user's 
choice. 



drawn just outside the area in which 
points will be graphed. This avoids 
the problem of graphing points that 
lie directly on the frame; it also 
avoids the possibility of the color for 
a nearby graph point spilling onto the 
frame. The program generates an 
even number of scale increments for 
each axis; this ensures uniform spac- 
ing of both tick marks and numbers. 
Colors are critical when the screen is 
being photographed; light colors on 
dark backgrounds show up best (this 
is discussed in detail in my previous 
article in the January 1980 BYTE). 

These subroutines can be used in 
many graphics applications. As writ- 
ten, they employ two-letter names as 
well as the variables X, Y, I, J, K, 1$, 
J$, and K$. This allows the user all 
the remaining single letters. If the 
user's program defines NUMBER 
(number of points) and fills ARRAY 
with the appropriate data, then the 
subroutines in listing 1 can be used to 
generate a graph. The graph will be 
labeled as well if the user defines the 
variables TITLES, LABEL$(0), and 
LABEL$(1). 

The photographs used to illustrate 
this article have been created using a 
Compucolor II with 16 K bytes of 
user memory but without the Pin- 
cushion Correction Kit. The barrel 
distortion on the top and bottom can 
be reduced by using a telephoto lens, 
but the pincushion effect on each side 
will then be worse unless the correc- 
tion kit is installed. 

Next month, Part 2 of this article 
will use the subroutines given here to 
construct several other kinds of 
graphs: a different kind of equation- 
plotting routine, a histogram with the 
equivalent Gaussian (bell-shaped) 
curve superimposed, linear and other 
kinds of regression plotting, and a 
monthly analysis graph of more than 
one variable.! 




Photo 4: Examples of bar-graph-plotting mode. Here, the same data is displayed in the standard colors (photo 4a) and two sets of 
user-selected colors (photos 4b and 4c). Horizontal bar graphs can also be displayed. 

144 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Programming Quickies 



Simple Base Conversions 
for the TRS-80 

James M Curran, 24 Greendale Rd, Cedar Grove NJ 07009 



I have noticed that decimal-to-hexadecimal and 
decimal-to-octal conversions are usually accomplished 
by means of subroutines, most of which require three to 
four statements. This is efficient enough for users of a 
low-level BASIC; however, computer enthusiasts with a 
BASIC interpreter containing the DEF FN (define func- 
tion) command long for a simple one-statement conver- 
sion. Here are such conversion statements. For those of 
you who need to convert hexadecimal or octal to 
decimal, these conversions are also included. I have even 
thrown in a decimal-to-binary function. 

Listing 1: Definitions for five base-conversion functions. The 
first statement defines the function for converting decimal to 
binary numbers. The second and third definitions give the func- 
tions for converting from decimal to hexadecimal and from 
hexadecimal to decimal numbers. Notice that the variable HX$ 
must be initialized for both of these. The last two statements 
define the functions for converting from decimal to-octal and 
from octal to decimal numbers. 

l.DEF FN DB#(D) = (D AND 1 ) + ( D AND 2)*5+(D AND 4)*25+ 
(D AND 8)*125+(D AND 16 )*625+ 
(D AND 32)*3125+(D AND 64)*15625+ 
(D AND 128)*78125 



2 .HX$="0123456789ABCDEF" 

DEF FN DH$(D)=MID$(HX$,(D AND -4096 )/4096+l- 
( D> 32767 )*16,1)+ 

MID$(HX$,(D AND 3840 )/255+l, 1 )+ 
MIDS(HXS,(D AND 240 )/16+l, 1 )+ 
MID$(EDC$,(D AND 15)+1,1) 



3.HX$="0123456789ABCDEF" 

DEF FN H$D(H$)=(INSTR(HX$,MID$(H$,1,1))-1)*4096+ 
( INSTR( HX$ , MID5( H$ , 2 , 1 ) )-l ) *256+ 
( INSTR( HX$ , MID$( HS , 3 , 1 ) )-l ) *16+ 
( INSTR( HX$ , MID$( H$ , 4, 1 ) )-l ) 



4. DEF FN DO#(D)=(D AND 7 )+( D AND 56)*1.25+ 
(D AND 448 )*1. 5625+ 
(D AND 3584)*1. 953125+ 
(D AND 28672 )*2. 44140625 



5. DEF FN 0$D(0$)=VAL(MID$(0$,1,1))*3276+ 
VAL( MIDS( 0$ , 2 , 1 ) )*4096+ 
VAL( MID$( 0$ , 3 , 1 ) )*512+ 
VAL( MID$( 0$ , 4 , 1 ) )*64+ 
VAL( MID$( 0$ , 5 , 1 ) )*8+ 
VAL(MID$(0$,6,1)) 



These functions can also be used as subroutines by 
those without the DEF FN command. An AND-statement 
is necessary, because it performs a logical-AND opera- 
tion which is used in all three routines to convert decimal 
to the various other bases. 

The first function, which I call FNDB#, returns the 
binary equivalent of the argument as an eight-digit in- 
teger. 

The hexadecimal equivalent of the argument is return- 
ed by the second function, FNDH$, as a four-character 
string with leading zeros. Arguments greater than 32767 
(7FFF hexadecimal) must be signed; ie: reduced by 65536. 
For a 1-byte conversion, only the second half of the func- 
tion is necessary. 

My third function, called FNH$D, converts the argu- 
ment, which must be a four-character string, into its 
decimal equivalent. In this function, the INSTR com- 
mand is employed; if your BASIC does not have it, it is 
easily replaced with a BASIC subroutine. Its function is 
to return the position in the first string at which the sec- 
ond string begins. FNH$D can also be made into a 1-byte 
routine by using its second half. Both FNH$D and 
FNDH$ require HX$ to be initialized. 

The final two functions for decimal-to-octal conver- 
sions (FNDO# and FNO$D) work similarly to their hexa- 
decimal counterparts. ■ 



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November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 145 



The 

Brains of Men 

and Machines 



by Ernest W. Kent 

When the "Brains of Men and 
Machines" series of articles originally 
appeared in BYTE magazine, the re- 
sponse was immediate and enthusiastic. 
Now Ernest W. Kent has expanded his 
ideas about the brain into a full-length 
book. 

As researchers begin to unravel the 
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Three-Dimensional Graphics 
for the Apple II 



Many articles have been written 
regarding three-dimensional graphics 
on home computers. Some involve 
highly complex hardware such as 
spinning mirrors, while others rely 
upon computation-intensive software 
to project three-dimensional objects 
on a two-dimensional plane. 

Taking an innovative step back- 
wards and rediscovering an old tech- 
nique, I have been able to create 
three-dimensional pictures using my 
Apple II computer. I have generated 
a number of visually stimulating dis- 
plays in this manner and would like 
to share with you the methods used, 
with the hope that you too will dis- 
cover new ways to use your com- 
puter. 

The method is simple. Just take a 
piece of cardboard, and with a pair 
of scissors, cut out a pair of eyeglass 
frames. Next, put a red filter over the 
left eye opening in the frame and a 
green filter over the right opening (I 
did say it was an old idea!). When 
viewing the screen with the glasses 
on, anything colored red will not be 
visible to your right eye, and any- 
thing green will not be visible to your 
left eye (you may have to adjust the 
tint on your television to optimize 
this). Anything white will be visible 
to both eyes. 

148 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Dan Sokol 

John Shepard 

211 Fall Creek Dr 

Felton CA 95018 



The image that falls on the retina of 
your right eye will be the green image 
on the video monitor, but it will 
appear to be white! (It's all done in 
your brain.) The same is true of the 
red image in relation to your left eye. 
(We will refer to the red image in our 
software as violet. This is because the 
Apple HI-RES graphics cannot gen- 
erate red.) [However, see "More 
Colors for Your Apple," by Allen 
Watson III, June 1979 BYTE, page 
60... RSS] 

Creating an Image 

As you can see by figures la and 
lb, an image that seems to appear in 
front of the screen can be made by 
drawing the green image to the left of 
the red one. An image that appears 
behind the screen is simulated by 
placing the green image to the right of 
the red one. The apparent depth is 
determined by the distance between 
the two colored images. 

It should be mentioned that the 
brain requires a frame of reference to 
judge distance "properly." An effi- 
cient way to provide this reference is 
to put a white border around the 
screen. This will define the neutral 
plane. Naturally, any objects on this 
plane need be drawn only once in 
white. 



The program in listing 1 generates a 
set of lines which appear to disappear 
into the distance. 

Another simple program is present- 
ed in listing 2. This one generates a 
three-dimensional box. 

Using the shape-generator pro- 
grams provided by Apple, the user 
can make objects appear to be 
various sizes and depths. This effect 
can be seen by running the program 
in listing 3. 

You can place as many objects in 
space as you have room for. There 
are, however, some guidelines. 

• You should draw your images 
from back to front. This way any 
overwriting will look natural. 

• As you approach the neutral 
plane, the two images get closer 
together. Any place that they are 
coincident should be white. This 
can be handled with software. (I 
didn't say easily.) 

• Using other colors generates an 
unbalanced image in the neutral 
plane — you experiment. 

• You will have to adjust your color 
television set to match the color of 
the filters that are being used. The 
best way to do this is to draw a 
small green square and a small red 
square on the screen. Then place a 

Text continued on page 154 



If you 

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be sorry 




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But here's the fact that's going to stand the 
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Now that's revolutionary, 
but that's only the beginning. 
The MX-80 also prints bidirec- 
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The world's first disposable print 
head. It has a life expectancy of over 50 
million characters, yet it's so simple, 
you can change it with one hand. And it 
costs less than - repeat less than -$30. 




and maximize throughput. It prints 96 ASCII, 
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If it sounds like we're proud of the MX-80, we 
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EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA, INC. 



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Circle 93 on inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 149 






X0 = Y0 


5 


INIT = 


10 


BLACK 


100 


CALL 


150 


REM 


200 


C0LR = 


205 


X0 = 1 : 


250 


REM 


251 


REM 


252 


REM 


500 


REM 


510 


C0LR = 


520 


C0LR = 


550 


END 



CALL LINE 



Listing 1: This Apple integer BASIC program generates three-dimensional lines disappearing into infinity. 

COLR=SHAPE=ROT= SCALE 
2048:CLEAR=2062:PLOT=2830:LINE=2836:DRAW=2871 :XDRAW=2884 
=0:WHITE=127:VI0LET=85: LET GREEN=42 
INIT: POKE -16302,0: 

BUILD THE BORDER 
WHITE:X0=0:YO=0: CALL PLOT:XO=279: CALL LINE:Y0=191: CALL LINE:X0=0: CALL LINE:Y0=0: 
YO=1: CALL PL0T:X0=278: CALL LINE:YO=190: CALL LINE:XO=1: CALL LINE:YO=1: CALL LINE 



LINES TO INFINITY 

VIOLET:XO=25:YO=180: CALL PLOT: X0 = 260 :YO=20 : CALL LINE:XO = 70 :Y0=180 : CALL LINE 

GREEN:XO=60: CALL PLOT:XO=270 :YO=20 : CALL LINE:X0=1 :Y0=1 80 : CALL LINE 



Listing 2: An Apple integer BASIC program for generating a three-dimensional box. 

XO=Y0=COLR=SHAPE=ROT=SCALE 

5 INIT=2048:CLEAR=2062:PL0T=2830:LINE=2836: DRAW =2871 :XDRAW=2884 
10 BLACK=0:WHITE=127:VIOLET=85: LET GREEN=42 
100 CALL INIT: POKE -16302,0: 
150 REM BUILD THE BORDER 

200 C0LR=WHITE:XO=0:Y0=0: CALL PL0T:X0=279: CALL LINE:Y0=191: CALL LINE:XO=0: CALL LINE:YO=0: CALL LINE 
205 X0=1:Y0=1: CALL PL0T:X0=278: CALL LINE:Y0=190: CALL LINE:X0=1: CALL LINE:Y0=1: CALL LINE 

600 REM 

601 REM 

602 REM 

603 REM A BOX 

610 COLR=WHITE:XO=150:YO=50: CALL PLOT:XO=250: CALL LINE:Y0=150: CALL LINE:XO=150 

615 COLR=GREEN:YO=75:XO=40: CALL LINE 

620 X0=140: CALL LINE: X0=250 :Y0=50 : CALL LINE 

622 XO=250:YO=150: CALL PLOT 

625 X0=140:Y0=175: CALL LINE:X0=40: CALL LINE:X0=1 50 :Y0=150 : CALL LINE:X0=40 : Y0=175 : CALL PLOT 

630 Y0=75: CALL LINE:XO=140: CALL PL0T:Y0=175: CALL LINE 

635 X0=41 :Y0=75: CALL PLOT: Y0=1 75 : CALL LINE:X0 = 141: CALL PL0T:Y0=75: CALL LINE 

637 C0LR=VI0LET 

640 XO=30:YO=185: CALL PL0T:Y0=85: 

642 X0=250:YO=150: CALL LINE 

645 XO=130:YO=185: CALL PLOT:XO=30: CALL LINE 

650 XO=150:YO=150: CALL LINE:XO=30 :Y0=85 : CALL PLOT: X0=1 50 :YO=50 : CALL LINE 

660 XO = 130:YO=85: CALL PLOT: X0=250 :Y0=50 : CALL LINE 

680 END 



CALL LINE:Y0=50: CALL LINE 



CALL LINE:XO=130: CALL LINE: Y0= 1 85 : CALL LINE 



Listing 3: This program uses the shape stored in the Apple II shape table and transforms it into three-dimensional form. 



o 

5 
10 
100 
150 
200 
205 
250 
700 
701 
710 
800 
801 
802 
805 
810 
820 
830 
840 
999 



X0=Y0=C0LR=SHAPE=R0T=SCALE 

INIT=2048:CLEAR=2062:PLOT=2830:LINE=2836:DRAW=2871 :XDRAW=2884 

BLACK=0:WHITE=127:VIOLET=85: LET GREEN=42 

CALL INIT: POKE -16302,0: 

REM BUILD THE BORDER 

COLR=WHITE:XO=0:YO=0: CALL PL0T:X0=279: CALL LINE:Y0=191 



CALL LINE:XO=0: CALL LINE:Y0=0: CALL LINE 



X0=1:Y0=1: CALL PL0T:X0=278: CALL LINE:Y0=190: CALL LINE:X0=1: CALL LINE:Y0=1: CALL LINE 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 3-D SQUARES 

REM USE SHAPE #1 

REM SHAPE #1 = 01 01 24 3F 3F 36 36 2D 2D 24 00 

ROT=0:SCALE=1 :SHAPE=1 :X0=5:Y0=5 

FOR 1=1 TO 7:SCALE=I:C0LR=GREEN:X0=X0+(I»4) :Y0=Y0+(I»4) 

CALL XDRAW:C0LR=VI0LET:X0=X0+I:Y0=Y0+I: CALL XDRAW : NEXT I 

XO=XO+32:YO=90:COLR=GREEN:SCALE=SCALE+2: CALL XDRAW: COLR=VIOLET: Y0=Y0+8 :X0=X0+8 : CALL XDRAW 

X0=X0+42:Y0=Y0-42:C0LR=GREEN:SCALE=SCALE+2: CALL XDRAW :C0LR=VI0LET: Y0=Y0+9 :X0=X0+9 : CALL XDRAW 

END 



Editor's Note: 

Some Comments on the Programs 

The three programs in this 
article assume that the high- 
resolution graphics routines have 
been loaded into the Apple II start- 
ing at hexadecimal location COO. 
The instruction LOMEM-A096 
should be executed before loading 
the programs to protect these 
routines. 

When I was typing these pro- 



grams into the Apple, I noticed 
that line 10 of each listing has the 
statement LET GREEN = 42. At 
the time I could not understand 
why the LET keyword was used, 
so I deleted it. Several syntax 
errors later I realized the answer. 

When "GREEN = 42" is parsed 
by the BASIC interpreter, the 
token GR (for graphics mode) is 
recognized. The rest of the line 
(EEN = 42) is then unrecognizable 



to the parser. When "LET GREEN 
= 42" is analyzed, the keyword 
LET tells the parser that the next 
token will be a variable. 
Therefore, GREEN is not broken 
into two tokens (GR and EEN). 

This little trick could prove very 
useful when you wish to use a 
variable name which contains a 
keyword. 



150 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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MICRO 

SYSTEMS 



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See us at Comdex '80 Nov. 18-21, 1980 Las Vegas Convention Center. 



BYTE Novate 1M0 151 



Today one dollar buys 
% of a business phone call. 




Today one dollar buys 

6V* readers who actually see 

your sales message. 




As your selling dollar buys 
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By helping 10.8 million readers solve 
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In times like these, when everything 
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McGraw-Hill Magazines 

With inflation, 
we're an even better buy 



(la) 



RED IMAGE 



X 
I 

II 
II 
I I 
I I 



N.,'!/" 



QREEN IMAGE 



I I 
I I 

I I 



VIRTUAL 
OBJECT 



SCREEN 



RED FILTER 



I 



-♦ *-< GREEN FILTER 




OBSERVER 



Figure 1: A figure which appears to be behind the video screen can be produced by 
drawing the red image on the left side of the screen and the green image on the right side 
(see figure la). By reversing these two images, the image will appear to be in front of the 
video screen (see figure lb). 



(lb) 



GREEN IMAGE 



RED FILTER 




RED IMAGE 



SCREEN 



VIRTUAL 
OBJECT 



— — 1 GREEN FILTER 



OBSERVER 



Text continued from page 148: 
piece of the green filter over the red 
square and a piece of the red filter 
over the green square. Adjust the 
tint, chrominance (if you have 
one), and color knobs so that both 
squares disappear (as much as 
possible. . .you may have to double 
up the filters). 

• If you aren't worried about using 
your color television for other 
entertainment, you can make the 
following adjustments to it. On the 
back of the set are three controls 
that are (usually) labeled red, 
green, and blue (or R, G, B; or red 
screen, blue screen, green screen). 
These adjust the relative intensity 
of the three electron guns. If you 
first mark the initial positions of 
the three controls with a pencil, 

154 November 1M0 © BYTE Publication Inc 



you will be able to reset them when 
you are finished. The adjustment is 
simple. Turn the blue screen off! 
This removes all the blue dots from 
the screen, only red and green 
remain. After adjusting the tele- 
vision as described in the previous 
step, reverse the positions of the 
filters (red over red, green over 
green) and adjust the red screen so 
that the intensity of the two 
squares through the filters appears 
the same. 
• We used colored cellophane, 
available at most art supply stores, 
for filters. 

There are a number of games that 
can be adapted to three-dimensional 
displays with this technique. Have 
fun!B 



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2366. 

KENTUCKY: JtNamotown. Loonam Associates (502) 499-8280 
LOUISIANA: Mandevllle, W. A. Brown Instruments. Inc (504) 626-9701 
MARYLAND: Baltimore, Hamilton Avnet Electronics (301) 796-5000: 
Weslwood Associates (301) 356-7812; Gallhenourg, Leasametric (301) 
948-9700; Lanham, Data Access Systems (301 ) 459-3377 

MASSACHUSETTS: Cambridge, Compuman Corporation (61 7) 491 -2700: 
Naadham. J J Wild, Inc (617) 444-2366. Norwood, Data Access Sys- 
tems (617) 769-6420; Woburn. Hamilton Avnet Electronics (617) 273- 
7500, Leasametric (617) 935-7780 

MICHIGAN: Ann Arbor, Compuman Corporation (313) 994-3200; Livonia, 
Hamilton Avnet Electronics (313) 522-4700; Troy. Data Access Systems 
(313)589-1409, 

MINNESOTA: Buratvlllo. Leasametnc (612) 894-6060: Edina, Hamilton 
Avnet Electronics (612) 941 -3801 ; Minneapolis, Loonam Associates (612) 
831-1616 

MISSOURI: Earth City, Hamilton Avnet Electronics (314) 344-1200. St. 
Louts, Inland Associates (314) 621-3742: Loonam Associates (314) 427- 
7272 

NEBRASKA: Omaha, Loonam Associates (402) 333-5502 
NEW HAMPSHIRE: Merrimack. J. J Wild. Inc (603) 424-4717 
NEW JERSEY: Allendale, Leasametric (201) 825-9000; Bogota, Qytel 
(201)487-7737. Cherry Hill, The Dalastore, Inc (609) 779-0200; Hamil- 
ton Avnet Electronics (609) 424-0100. Clnnamlnaon, Westwood Associ- 
ates (609) 829-7280; Fairlleld, Hamilton Avnet Electronics (201 ) 575- 
3390 Motawan, David Jamison Carlyle Corporation (201) 946-9669. 
Mountain Lakes. Data Access Systems (201 ) 335-3322. Palisades Park, 
Oala Access Syslems (201 ) 944 2005; Roielle, TSC Data Terminals (201 ) 
245-6333; Sprlngtleld. Westwood Associates (201) 376-4242. Union. 
Transnet Corporation (201 ) 688-7800 

NEW MEXICO: Albuquerque. Data Systems Marketing (505) 294-5790. 
PLS Associates. Inc (505) 255-2330 

NEW YORK: Falrporl, Data Access Systems (716) 377 2080. Great Neck, 
MTI Sales Corporation (212) 896-7177; Mollis, Synchro-Sound Enter- 
prises (212) 468-7067, Latham, J. Cameron Associates. Inc (518) 371- 
5947; Melville, Hamilton Avnet Electronics (516) 454 6060. New York, 
Byte Shop East, Inc 1212) 889-4204; Data Access Systems (212) 564- 
9301;Leasametric(212)594-6900;JohnD OwensAssociates, Inc (212) 
448-6283: Qytel (212) 889-3888, Plttiford. J Cameron Associates, Inc 
(716) 386-1681: Plilnvlew, Leasametnc (516) 293 5881 Rochester. 
Hamilton Avnet Electronics (716)475-9130; East Syracuse. Hamilton Av- 
net Electronics (315) 437-2641; Syracuse, Leasametric (315) 455-561 1 

NORTH CAROLINA: Durham, W. A. Brown Instruments. Inc (919) 683- 
1560 

OHIO: Cincinnati, Interactive Information Systems (513) 761-0132; Cleve- 
land, Data Access Systems (216) 473-2131; Hamilton Avnet Electronics 
(216) 831-3500, MTI Systems (216) 464-6688; Pro-Data Corporation 
(216) 229-8100. Dayton, Hamilton Avnet Electronics (513) 433-0610. 
Leasametric (513) 898-1707. 

OREGON: Bend, Data Systems Marketing (503) 388-3612; Hlllaboro. Data 
Systems Marketing (503) 640-4863 

PENNSYLVANIA: Alton, MLPI Newcorp Products. Inc. (215) 485-8180. 
Bala Cynwyd, Data Access Systems (215) 667-8315; Folerotl, Leasame 
trie (215) 583-2000: Huntingdon Valley. Marketline Syslems. Inc (215) 
947-6670. 

SOUTH CAROLINA: Columbia, W A Brown Instruments. Inc 1803) 798- 
8070 

TENNESSEE: Dak Ridge. W A. Brown Instruments. Inc (615) 482-5761 
TEXAS: Austin. Hamilton Avnet Electronics (512) 837-8911. Dallas, 
Leasametric (214) 661-9193; Houston, CMC Marketing Corporation (713) 
995-4960: Data Access Systems (713) 682-5965. Hamilton Avnet Elec- 
tronics (713) 780-1 771 ; Leasametric (713) 977-5990: Irving, Data Access 
Systems (214) 256-5536; Hamilton Avnet Electronics (214) 661-8204 
UTAH: Silt Lata City. Data Systems Marketing (801 ) 487-8281 , Hamilton 
Avnet Electronics (801 ) 972-2600; PLS Associates. Inc (801 ) 466-8729 

VIRGINIA: Newport News. Atlantic Communications (604) 380-8498; 
Sterling. Comsel Corporation (703) 525-5689. Vienna. Comsel Corpora- 
tion (703) 938-5264. 

WASHINGTON: Bellevue, Hamilton Avnel Electronics (206) 643-3950; 
Sothell, Data Systems Marketing 1206) 487-3571 : Redmond, Consoli- 
dated Data Terminals (206) 883-0100; Leasametric (206) 883-6510; 
Tukwlla, Data Access Systems (206) 251-5070 
WISCONSIN: Milwaukee. Hamilton Avnet Electronics (414) 784-4510: Pe- 
ripheral Support, Inc (414) 774-1000; Waukotha, Loonam Associates 
(414) 548-9790 



Smart 




Your Hazeltine 

distributor has all 

the terminals 

you need. 



You can save time by taking all your TTY terminal needs to one source 
— your local Hazeltine distributor. Right in your neighborhood, your 
distributor offers the same quality, the same service and the same 
comprehensive warranty program that you would get by contacting 
Hazeltine directly. 

The Hazeltine distributor can give you easy 
access to a broad selection of Hazeltine 
products, including the economical 
Hazeltine 1400/1500 series of conversational 
and editing terminals, the high performance 
Modular One family, and — soon — 
the new Hazeltine Executive 80™ line 
of sophisticated smart terminals. 
An experienced sales professional, 
your local distributor is ready to 
provide full product and application 
support. 

Most important, each of our autho- 
rized distributors has Hazeltine's full 
support. You will find that Hazeltine's 
entire field and factory organization 
supports the distributor when you 
need delivery, warranty service, or 
even just the answer to a question. 

Be a smart shopper. Call your near- 

est Hazeltine distributor — part of our 
winning team for the eighties. 

Hazeltine Corporation, 
Computer Terminal Equipment, 
Greenlawn, NY 11740. 
(516) 549-8800 Telex: 96-1435 

Hazeltine and the Pursuit of Excellence 



Answers for 
the Eighties 





economy 



Hazeltin 

1500 Seri 






Circle 95 on inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 155 



No. 17 

Software with 
full support 

Purchasing our software is just the 
beginning. We then back it up with 
professional support: 
■ Subscription to "LIFELINES" for automatic 
notifications of revisions! ■ Update service for 
software and documentation! ■ Telephone 
Hotline! Overseas software export service! 



with /«. 
Annual / Al 



All Lifeboat programs require CP/M, 
unless otherwise stated. 






$v/ 



Mis, 



/JW* 



G CP/M* FLOPPY DISK OPERATING SYS- 
TEM— Digital Research's operating system 
configured for many popular micro-computers 
and disk systems: 

System Version Price 

Apple II* 2.x . . . .349/25 

SoftCard* with Z80 

Microsoft BASIC version 5 

with high resolution 

graphics 
North Star Single Density . . 2.x . . . .170/25 

North Star Double/Quad ... 2.x 170/25 

Durango F-85 2.x .. . .170/25 



CDISILOG — As DISTEL to Zilog/Mostek 

® mnemonic files S65/S10 

® 

I SMAL/80 Structured Macro Assembler 
® Language— Package of powerful general 
purpose text macro processor and SMAL 
structured language compiler. SMAL is an as- 
sembler language with IF-THEN-ELSE, 
LOOP-REPEAT-WHILE, DO-END, BEGIN- 
END constructs $75/$15 

PHOENIX SOFTWARE ASSOCIATES 

HPASM* — Z80 macro assembler, Intel/TDL 
©mnemonics. Generates Intel hex format or re- 
locatable code in either TDL Object Module 
format or PSA Relocatable Binary Module for- 
mat. Supports text insertion, conditional 
branching within macros, recursive macro calls 

and parameter passing $129/525 

E I EDIT— Character oriented text file editor. In- 

© eludes macro definition capabilities. Handles 

insertion, deletion, searching, block move, etc. 

for files of any length. Does not require a 

CRT. S129/S25 

L ] PLINK*— Two pass disk-to-disk linkage edi- 
© tor/loader which can produce re-entrant, 



iCOM Micro-Disk 241 1 1 .4 . . . .145/25 

iCOM 3712 for MITS 

88-2SIO Console 1 .4 . . . .170/25 * 

iCOM 3712 for 

3P+S/MITS SIO 

Rev non-zero console . . . 1 .4 . . . .170/25 * 

JCOM3812 14. . .170/25* 

Mits 3202/Altair 8800 1 .4 . . . .145/25 

Heath H8 - H17 1.4 ... .145/25 ® 

Heath H89 1.4... .145/25 ® 

Heath H89 by Magnolia .... 2.x .. . .300/25 O 

Ohio Scientific C3 2.x 200/25 

Onyx C8001 Standard 2.x .. . .250/25 

Onyx C8001 Enhanced .... 2.x .. . .330/25 

TRS-80 Model I 1 .4 . . . .145/25 ® 

TRS-80 Model II 2.x 170/25 ^ ROMable code. Can link programs that are 



2.x. 



250/25 



TRS-80 Model II * Corvus 
Processor Technology 

Helios II 1.4.. . .145/25 

Intel MDS Single Density ... 2.x 170/25 

Intel MDS Double Density . . 2.x . . . .170/25 

Mtcropolis Mod I 2.x .. . .200/25 ® 

Micropolis Mod II 2.x .. . .200/25 ® 

Mostek MDX STD 

Bus System 2.x .. . .350/25 ** 

The following configurations are scheduled for 

release soon: 

North Star Double/Quad 

+ Corvus 2.x .. . .250/25 

Ohio Scientific C3-C 2.x 250/25 

iCOM 3812 2.x .. . .225/25 ' 

iCOM 451 1/Pertec D3000 . . 2.x . . . .375/25 * i 
Software consist - of the operating system, text 
editor, assembler, debugger and other utilities 
for file management and system maintenance. 
Complete set of Digital Research's documen- 
tation and additional implementation notes in- 
cluded. Systems marked * and ** include firm- 
ware on 2708 and 2716. Systems marked + in- 
clude 5440 media charge. Systems marked 
® require the special ® versions of soft- 
ware in this catalog. O includes hardware ad- 
dition to allow our standard versions of 
software to run under it. 
□ Z80 DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE-Consists 
® of: (1) disk file line editor, with global inter and 
© intra-line facilities; (2) Z80 relocating assem- 
bler, Zilog/Mostek mnemonics, conditional as- 
sembly and cross reference table capabilities; 
(3) linking loader producing absolute Intel hex 

disk file $95/$20 

DZDT— Z80 Monitor Debugger to break and 

®examine registers with standard Zilog/ 

© Mostek mnemonic disassembly displays. $35 

when ordered with Z80 Development 

Package $50/$10 



r 1 ca 



jp> 



arger than available memory for execution 
rgeted on another machine. Full library 
capabilities. Input can be PSA Relocatable Bi- 
nary Module, TDL Object Module or Microsoft 
REL files. Output can be a COM file, Intel hex 
file. TDL Object Module or PSA Relocatable 

file S129/S25 

DBUQ* and ^BUG* — Z80 interactive machine 

©level debugging tools for program develop- 

^l ment. BUG has full symbolic trace and interac- 

y tive assembly (mnemonics compatible with 

PASM). Dynamic breakpoints and conditional 

traps while tracing (even through ROM!). ^BUG 

is a subset of BUG and is used in memory 

limited situations $129/$25 



DIGITAL RESEARCH 

II MP/M- Installed for single density MDS-800. 
Multi-processing derivative of the CP/M op- 
erating system. Manual includes CP/M2 
documentation $300/550 

□ MAC— 8080 Macro assembler. Full Intel macro 
©definitions. Pseudo Ops include RPC, IRP, 

REPT, TITLE, PAGE, and MACLIB. Produces 

absolute hex output plus symbol table file for 

use by SID and ZSID (see below) . ,$120/$15 

CSID— 8080 Symbolic debugger. Full trace, 

©pass count and breakpoint program testing. 

Has backtrace and histogram utilities. When 

used with MAC, provides full symboiic display of 

memory labels and equated values ,$105/$15 

GZSID— Z80 Symbolic debugger with all fea- 

©turesof SID $130/$15 

© 

[""! TEX — Text output formatter to create paginat- 

® ed, page-numbered and justified copy. Output 

can be directed to printer or disk . . $105/$15 

□ DESPOOL— Utility program to permit simulta- 
© neous printing from text files while executing 

other programs $80/$10 

Li tiny C — Interactive interpretive system tor 
©teaching structured programming techniques. 
Manual includes full source listings ,$105/$50 
Q BDS C COMPILER — Supports structures, 
® unions, 2 dimensional arrays, pointers, recur- 
© sion and overlays. Features optimized code 
, j generator, variablesized buffers for file I/O, and 

,^^y capability to produce ROMable code. Includes 

As XASM-68 for RCA 1 °P*= ^ ay macro package to enable user to produce Itnk- 
'-' 1Jl '' ' : '' able modules with MAC (see under Digital Re- 
search). Floating point functions, full run-time 
package and machine code library sources 
provided. Linker, library manager and textbook 
included. Compiler lacks initializers, statics, 
floats and longs $145/$25 



AVOCET SYSTEMS 

LJ XASM-68— Non-macro cross-assembler with 
nested conditionals and full range of pseudo 
operations. Assembles from standard Motorola 
MC6800 mnemonics to Intel hex . . ,$200/$25 

Pi XASM-65- As XASM-68 for MOS Technology 
MCS-6500 series mnemonics $200/$25 

LJ XASM-48- As XASM-68 for Intel MCS-48 and 
UPI-41 families $200/$25 



□ DISTEL— Disk based disassembler to Intel 
8080 orTDL/Xitan Z80 source code, listing and 
cross reference files, Intel or TDL/Xitan pseudo 
ops optional. Runs on 8080 $65/$10 



WHITESMITHS C COMPILER- The ultimate 
©in systems software tools. Produces faster 
® code than a pseudo-code Pascal with more 
extensive facilities. Conforms to the full UNIX* 
Version 7 C language, described by Kernighan 
and Ritchie, and makes available over 75 func 
tions for performing I/O, string manipulation 
and storage allocation. Linkable to Microsoft 
REL files Requires 60K CP/M $630/$30 

MICROSOFT 

H BASIC-80- Disk Extended BASIC, ANSI 

©compatible with long variable names, 

® WHILE/WEND, chaining, variable length file 

records. MBASIC version 4.51 also included on 

disk $325/$25 

□ BASIC COMPILER— Language compatible 
©with BASIC-80 and 3-10 times faster execution. 
® Produces standard Microsoft relocatable bi- 
nary output. Includes MACRO-80. Also linkable 
to FORTRAN-80 or COBOL-80 code 

modules $350/$25 

_TFORTRAN-80-ANSI 66 (except for COM- 

© PLEX) plus many extensions. Includes relocat- 

® able object compiler, linking loader, library with 

manager. Also includes MACRO-80 (see 

below) $425/$25 

:~ COBOL-80- Level 1 ANSI 74 standard plus 
©most of Level 2. Full sequential, relative, and 
@ indexed file support with variable file names. 
Powerful interactive, formatted screen handling 
with ACCEPT and DISPLAY verbs. Program 
segmentation for execution of programs larger 
than memory and CHAIN command with pa- 
rameter passing. Full support of CP/M version 
2 files. Includes MACRO-80 (see above), link- 
ing loader, and relocatable library manager. 

Requires 48K CP/M $700/$25 

, I MACRO-80 — 8080/Z80 Macro Assembler. 

CD Intel and Zilog mnemonics supported. Relocat- 

®able linkable output. Loader, Library Manager 

and Cross Reference List utilities 

included $149/$15 

XMACRO-86— 8086 cross assembler. All 
© Macro and utility features of MACRO-80 pack- 
age. Mnemonics slightly modified from Intel 
ASM86. Compatibility data sheet 

available $275/$25 

[ ] EDIT-80 — Very fast random access text editor 

© for text with or without line numbers. Global and 

intra-line commands supported. File compare 

utility included $89/$15 

i j PASCAL/M*— Compiles enhanced Standard 
® Pascal to compressed efficient Pcode. Totally 
CP/M compatible. Random access files. Both 
16 and 32-bit Integers. Runtime error recovery. 
Convenient STRINGS. OTHERWISE clause on 
CASE. Comprehensive manual (90 pp. inde- 
xed). SEGMENT provides overlay structure. 
IN PORT, OUTPORT and untyped files for arbi- 
trary I/O. Requires 56K CP/M. Specify 1) 8080 
CP/M 2) Z80 CP/M, or 3) Cromemco 

CDOS $175/$20 

[JPASCAL/Z-Z80 native code PASCAL com- 
© piler. Produces optimized, ROMable re-entrant 
© code. All interfacing to CP/M is through the 
support library. The package includes compiler, 
relocating assembler and linker, and source 
for all library modules. Variant records, strings 
and direct I/O are supported. Requires 56K 

CP/M $395/$25 

Li PASCAL/MT- Subset of standard PASCAL. 
® Generates ROMable 8080 machine code. 
©Symbolic debugger included. Supports inter- 
rupt procedures, CP/M file I/O and assembly 
language interface. Real variables can be BCD, 
software floating point, or AMD 951 1 hardware 
floating point. Includes strings enumerations 
and record data types. Manual explains BASIC- 
PASCAL conversion. Requires 32K ,$250/$30 
i APL/V80— Concise and powerful language for 
© application software development. Complex 
programming problems are reduced to simple 
expressions in APL. Features include up to 27K 
active workspace, shared variables, arrays of 
up to 8 dimensions, disk workspace and copy 
object library. The system also supports auxil- 
iary processors for interfacing I/O ports. Re- 
quires 48K CP/M and serial APL printing termi- 
nal or CRT $500/$30 

Li ALGOL-60 — Powerful block-structured lan- 

©guage compiler featuring economical run-time 

® dynamic allocation of memory. Very compact 

(24K total RAM) system implementing almost 

all Algol 60 report features plus many powerful 

extensions including string handling direct disk 

address I/O etc $199/$20 

JCBASIC-2 Disk Extended BASIC-Non- 
® interactive BASIC with pseudo-code compiler 
and run-time interpreter. Supports full file con- 
trol, chaining, integer and extended precision 
variables, etc. Versions of CRUN for CP/M ver- 
sions 1.4 and 2.x included on disk. .$120/$15 

MICRO FOCUS 

I STANDARD CIS COBOL-ANSI 74 COBOL 
© standard compiler fully validated by U.S. Navy 
tests to ANSI level 1 . Supports many features to 
level 2 including dynamic loading of COBOL 
modules and a full ISAM file facility. Also, pro- 
gram segmentation, interactive debug and 
powerful interactive extensions to support pro- 
tected and unprotected CRT screen formatting 
from COBOL programs used with any dumb 

terminal $850/$50 

□ FORMS 2 — CRT screen editor. Output is 
© COBOL data descriptions for copying into CIS 
COBOL programs. Automatically creates a 
query and update program of indexed files 
using CRT protected and unprotected screen 
formats. No programming experience needed. 
Output program directly compiled by STAN- 
DARD CIS COBOL $200/$20 



[ ] NEVADA COBOL- Subset of ANSI-74. Fea- 
® tures fast compilation and execution with small 
object modules. Has extended arithmetic with 
ji18 digit accuracy Extended I/O includes ran- 
7^dom access files and sequential files of both 
\0)r fixed and variable length records, and interac- 
v*' tive accept/display verbs. Good error mes- 
\ sages and debugging facilities enhance pro- 
gram development. Requires a 32K CP/M 
system $149/$25 

EIDOS SYSTEMS 

KBASIC — Microsoft Disk Extended BASIC 
: ; version 4.51 integrated with KISS Mufti-Keyed 
Index Sequential and Direct Access file man- 
agement as 9 additional BASIC commands. 
KISS included as relocatable modules linkable 
to FORTRAN-80. COBOL-80, and BASIC 
COMPILER. Specify CP/M version 1,4 or 2.x 
when ordering. Requires 48K CP/M S585/$45 
To licensed users of Microsoft BASIC-80 
(MBASIC) $435/$45 



: iXYBASIC Interactive Process Control 
BASIC— Full disk BASIC features plus unique 
commands to handle byte rotate and shift and 
to test and set bits. Available in several ver- 
sions: 

Integer ROM squared $350/$25 

Integer CP/M $350/825 

Extended ROM squared $450/$25 

Extended CP/M $450/$25 

Extended Disk CP/M $550/325 

Integer CP/M Run Time Compiler . $350/$25 
Extended CP/M Run Time Compiler $450/$25 

I I RECLAIM— A utility to validate media under 
CP/M. Program tests a diskette or hard disk 
surface for errors, reserving the imperfections 
in invisible files, and permitting continued 
usage of the remainder. Essential for any hard 

disk. Requires CP/M version 2 $80/$5 

[ BASIC UTILITY DISK- Consists of: (1) 
® CRUNCH-14— Compacting utility to reduce 
the size and increase the speed of programs in 
Microsoft BASIC 4.51, BASIC-80 and TRS-80 
BASIC. (2) DPFUN — Double precision subrou- 
tines for computing nineteen transcendental 
functions including square root, natural log, log 
base 10, sine, arc sine, hyperbolic sine, hyper- 
bolic arc sine, etc. Furnished in source on dis- 
kette and documentation $50/535 

I STRING/80— Character string handling plus 
routines for direct CP/M BDOS calls from 
FORTRAN and other compatible Microsoft lan- 
guages. The utility library contains routines that 
enable programs to chain to a COM (tie, retrieve 
command line parameters and search file direc- 
tories with full wild card facilities. Supplied as 
linkable modules in Microsoft format $95/$20 
STRING/80 source code available 
separately- 5295/NA 

DTME STRING BIT-FORTRAN character 
® string handling. Routines to find, fill, pack, 
move, separate, concatenate and compare 
character strings. This package completely 
eliminates the problems associated with 
character string handling in FORTRAN 
Supplied with source $65/S15 

: ] VSORT— Versatile sort/merge system for fixed 
® length records with fixed or variable length 
fields. VSORT can be used as a stand-alone 
package or loaded and called as a subroutine 
from CBASIC-2. When used as a subroutine, 
VSORT maximizes the use of buffer space by 
saving the TPA on disk and restoring it on com- 
pletion of sorting. Records may be up to 255 
bytes long with a maximum of 5 fields Upper/ 
lower case translation and numeric fields 
supported $175/$20 

I CPM/374X — Has full range of functions to 
create or re-name an IBM 3741 volume, display 
directory information and edit the data set con- 
tents. Provides full file transfer facilities be- 
tween 3741 volume data sets and CP/M 
files $195/$10 



CPAids* 

MASTER TAX— Professional tax preparation 
© program. Prepares schedules A, B, C, D, E, F, 
t G, R/RR SE, TC, ES and forms 2106. 2119. 
2210. 3468, 3903, 2441, 4625, 4726, 4797, 
4972, 5695 and 6251. Printing can be on readily 
available, pre-printed continuous forms, on 
overlays, or on computer generated, IRS ap- 
proved forms. Maintains client history files and 
is interactive with CPAids GENERAL LEDGER 

II (see below) $995/$30 

Annual Update Fee $350 

STANDARD TAX — As above for schedules A, 

t B, C, D. E, G, R/RP, SE. TC and forms 2106 and 

2441. Also, does not maintain client history 

files $495/$30 

Annual Update Fee $175 

GENERAL LEDGER II- Designed for CPAs. 
t Stores complete 12 month detailed history of 
transactions. Generates financial statements, 
depreciation, loan amortizations, journals, trial 
balances, statements of changes in financial 
position, and compilation letters. Includes 
payroll system with automatic posting to gen- 
eral ledger, Prints payroll register, W2's and 
payroll checks $450/$30 



Lifeboat Associates, 1651 Third Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10028(212) 860-0300 Telex:220501 
Neu in der Schweiz Lifeboat Associates GmbH, Aegeristr 35 6340 Baar Telefon 042/31 2931 



Copyright © 1980 Lifeboat Associates. No por- 
tion of this advertisement may be reproduced 
without prior permission. __ 






35/jsr 






rf*^ 



T/MAKER — Powerful new tool for preparing 
management reports with tabular data. Makes 
financial modeling projects easy. Do you want a 
weekly profitability report? Set up the table and 
compute. Just change the sales figures for next 
week and compute. You have a new report! 
T/MAKER includes a full screen editor for 
setting up tables which pages left, right, up 
and down. Compute includes standard arith- 
metic, percents. exponents, common tran- 
scendental functions, averages, maxima, 
minima, projections, etc. Requires 48K CP/M, 
CBASIC-2, CRT Terminal with addressable 
cursor positioning $275/525 



[ I BSTAM— Utility to link one computer to another 
® also equipped with BSTAM. Allows file transfers 
at full data speed (no conversion to hex), with 
CRC block control check for very reliable error 
detection and automatic retry. We use it! It's 
great! Full wildcard expansion to send * . COM. 
etc. 9600 baud with wire. 300 baud with phone 
connection. Both ends need one. Standard and 
® versions can talk to one another. This 
software requires a knowledge of assembler 
language for installation $150/$10 

! BSTMS— Intelligent terminal program for . 

@»CP/M systems. Permits communication be-v\ 
tween micros and mainframes. Sends charac-f* 
ter data files to remote computers under com- 
plete control. System can record character data 
sent from remote computer systems and data 
banks Includes programs to EXPAND and 
COMPRESS binary files for transmission. This 
software requires a knowledge of assembler 
language for installation $200/S25 

[_: WHATSIT?* — Interactive data-base system 
using associative tags to retrieve information by 
subject. Hashing and random access used for 
fast response. Requires CBASIC-2 S175/S25 

i SELECTOR III-C2— Data Base Processor to 

J create and maintain multi-key data bases. 
Prints formatted sorted reports with numerical 
summaries or mailing labels. Comes with sam- 
ple applications, including Sales Activity, Inven- 
tory, Payables, Receivables. Check Register, 
and Client/Patient Appointments, etc. Requires 
CBASIC-2. Supplied in source . . . S295/S20 

; GLECTOR — General Ledger option to 
SELECTOR HI-C2. Interactive system provides 
for customized COA. Unique chart of transac- 
tion types insure proper double entry book- 
keeping. Generates balance sheets, P&L 
statements and journals. Two year record al- 
lows for statement of changes in financial posi- 
tion report. Supplied in source. Requires 
SELECTOR III-C2. CBASIC-2 and 56K 
system $350/$25 

DMA 

"! CBS— Configurable Business System is a 
t comprehensive set of programs for defining 
custom data files and application systems with- 
out using a programming language such as 
BASIC, FORTRAN, etc. Multiple key fields for 
each data file are supported. Set-up program 
customizes system to user's CRT and printer. 
Provides fast and easy interactive data entry 
and retrieval with transaction processing. 
Report generator program does complex calcu- 
lations with stored and derived data, record 
selection with multiple criteria, and custom for- 
mats. Sample inventory and mailing list sys- 
tems included No support language 
required S395/S40 



MICROPRO 

□ SUPER-SORT I — Sort, merge, extract utility as 
© absolute executable program or linkable mod- 
ule in Microsoft format. Sorts fixed or variable 
records with data in binary, BCD. Packed Deci- 
mal. EBCDIC, ASCII, floating & fixed point, ex- 
ponential, field justified, etc. Even variable 
number of fields per record! $225/$25 

, SUPER-SORT ||— Above available as abso- 
® lute program only S175/S25 

^SUPER-SORT III — As II without SELECT/ 
G EXCLUDE S125/S25 

[ DATASTAR— Professional forms control entry 
© and display system for key-to-disk data cap- 
ture. Menu driven with built-in learning aids. 
Input field verification by length, mask, attribute 
(i.e. uppercase, lowercase, numeric, auto-dup, 
etc.). Built-in arithmetic capabilities using keyed 
data, constant and derived values. Visual feed- 
back for ease of forms design. Files compatible 
with CP/M-MP/M supported languages. Re- 
quires 32K CP/M S350/S35 

_ WORD-STAR— Menu driven visual word pro- 
© cessing system for use with standard terminals. 
Text formatting performed on screen. Facilities 
for text paginate, page number, justify, center 
and underscore. User can print one document 
while simultaneously editing a second. Edit 
facilities include global search and replace, 
Read/Write to other text files, block move. etc. 
Requires CRT terminal with addressable cursor 
positioning S445/S40 

: WORD-STAR-MAIL-MERGE- As above with 

©option for production mailing of personalized 

documents with mail lists from DATASTAR or 

NAD $575/S40 

WORD-MASTER Text Editor— In one mode 
CD has superset of CP/M's ED commands includ- 
ing global searching and replacing, forwards 
and backwards in file in video mode, provides 
full screen editor for users with serial address- 
able-cursor terminal $145/825 



»*/ 



MAGIC WAND— Word processing system with 
simple, easy to use full screen text editor and 
powerful print processor. Editor has all standard 
editing functions including text insert and de- 
lete, global search and replace, block move and 
library files for boiler plate text. Print processor 
formatting commands include automatic mar- 
gins, pagination, headings 8 footings, centered 
and justified text. Also prints with true propor- 
tional spacing, merges with data files for au- 
tomatic form letters, and performs run-time 
conditional testing for varied output. Requires 
32K CP/M and CRT terminal with addressable 
cursor $395/$40 



[ ] TEXTWRITER III — Text formatter to justify and 
® paginate letters and other documents. Special 
features include insertion of text during execu- 
tion from other disk files or console, permitting 
recipe documents to be created from linked 
fragments on other files. Has facilities for sorted 
index, table of contents and footnote insertions. 
Ideal for contracts, manuals, etc. Now compati- 
ble with Electric Pencil* and Word-Star pre- 
pared files $125/$20 

DATEBOOK— Program to manage time just 
4 like an office appointment book but using the 
qM speed and memory of a computer. Keeps track 
of three appointment schedules (three dental 
chairs, three attorneys, etc.) at once. Appoint- 
ments consist of name, reason for the appoint- 
ment, the date and time, and the length of the 
appointment. System can be quickly cus- 
tomized for the individual user Many helpful 
features for making, changing, finding, and re- 
porting appointments. Requires 48K CP/M and 
1B0K bytes diskette storage. Not available for 
Apple CP/M $295/$25 

PEACHTREE SOFTWARE* 

I'. General accounting software for small busi- 

© nesses. Each product can be used alone or with 

t automatic posting to the general ledger. 

Supplied in source for Microsoft BASIC 4.51 . 

GENERAL LEDGER $530/840 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE $530/$40 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE $530/$40 

PAYROLL S530/$40 

INVENTORY $6607840 

l. I Other application products supplied in source 
© for Microsoft BASIC 4.51 . 

t MAILING ADDRESS $530/840 

PROPERTY MANAGEMENT S925/S40 

GRAHAM-DORIAN SOFTWARE 
SYSTEMS 

□ Comprehensive accounting software written in 
© CBASIC-2 and supplied in source code. Each 
® software package can be used as a stand- 
t alone system or integrated with the General 
Ledger for automatic posting to ledger ac- 
counts. Requires CBASIC-2. 

GENERAL LEDGER 8805/840 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 8805/840 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 8805/840 

INVENTORY SYSTEM 8555/840 

JOB COSTING $805/$40 

APARTMENT MANAGEMENT . . $805/540 
CASH REGISTER 8805/840 

POSTMASTER — A comprehensive package 
® for mail list maintenance that is completely 
menu driven. Features include keyed record 
extraction and label production. A form letter 
program is included which provides neat letters 
on single sheet or continuous forms. Includes 
NAD file translator. Requires CBASIC-2. 
S150/S20 

STRUCTURED SYSTEMS GROUP 

I ..! Complete interactive accounting software for 
t business. Each product can be used stand- 
alone or with automatic posting to the general 
ledger. Each product is thoroughly tested and 
very well documented. Each product requires 
CBASIC-2. 

GENERAL LEDGER 8820/840 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 8820/S40 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE S820/S40 

PAYROLL 8820/840 

INVENTORY CONTROL 8820/840 



NEWSLETTER 
FROM LIFEBOAT 

LIFELINES is the first step in software support for 
the serious microcomputer user Each issue 
reports new revisions together with information on 
the purpose for each such release, be it for correction 
of "bugs" or the addition of features and facilities. 

Feature Articles ! New Software ! Product 
Comparisons ! Info on CP/M Users Group ! 

SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION: 

$18 for twelve issues: U.S., Canada, and Mexico. 
$40 for twelve issues: all other countries. 
S2.50 for each back issue: U.S., Canada, and 
Mexico. 

$3.60 for each back issue: all other countries. 
Send Check to LIFELINES, 1 651 Third Avenue, 
New York. N.Y. 10028 or use your VISA or 
MASTERCARD-call (212) 722-1700 



"ANALYST— Customized data entry and report- 
t ing system. User specifies up to 75 data items 
per record. Interactive data entry, retrieval, 
and update facility makes information 
management easy. Sophisticated report 
generator provides customized reports using 
selected records with multiple level break- 
points for summarization. Requires a disk sort 
utility such as QSORT. SUPER-SORT or 

VSORT and CBASIC-2 S250/815 

LETTERIGHT— Program to create, edit and 
type letters or other documents. Has facilities to 
enter, display, delete and move text, with good 
video screen presentation. Designed to inte- 
grate with NAD for form letter mailings. Re- 
quires CBASIC-2 S200/S25 

'NAD Name and Address selection system — 
Interactive mail list creation and maintenance 
program with output as full reports with refer- 
ence data or restricted information for mail 
labels. Transfer system for extraction and trans- 
fer of selected records to create new files. Re- 
quires CBASIC-2 $100/820 

□ QSORT— Fast sort/merge program for files 
with fixed record length, variable field length 
information. Up to five ascending or descend- 
ing keys. Full back-up of input files created 
8100/820 

• ••**•* 

CONDIMENTS 



HEAD CLEANING DISKETTE- Cleans the 

drive Read/Write head in 30 seconds. Diskette 
absorbs loose oxide particles, fingerprints, and 
other foreign particles that might hinder the per- 
formance of the drive head. Lasts at least 3 
months with daily use. Specify 5" or 8 ". 

Single sided 820 each/855 for 3 

Double sided $25 each/865 for 3 

I "DC 300 Data Cartridges Specify 450 XL or 
300' certified. Pack of 5 8100 

Q FLIPPY DISK KIT- Template and instructions 
to modify single sided 5 1 k 'diskettes for use of 
second side in single sided drives $12.50 

l._ FLOPPY SAVER— Protection for center holes 
for 5" and 8" floppy disks. Only 1 needed per 
diskette. Kit contains centering post, pressure 
tool and tough 7 mil mylar reinforcing rings for 
25 diskettes. 

5 ", Kit $14.95 

5". Rings only $7.95 

8", Kit $16.95 

8", Rings only 88.95 

i PASCAL USER MANUAL AND REPORT- By 
Jensen and Wirth. The standard textbook on 
the language. Recommended for use by 
Pascal/2, Pascal/M and Pascal/MT users 812 



THE C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE- By 

Kernighan and Ritchie. The standard textbook 
on the language. Recommended for use by 
BDS C, tiny C, and Whitesmiths C users . .$12 
STRUCTURED MICROPROCESSOR PRO- 
GRAMMING-By the authors of SMAL/80. 
Covers structured programming, the 8080/ 
8085 instruction set and the SMAL/80 lan- 
guage $20 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE & ACCOUNTS 
RECEIVABLE-CBASIC-By Osborne/ 
McGraw-Hill $20 

GENERAL LEDGER-CBASIC-By 

Osborne/McGraw-Hill $20 

PAYROLL WITH COST ACCOUIMTING- 
CBASIC-byOsborne/McGraw-Hill $20 

* * * * * * 
Hearty Appetite. 

• • • • 

*CP/M and MP/M are trademarks of Digital Re- 
search. 

Z80 is a trademark of Zilog, Inc. 
UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories. 
WHATSIT? is a trademark of Computer Head- 
ware. 

Electric Pencil is a trademark of Michael 
Shrayer Software. 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 
Pascal/M is a trademark of Sorcim. 
SoftCard is a trademark of Microsoft. 
Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer. 
PASM. PLINK, BUG and M BUG are trademarks 
of Phoenix Software Associates Ltd. 
CPAids is a trademark of Computer Tax Ser- 
vice, Inc. 

MAGIC WAND is a trademark of Small Busi- 
ness Application, Inc. 

Peachtree Software is a trademark of Retail 
Sciences, Inc. 

jRecommended system configuration consists 
of 48K CP/M, 2 full stze disk drives, 24 x 80 CRT 
and 132 column printer. 

® Modified version available for use with CP/M as 
implemented on Heath and TRS-80 Model I 
computers. 

©User license agreement for this product must 
be signed and returned to Lifeboat Associates 
before shipment may be made. 

©This product Includes/eXcludes the language 
® manual recommended in Condiments. 

©Serial number of CP/M system must be 
supplied with orders. 

© Requires Z80 CPU. 



Ordering Information 



MEDIA FORMAT ORDERING CODES 
When ordering, please specify format code. 



LIFEBOAT ASSOCIATES MEDIA FORMATS LIST. Diskette, cartridge disk and cartridge tape 
format codes to be specified when ordering software for listed computer or disk systems. All 
software products have specific requirements in terms of hardware or software support, such as 
MPU type, memory size, support operating system or language. 



Computer system 



Format Code 
See MITS 3200 



Altair 8800 Disk 

Altos 

Apple + SoftCard l3Sector RG 

Apple - SoftCard 16 Sector RR 

AVL Eagle RB 

BASF System 7100 RD 

Slackbawk Single Densily Q3 

Blackhawk Micropolis Mod II . Q2 

CDS Versatile 3B Q1 

CDS Versatile 4 Q2 

COMPAL-80 Q2 

Cromemco System 3 A1 * 

Cromemco Z2D R6 

CSSN BACKUP (tape) T1 # 

Delta AT 

Digi-Log Microterm II RD 

Digital Microsystems A1* 

Discus , . .See Morrow Discus 

Durango F-85 RL 

Dynabyte DB8/2 Rl 

Dynabyle DBS/4 A1* 

Exidy Sorcerer ■ Lifeboai CP/M Q2 
Exidy Sorcerer - Exidy CP/M .Q4 

Heath H8 ■ H17/H27 P4 

Heath HB9 * Lifeboat CP/M P4 

Heath H89 ■ Magnolia CP/M . ,P7 
Helios II .See Processor Technology 

Horizon .See North Star 

iCOM 241 1 Micro Floppy R3 

ICOM3712 A1 

iCOM 3812 A1* 

Prices reflect distribution on 8" 
single density diskettes. If a 
format is requested which 
requires additional diskettes, a 
surcharge of $8. per additional 
diskette will be added. 
Prices FO.B. New York. 
Shipping, handling and C.O.D. 
charges extra. 

Manual cost applicable against 
price of subsequent software 
purchase. 

The sale of each proprietary 
software package conveys a 
license for use on one 
system only. 



WS4 



Computer systei 

(COM4511 5440 Cartridge 

CP/M 1.4 D1# 

ICOM4511 5440 Cartridge 

CP/M 2 2 D2# 

IMS 5000 RA 

IMS 8000 A1" 

IMSAI VDP-40 R4" 

IMSAI VDP-42 R4" 

IMSAI VDP-44 R5" 

IMSAI VDP-80 A1" 

Intecolor See ISC Intecolor 

Intel MDS Single Density A2 

Intel MDS Double Density A5 

Intertec SuperBrain DOS 0.1 R7 

Intertec SuperBrain DOS 5-2.X RJ 

Intertec SuperBrain DOS 3.X RK 

ISC Intecolor 8063/8360/8963 ,A1 

Kontron PSI-80 RF 

Meca5'it ' P6 

Micromation 

(Except TRS-80 below] AT 

Micropolis Mod I ,Q1 

Micropolis Mod II 02 

MITS 3200/3202 Bl 

Morrow Discus AT 

Mostek Al 

MSD 5V RC 

North Star Single Density Pi 

North Star Double/Quad P2 

Nylac Single Density Q3 

Nylac Micropolis Mod II Q2 

Ohio Scientific C3 A3 

Onyx C8001 T2# 

Perlec PCC 2000 A1" 

Processor Technology Helios II B2 

Quay 500 RO 

Quay 520 RP 

RAIR Single Density R9 

* Single-Side Single-Denstty disks 
are supplied for use with Double- 
Density and Double-Side 8 ' soft 
sector format systems. 

*" IMSAI formats are single densily 
with directory olfset of zero. 

# A media surcharge of S25 for or- 
ders on tape formats T1 and T2 and 
of S100 for orders on disk formats 
D1 and D2 will be added. 
The list ol available formats is sub- 
ject to change without notice. In 
case of uncertainty, call to confirm 
the format code for any particular 
equipment. 



Format Code Computer syster 



Form 



I Code 



See Exidy Sorcerer 

At 

See Intertec 



RAIR Double Densiiy 
Research Machines 8 
Research Machines 5' 

REX 

Sanco 7000 5'V . . . 
SD Systems 8" 
SD Systems 5 1 
Sorcerer .... 
Space byte . 
SuperBrain . . 

Tarbell . . A1 

TEI5Vi" R3 

TEI 8" A1 

Thinkertoys . See Morrow Discus 

TRS-80 Model I 3V«" R2 

TRS-80 Model I ■ FEC Freedom RN 
TRS-80 Model I ■ Micromation 

Omikron 5'a RM 
OmikronS A1 

Shuffleboard 8 A1 

TRS-80 Model II A1' 

VDP-40/42/44/80 See fMSAI 

Vector Graphic Q2 

Vector MZ Q2 

Versatile See CDS Versatile 

Vista V80 5'- a " Single Density PS 

Vista V200 SW Double Density .PS 
Zenith Z89 - Lifeboat CP/M . P4 
Zenith Z89 • Magnolia CP/M P7 



TRS-80 Model I 
TRS-80 Model I 
TRS-80 Model I 



A4* 



1 




tat Associates 

TIE 

SOFTWARE 

JtJPEi- 

MAMET 



Lifeboat Associates 

1651 Third Avenue, N.Y, N.Y. 10028 
(212)860-0300 



Product Review 



The Altos ACS8000 
Single-Board Computer 



Mark Dahmke 

1515 Superior St, Apt 15 

Lincoln NE 68521 



Altos Computer Systems of San 
Jose, California, manufactures a 
series of powerful Z80-based com- 
puters aimed mainly at the small- 
business and scientific-laboratory 
markets. The company offers a wide 
variety of models — from one 8-inch, 
single-density, Shugart floppy-disk 
drive with 32 K bytes of main 
memory to four double-density, 
8-inch floppy-disk drives, and a hard- 
disk subsystem with as much as 58 
megabytes of on-line storage. 

Hardware Design 

The ACS8000 series are all single- 
circuit-card computers based on a 
Z80A microprocessor running at 
4 MHz. All systems come with at 
least 32 K bytes of 4116 dynamic 
memory devices. This is expandable 
to 64 K bytes on two versions of the 
ACS8000, and to 208 K bytes on the 
third version. 

The system also comes with a 2708 
EPROM (erasable programmable 
read-only memory) that contains the 
ALTOS-E monitor program. The 
2708 is active until CP/M is boot- 
loaded: it is then disabled and disap- 
pears so the entire memory-address 
space is available as programmable 
memory. This technique is widely 
used and is referred to as "phantom 
read-only memory." 



About the Author 

Mark Dahmke is a a consulting editor for 
BYTE Publications and also operates a com- 
puter consulting business. He has been in- 
volved with computers since 1974 and does a 
great deal of systems hardware and software 
design. His interests include writing, 
photography, voice synthesis, and computer 
graphics. 



158 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Serial Ports 

Even the smallest Altos system 
comes with a dual-channel, serial I/O 
(input /output) device. One channel is 
used for the system console, and the 
other is set up to drive a printer or 
another device, such as a modem. 
The console channel is preset by the 
ALTOS-E monitor firmware to 9600 
bps, with 1 start bit, 1 stop bit, 8 data 
bits, and no parity. It runs in full- 
duplex (ie: simultaneous-bidirection- 
al) mode. The 9600 bps data rate of 
the console is not alterable, but the 
printer characteristics can be changed 
after the system is booted up. 

Parallel Ports 

All Altos computers come with at 
least two user-defined parallel ports. 
There are actually two Z80 PIO 
(parallel input/output) devices, each 
with two ports, but one is used to 



control disk operations. The user- 
definable ports are accessible through 
an external connector that may be 
connected to a printer, an EPROM 
programmer, or a parallel-input 
keyboard. Both ports are fully pro- 
grammable. 

The Counter-Timer Circuit 

The Z80 CTC (counter-timer cir- 
cuit) is a programmable counter- 
timer that has four independent chan- 
nels. Three of the channels (addresses 
thru 2) are used by the system to set 
console and printer data rates and 
disk-head load-delay times. The 
fourth channel is available to the user 
and can be programmed as an inter- 
val timer or real-time clock. 

The Floppy-Disk Controller 

The Altos single-density model 
uses the Western Digital 1771-1 



A Visit to Altos 

Altos computers have acquired 
quite a reputation for reliability — 
it's the sort of thing you hear by 
word-of-mouth in this industry. 
To find out more, I paid a visit to 
Altos recently at the invitation of 
Dr Roger Vass, the Vice-President 
of Marketing. 

Roger described the extensive 
quality-control procedures used at 
Altos, which include several bum- 
in tests of individual components 
and complete systems in its 
testing ovens. Another reason for 
the low failure rate of the com- 
puters (eg: less than 1% are re- 
turned to the plant because of 



defects) is that Altos computers use 
a single printed-circuit board for 
the entire computer, thus 
eliminating many potential inter- 
connection problems. 

Interestingly, Altos sells more 
computers (ie: about 55% at pre- 
sent) overseas than it does 
domestically, due in part to the 
company's vigorous marketing ac- 
tivity in Europe. Roger sees the 
European market as having great 
potential for American personal- 
computer companies. Certainly, 
the growth of the number of 
publications and public interest at 
overseas trade shows confirms 
this. . .CM 



For your Horizon — 




North Star 
Horizon Computer 
with 5" Floppy Disks 




Display 
Terminals 




Up To Four 
Hard Disks 



Up To Four 8 ' 
Floppy Disks 



More power, work, flexibility! 

JOEDOS™ — Jointly Operate Everything Disk Operating 

System. Switch from North Star™ BASIC to CP/M™ and back 
again with a simple command. Floating point and standard 
8, 10, 12, and 14 digit precisions of North Star BASIC, as well 
as Digital Research's CP/M all on the same hard disk unit. 

Designed to operate with the DISCUS M26™ 26.5 mega- 
byte (formatted) Winchester-technology hard disk unit and 
North Star's Micro Disk System, JOEDOS brings you large 
mainframe performance at microcomputer cost and reliability. 
CP/M disk activity is amazingly quick through JOEDOS; ac- 
cess to North Star BASIC programs and files is unbelievable! 

Speed and enormous storage capacity (as much as 106 
megabytes) are only the beginning. Through JOEDOS, each 
hard disk unit may appear to be one drive or many different 
"drives" (as many as 147 double density 180K North Star 
5Va" drive-size segments). As many as seven of these seg- 
mented "drives" may be addressed at any particular time. 
Segment size, file size and directory size are variable 
according to user's requirements. Maximum file size is 16 
megabytes, while the maximum directory size for each seg- 
ment is 8,160 entries. 

JOEDOS — Micro Mike's hard disk operating system. 
Requires DISCUS M26 hard disk unit and controller and 
North Star Micro Disk System for operation. Includes CP/M. 
JOEDOS and manual $495 



JOESHARE™ — North Star Horizon T 7DISCUS Hard Disk 

Timesharing System. Micro Mike's popular interrupt-driven, 
bank switching timesharing for North Star Horizon com- 
puter is now available with all the features of JOEDOS hard 
disk operating system. JOESHARE allows multiple users 
to access as many as four 26.5 megabyte hard disk units, 
simultaneously operating programs through North Star DOS 
or through CP/M. 

JOESHARE — Micro Mike's North Star Horizon time- 
sharing/DISCUS hard disk operating system. Requires North 
Star Horizon and DISCUS M26 hard disk unit for operation. 
Includes CP/M. 
JOESHARE and manual $750 



JOEDOS, JOESHARE. HDSHARE. 5.2SHARE and DOSCHG are registered trademarks of 

Micro Mikes, Incorporated 

North Star and Horizon are registered trademarks ot North Star Computers. Inc. 

DISCUS and M26 are registered trademarks of Morrow Designs, Inc. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 

Copyright 1980 Micro Mike's, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide 

Circle 96 on Inquiry card. 



HDSHARE™ — North Star Horizon/North Star Hard Disk Time- 
sharing System. A version of JOESHARE with all of the fea- 
tures of JOEDOS using the North Star hard disk. HDSHARE 
allows multiple users to access as many as four 18 mega- 
byte North Star hard disk units, simultaneously operating pro- 
grams through North Star DOS or through CP/M. 

HDSHARE — Micro Mike's North Star Horizon time- 
sharing/North Star hard disk operating system. Requires 
North Star Horizon and North Star hard disk system for oper- 
ation. Includes CP/M. 
HDSHARE and manual $750 

5.2SHARE™ — North Star Horizon/ Floppy Disk Timesharing 
System. Micro Mike's floppy disk timesharing system has 
some new enhancements. 5.2SHARE now supports 8, 10, 12, 
and 14 digit floating point and standard North Star BASIC 
with as many as four DISCUS 8" drives, operating in conjunc- 
tion with the Horizon's 5V*" drives to provide in excess of 5 
megabytes of external storage. 

5.2SHARE — Micro Mike's interrupt-driven, bank switch- 
ing timesharing for the North Star Horizon computer. Includes 
8" drive software interface. For double density or quad 
capacity systems only. 
5.2SHARE and manual $395 

DOSCHG™ — Micro Mike's 8" drive interface to North Star 
DOS and BASIC. Requires North Star Micro Disk System and 
DISCUS 8" drives and controller for operation. 
DOSCHG and manual $150 



Program operation manuals are available for preview before, 
software purchase. 

Program Operation Manuals for each program $25 

(Applies toward purchase of program) 

Programs are available in double density/quad capacity 
format only. Prices are subject to change without notice. 

Contact your North Star dealer or Micro Mike's. 
Send $1 for descriptive literature. 



JUAAifce 



Micro Mike's, Inc. 



o 



905 South Buchanan Amarillo, Texas 79101 USA Telephone: 806/372-3633 

making technology uncomplicated . . . for People 



BYTE November 1980 



159 



Could you 
pass this 

Red Cross 
swimming test? 

SWIM: 

1. Breaststroke — 100 Yds. 

2. Sidestroke-lOOYds. 

3. Crawl stroke - 100 Yds. 

4. Back crawl -50 Yds. 

5. On back (legs only) - 50 Yds. 

6. Turns (on front, back, side). 

7. Surface dive— underwater swim— 20 Ft. 

8. Disrobe— float with clothes — 5 mins. 

9. Long shallow dive. 
10. Running front dive. 
11. 10-minute swim. 

Anybody who's taken a Red Cross swim 
course knows how tough it can be. 

There's a good reason. 

We believe drowning is a serious 
business. 

Last year alone, we taught 2,589,203 
Americans not to drown— in the seven dif- 
ferent swim courses we offer all across the 
country. (Incidentally, most of the teaching 
—as with almost everything American Red 
Cross does— is done by dedicated vol- 
unteers.) 

A good many of the youngsters not 
only are learning to keep themselves safe. 
Thousands upon thousands of them are 
learning to become lifesavers. 

And the life they save— it just might 
be your own. 






~.» 



Peter Vaeth-Photography 




Red Cross 
counting 
on you. 




Photo 1: Front view of the Altos ACS 8000-2 computer, which has 64 K bytes of 
memory and two dual-density, single-sided disk drives. 




Photo 2: Interior view of the ACS 8000-2, which is, as are all the Altos models, a single- 
board, Z80-based computer. 



floppy-disk controller/formatter 
device to manage up to four 8-inch 
drives. The 1771-1 is directly in- 
tegrated into the single-board design 
of the Altos. 

The double-density version re- 
quires some additional control cir- 
cuitry and uses the 1791-1 device; 



thus the board supporting doub e- 
density disks is slightly larger. All 
versions of the ACS8000 are available 
with either single-sided or double- 
sided Shugart drives. 

All boards have a fifty-pin expan- 
sion connector that allows the user to 
access all Z80 address, data, and con- 



160 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 97 on Inquiry card. 



Whatever 
happened to 
eenie, meenie, 
miney, mo? 



I could be 
another 
. Solomon . . 



'This may put 
the Godfather 
jjut of business. 

Ufonly 
my heart 
would stop\ 

gracing. 



It must use 

Bayesian, 

weighted factor 

^analysis, and. . . 



Maybe this' 1 1 
help me choose 
a career. . 



I could 
use it to 
select my staff. 






Would I 
rather have 
Winston's millions ' 
or Billy Joe's 
love? 



Hmmmm . . . 

could be 

my ticket 

to the Boardroom . 



Should I 

buy stock 

or commodities 

in this economy? 






/ / 



V ^ i 



u 



IM 

When Decision Master speaks everybody listens. 



Let's face it. We all have to make decisions. Decisions that can change our lives. Decisions th 
make us happy or unhappy. Decisions that could win us fame or fortune. Now. DecisionMusl 
can help you make the best decisions of your life. 

Use Bayesian theory to peer into the future ...even if you've never heard of the Bayes' Rule 
Do a complete weighted factor analysis. . .without knowing what one is. Use discounted 
cash How to compare investment alternatives without bothering with present value 
tables. These and other sophisticated theories that were once the exclusive domain of 
professors and top business executives are built into DeeisionMaster's algorithms. . . 
so you can use them at the touch of a key! 

DecisionMasteriseasytou.se. It features: 

• A fully documented manual developed by an authority in the field. 

• A unique program-controlled cross reference system. 



You'll use DecisionMaster in hundreds of routine decisions 
as well as more important ones such as* Buying a hotise 
• Changing jobs* Selecting investment* Evaluating insur- 
ance policies' Expanding product lines' Leasing vs. 
purchasing. 

If you buy only one computer program this year, 
make it DecisionMaster. And when it speaks. 
listen. 



5p 



NOW YOU'RE 
TALKING! 



THE 
SOURCE 




MICRONET 



CBBS: 

COMPUTER 

BULLETIN 

BOARD 

SYSTEM 



YOUR 

COMPUTER 

WITH 

BSTMS 



THE 

ASYNCHRONOUS 
DIAL-UP 



YOUR 
. CHOICE 



ABBS: 

APPLE 

BULLETIN 

BOARD 

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trol lines. Aitos does not use the con L 
nector for expansion purposes 
because of its single-board 
philosophy, but it is there for the 
special needs of the users. 

Optional Components 

The ACS8000 has provisions for 
some special components that are op- 
tional on all of the standard systems. 
The Z80 DMA (direct memory ac- 
cess) controller is a very sophisticated 
device that can be programmed to 
perform block data transfers from 
memory to memory, from memory to 
an I/O port, or vice versa. The device 
can also be programmed to search for 
a byte within a block, with or 
without transfer of the block. The 
device has one DMA channel that can 
be set up to work in four different 
modes: 



• single-byte mode — in which eac 
memory access operates on a single 
byte of data 

• burst mode — in which the device 
keeps control of the bus for as long as 
data is continuously ready 

• continuous mode — in which the 
device retains bus control for the en- 
tire operation 

• transparent mode — in which the 
device operates only during memory 
refresh time so it does not slow down 
the processor 

I was informed by Altos that, 
although the Z80 DMA device can be 
plugged into the system, there is no 
way to use it under CP/M. The 
OASIS multiuser operating system is 
set up to use DMA to access a disk, 
however. 

The Advanced Micro Devices 
Am9511 arithmetic processor is 
another optional device that provides 
fixed and floating-point arithmetic 
and floating-point trigonometric and 
mathematical operations. It may be 
used to speed up computational 
capabilities of the system. All com- 
mands and data transfers take place 
on an 8-bit, bidirectional data bus. 
Transfers to and from the 9511 may 
be handled by the Z80 under program 
control (with IN and OUT instruc- 
tions) or through the Z80 DMA 
device. The Am9511 can be program- 
med to generate interrupts upon com- 
pletion of arithmetic functions. 

Altos also plans to introduce a 

2708/2716 EPROM programmer that 

will plug into the parallel-port con- 

Text continued on page 166 



162 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE November 1980 163 



CP/M Features With Altos 
Systems 

All the standard CP/M system 
utilities are available: 

• ED: context (text) editor. 

• ASM: CP/M standard (no- 
frills) 8080 assembler. 

• LOAD: loader, converts 
hexadecimal-ASCII format files 
to absolute machine-code files. 

• DDT: CP/M Dynamic Debug- 
ging Tool. 

• PIP: Peripheral Interchange 
Program that is used to move 
and copy disk files from disk to 
disk and can also be used to 
copy files from disk to printer 
or from a reader device to disk. 

• SYSGEN: CP/M utility that 
generates new system disks. 

• DUMP: prints the contents of a 
file on the display in hexa- 
decimal (base 16) form. 

• SUBMIT: CP/M batch facility: 
executes a series of console com- 
mands from a disk file. 

Some additional commands and 
utilities are available: 

• MOVCPM: CP/M utility that is 
used to relocate the CP/M 
operating system depending on 
system memory size. 

• STAT: displays status of 
various device assignments and 
shows the amount of free space 
left on each on-line. 

• MTS: memory-test program 
that performs a destructive 
memory test on system 
memory. 

• SETUP: utility that modifies the 
boot-load sector of a disk. It 
also allows a disk to be flagged 
for single- or double-density 
operation and sets the printer 
data rate at boot-load time. 

• REFORM: disk-formatting utili- 
ty that allows the user to format 
a disk for single- or double- 
density operation. Disks may be 
formatted to be either IBM 
3740- compatible or Intel ISIS-II 
format. Altos has its own for- 
mat for double density. 

• DTEST: disk-test utility that 
checks out both drives and disks 
on the system. 

• SINGLE: followed by the letter 
designation of a drive (A, B, C, 
D), will set up the drive for 



single-density operation. 

• DOUBLE: works the same as 
SINGLE but sets the designated 
drive for double-density opera- 
tion. 

• COPY: will copy data track by 
track from the disk in drive A to 
drive B. 

• FILES: will display the file- 
control-block information in 
hexadecimal for all files on a 
disk. 

Other files are included with the 
system: 

• BOOT. ASM: an assembler 
source for the boot loader. 

• ALTOSE.ASM: an assembler 
source for the ALTOS -E 2708 
EPROM. 

• CBIOS.ASM: an assembler 
source for the custom Basic In- 
put/Output System (CBIOS) in 
CP/M. This allows the user to 
make further operating-system 
modifications as needed. 

UCSD Pascal Operating System 

Initializing the System 
In order to make UCSD (Univer- 
sity of California, San Diego) 
Pascal fully operational on the 
Altos, a user-written procedure 
that does direct cursor addressing 
on video terminals must be added 
to the operating system. Referred 
to as GOTOXY, the procedure ac- 
cepts two integer variables as input 
and positions the cursor on the 
screen accordingly. Since there are 
so many different video terminals, 
it is the responsibility of the user to 
write the GOTOXY procedure. 
After compiling it, the user must 
execute a program called BINDER 
which links GOTOXY to the 
SYSTEM.PASCAL file. 

The other initialization program 
is called SETUP. When executed, 
the user is given a set of options in- 
cluding Help and Teach. SETUP 
modifies a table of key assignments 
and terminal commands, allowing 
the user to customize the operating 
system to a particular terminal. 
Most keys may also have a prefix 
(eg: Escape) to allow for terminals 
that send escape sequences for cer- 
tain user-definable keys. For exam- 
ple, many terminals have a 
separate keypad for cursor control 



(eg: Up, Down, Home, etc). The 
escape sequence for "cursor home" 
on many terminals is Escape-H; or 
27,72 in decimal ASCII codes. In 
SETUP, the cursor-home function 
could be defined as having a prefix 
code and the decimal value 72 (or 
H as the character code). 



Other Features 

The Pascal Operating System 
has some other unique features. 
When compiling a program, Pascal 
will list error messages and ask if 
you want to continue or return to 
the editor. If the latter option is 
chosen, the operating system loads 
the editor and places the cursor on 
the character where the compila- 
tion error was detected. This 
feature saves a great deal of time 
when correcting syntax and logic 
errors. 

The Filer also has some in- 
teresting features. Basically, the 
Filer is a utility program that lists 
directories of disks and 
manipulates files directly in the 
conventional disk-operating- 
system mode. On request, the Filer 
will create a duplicate directory for 
backup purposes. The Filer also 
has a routine for locating bad 
blocks on disk. If a bad sector is 
found, it will be marked as an im- 
movable file in the directory. 

Altos is marketing Pascal/ M 
and a C compiler. The firm is also 
in the process of providing hard- 
disk backup on cartridge tape. The 
company is also introducing an 
asynchronous communications 
package for Altos computers 
(price: $100) and a bisynchronous 
IBM 3780 protocol package that 
allows the Altos to go on line in 
batch mode to an IBM host com- 
puter. The price is $1000. 

In version II. of Pascal, the 
Debugger package is missing. I was 
informed by Altos that it was 
having problems with it and that a 
new version would be available 
with the next release. Altos also 
said that Pascal/M does have a full 
Debug option and that it will be 
available shortly. 



164 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Text continued from page 162 

nector. This project has been delayed 
because of software development 
priorities. 

Hard-Disk Capability 

Altos' third single-board version of 
the ACS8000 has an on-board hard- 
disk controller in addition to the 
floppy-disk controller. Hard-disk 
storage may start at 14.5 megabytes 
and can be expanded up to 58 
megabytes. 

Multiuser Versions 

The system that I received was an 
ACS8000-2 with 64 K bytes of 
memory and two dual-density, 
single-sided floppy-disk drives. As 
described in the literature, the 
ACS8000-2/MU2 is a two-user 
system with 112 K bytes of memory 
and two double-density single-sided 
drives. 

Memory is divided into banks, 
with a 16 K-byte system area and two 
or more 48 K-byte user areas. A four- 
user ACS8000-2/MU4 is the same as 
an MU2 but with 208 K bytes of 
memory. The largest non-hard-disk 
configuration would be an ACS8000- 



1K BYTES 
EPROM 



32K TO 208K 
BYTES OF USER 
MEMORY 

(32K TO 64K 
ON SINGLE 
USER SYSTEMS, 
112K FOR 2 
USERS, 208K 
FOR 4 USERS) 



All Altos systems run 
either CP/M or Altos 
multiuser executive 
AMEX. 



4/MU4 with 208 K bytes of memory 
for four users and four double- 
density, double-sided floppy-disk 
drives. 

The smallest hard-disk multiuser 
configuration would be an ACS8000- 
6/MU2 with 112 K bytes of memory, 
two double-density, single-sided 
drives and a one-platter hard disk 
yielding 14.5 megabytes of space. 
This system would have four serial 
I/O ports and two parallel ports. 

The largest configuration would be 
an ACS8000-9/MU4 with 208 K 
bytes for four users, four double- 
density, double-sided floppy-disk 
drives and 58 megabytes of hard-disk 
space. A total of six serial ports and 
two parallel ports would be available 
on the system; these can be used to 
support four terminals and two other 
peripherals. 



Z80A 
MICROPROCESSOR 

a 

CONTROL 



I 1 

I I 

| OPTIONAL L 

I DMA 



I 



I 

OPTIONAL I 
FPP 
AM9511 

I 



I 1 

I OPTIONAL 
I HARD DISK 
I CONTROLLER 



I (14.5 TO 58 
| MEGABYTES) 
I I 



FLOPPY DISK 
CONTROLLER 



(UP TO 4 
Bin. DRIVES) 



_ST0 

PORT 



c 



c 



USER 
DEFINED 

_P 10 

PORT 

USER 
DEFINED 



Figure 1: Block diagram of the Altos ACS8000 systems. 

166 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Software 

All Altos systems run either Digital 
Research's CP/M operating system 
or Altos multiuser executive AMEX. 
AMEX is functionally compatible 
with CP/M, using the same disk for- 
mats and operating-system conven- 
tions. If you plan to use a hard disk, 
AMEX is a necessity since straight 
CP/M supports only floppy disks. 
CP/M version 2.0, which directly 
supports hard disks, and MP/M, the 
multiprogramming version of CP/M, 
are also available. 

Optional Software 

The Altos CP/M has been 
customized to allow for printout 
spooling and despooling. In this pro- 
cess, printed material is stored on 
disk until the printer is free. This op- 
tion allows printers to be driven in 
the background mode so that printing 
may go on while the computer is do- 
ing something else. 

Another software option is for use 
with the Microsoft FORTRAN-80 
compiler. A FORTRAN service- 
subroutine library called APULIB 
makes use of the Am9511 floating- 
point processor to speed up 
arithmetic computations in FOR- 
TRAN by a factor of 10 or more. A 
typical FORTRAN program perform- 
ing extensive calculations could run 
about four times faster with APULIB. 

The other major software option is 
the UCSD Pascal operating system. 
Altos offers it as a separate and 
distinct operating system for the 
ACS8000. This operating system con- 
sists of a file manager, an editor, a 
Pascal compiler, a BASIC compiler, a 
macroassembler for the Z80, an 
interactive debugger, and a 
linker/librarian. UCSD (University 
of California, San Diego) Pascal runs 
as a P-machine interpreter. All por- 
tions of the operating system and 
some other run-time subroutines are 
written in Pascal, with the exception 
of portions of the P-machine inter- 
preter. Pascal is also patched to 
handle the Am9511 arithmetic pro- 
cessor for greater computational 
speed. The Z80 CTC is also set up to 
act like a real-time clock. Unfor- 
tunately, the real-time clock is not ac- 
cessible by the user; it is used inter- 
nally to improve the performance of 
the disk interface. 

Altos Documentation 

The manual shipped with the Altos 
consists of the following segments: 




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• an operating manual which con- 
tains a hardware and software over- 
view section 

• setup and checkout guides 

• a CP/M operating guide 

• a troubleshooting section 

• all the schematic diagrams 

The manual also includes the 
SA800/801 disk-drive maintenance 
manual and six publications from 
Digital Research covering all aspects 
of CP/M. 

Setting Up and Using a New 
System 

My Altos is hooked up to a video 
terminal set to 9600 bps. When power 
is applied, the Altos displays the two 
prompt characters % * on the con- 
sole, which means that the EPROM 
monitor is in control. (If reset is 
depressed, the same response is 
given.) If a floppy disk is inserted into 
drive A (the drive on the right-hand 
side) and reset is depressed, the 
monitor will automatically begin 
loading the operating system from the 
disk. If you are running CP/M, the 
message "32 K ALTOS DOS VERS 
1.47" will be displayed, followed by 
A> on the next line. The A character 
means that the disk in drive A is the 
currently active disk, while the > in- 
dicates that CP/M is ready to receive 
commands. 

After the machine displayed the 
A> prompt, I tried to enter the DIR 



command to display the directory, 
with no success. I reset the system 
and tried again — still nothing. Then 
I decided to check the RS-232 cable 
and connectors to see if the transmit 
and receive lines were hooked up pro- 
perly. After experimenting with my 
own 8080-based system to make sure 
the terminal would talk to it and still 
finding no problems, I called Altos: 
the gentleman I spoke with suggested 
that I make sure that pin 20 (Data 
Terminal Ready) of the RS-232 cable 
was hooked up. I took apart my cable 
and found that pin 20 was not con- 
nected. A quick resoldering job 
solved the problem. (I later 
discovered that the Altos manual 
discusses the problem in the section 
on troubleshooting, but I had 
apparently not seen it on my first 
reading of the manual.) 

One of my complaints about the 
Altos is that the console data rate is 
defined in firmware — in the 
EPROM. The system can be used 
only if you have a 9600 bps terminal 
(at least, to start with). Even after the 
initial load, there is no way to easily 
modify the data rate short of creating 
a new EPROM. 

CP/M has a SETUP command that 
allows the user to change the boot- 
load characteristics of a disk. The 
printer data rate, the system clock 
rate (2 MHz or 4 MHz), and the den- 
sity of the disk may be redefined for 
each system disk. It would seem 



reasonable to be able to modify the 
console data rate also, but this is not 
currently the case. 

Formatting Disks 

The next thing I tried to do was to 
create a backup copy of the master 
system disk. The documentation for 
this procedure is fairly accurate, but 
important instructions are left out. 

The first step is to insert a blank 
disk (with the label side facing down) 
into drive B, the left-hand drive. The 
REFORM command will reformat a 
disk for any of several disk formats. 
After typing in REFORM, the com- 
puter asks you to enter a number cor- 
responding to the type of format that 
will be used and to indicate whether 
the blank disk is in drive B (in a two- 
drive system) or drive D (in a four- 
drive system). 

The first time I tried to format a 
disk, I got errors on top of errors. The 
documentation failed to mention that 
the write protect notch on the disk 
must be covered to allow read /write 
operation. Since I usually work with 
5 -inch floppy disks, I am used to 
covering the write protect notch to 
protect a disk, not to unprotect it. 
After trying everything I could think 
of, it finally occurred to me that the 
notch might need to be covered to 
work. [This method of disk protec- 
tion is standard for 8-inch disks, so 
neither Altos nor its documentation is 
in error here. Still, this situation 



At a Glance 








Name of computer 


Altos ACS8000 series 


Software included 


ALTOS-E monitor (in 


Manufacturer 


Altos Computer Systems 
2360 Bering Dr 
San Jose CA 95131 
(408) 946-6700 


Hardware options 


read-only memory) 

an 9511 arithmetic- 
processor board; Win- 
chester hard disk; multiple 


Price 
Processor 


from $2840 (ACS8000-1S) 
Z80A (8-bit) 


Software options 


users 

Operating systems: AMEX, 
CP/M MP/M OASIS 


Memory 
Mass Storage 


64 K bytes (expandable to 
208 K bytes on a multiuser 
system) 

one to four 8-inch, single- 
or double-density, single- 
or double-sided, Shugart 
floppy-disk drives 


Languages 


UCSD Pascal. 

FORTRAN-80; MBASIC, 
MBASIC-80, CBASIC II; 
COBOL-80, CIS COBOL; 
Vanguard APL, PL/ 1-80, 
Z80 Macro Assembler 


Other hardware features 


includes serial printer port, 
two user-definable parallel 
ports 







168 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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always causes problems for people 
who are accustomed to working with 
5-inch floppy disks. . . ,GW] 

Altos Demonstration Programs 

The CP/M disk that came with the 
system had a number of demonstra- 
tion programs, including a biorhythm 
program in BASIC, a rather poor im- 
plementation of tic-tac-toe, a 
number-guessing game, and a pro- 
gram that did nothing but compute 
and print square roots. The business 
package demonstration programs in- 
cluded a payroll generator and an 
automobile parts-list/inventory pro- 
gram. 

The only documentation provided 
with any of these business demo pro- 
grams was a single typed page giving 



hopelessly inadequate operating in- 
structions. I never succeeded in mak- 
ing any of the nongame programs 
work. 

Final Remarks 

• The hardware of the Altos 
ACS8000 is well designed, although 
the documentation of some of its 
components is absent. The computer 
uses several sophisticated, optional 
support chips such as the counter- 
timer, the serial and parallel ports, 
and the Am9511 arithmetic pro- 
cessor. However I had to look over 
the manufacturers' specification 
sheets and application notes to find 
out anything about them. 

• The software of the Altos ACS8000 
is not as well supported, but the 



CP/M, AMEX, UCSD Pascal, and 
OASIS operating systems are 
available. Altos has provided no soft- 
ware support for the specialized hard- 
ware built into the system. 

• Languages available from Altos in- 
clude FORTRAN-80, MBASIC, 
MBASIC-80, CBASIC II, 
COBOL-80, CIS COBOL, Vanguard 
APL, PL/I-80,. and Z80 Macro 
Assembler. Numerous other 
languages are available from other 
sources for use with the CP/M 
operating system. 

• The Altos ACS8000 is strong on 
hardware and weak on software and 
documentation. Perhaps someday the 
Altos people will get around to 
documenting and supporting the best 
selling points of their product line. ■ 



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BYTE November I960 171 



Seventh Annual 

SIGGRAPH 

Conference 



Kenneth Livingston 

225 Nebraska Hall 

University of Nebraska 

Lincoln NE 68508 

Mark Dahmke 

1515 Superior, Apt 15 

Lincoln NE 68521 



The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) 
Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics (SIG- 
GRAPH) held its seventh annual conference on July 14 
thru 18, at the Seattle (Washington) Center (former site 
of the Seattle World's Fair). This conference, like all of 
the recent SIGGRAPH conferences, was extremely well 
attended. Over 1200 people registered for the two-day 
preconference tutorials. More than 2300 people registered 
for the three-day conference itself. Participants came 
from nearly every state, Canada, several European coun- 
tries, and Japan. 

Preconference Tutorials 

Each year, the conference organizers have sought to 
provide participants with an opportunity to not only at- 
tend the conference, but also to acquire additional infor- 
mation and expertise about graphics through a series of 
tutorial sessions. These are led by well-known computing 
and graphics professionals from both industry and educa- 
tion. This year's eight tutorial sessions included these 
topics: 

• Introduction to Computer Graphics 

• Introduction to Raster Graphics 

• Advanced Raster Graphics 

• Computer-Aided Design 

• Low-Cost Graphics 

• Graphic Design and Information Graphics 

• Animation Graphics 

• User Interfaces to Graphic Systems 

These tutorials ranged in level of expertise from novice to 
expert and provided a means for everyone to advance 
technically. 

The session on low-cost computer graphics addressed 
issues relating to the use of graphics capabilities of 
personal-computing hardware. Many of these systems 
can be configured at costs of about $2000. Given today's 
economy, systems in this price range can be very appeal- 
ing to small businesses, public-school systems, and small 

Photos 1 thru 6 by Kenneth Livingston. 

172 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



colleges and universities. At the other end of the scale are 
large CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer- 
Aided Manufacturing) systems. Typically, these systems 
are quite expensive, ranging from $40,000 to $300,000 for 
top-of-the-line systems. Obviously, smaller and less ex- 
pensive (and, therefore, less comprehensive and versatile) 
systems exist. The computer-aided design tutorial ad- 
dressed the needs of medium- and large-scale industry 
users of CAD/CAM systems. 

Included in this session were discussions of 
CAD /CAM standards for data bases and techniques used 
for geometric modeling. Geometric modeling is a term 
used to describe the process of representing a three- 
dimensional object by a series of Cartesian, polar, or 
homogeneous coordinates with (or without) a series of 
equations. The object may or may not exist prior to the 
construction of the numerical or geometric model. 

Three other tutorials on raster graphics and animation 
were oriented toward the use of raster-scan devices. 
Because raster-scan devices essentially use standard 
television technology, there is a significant price and per- 
formance advantage in their use. Personal-computer 
owners should be aware of this advantage, as many 
microcomputer systems have utilized raster-scan (televi- 
sion) technology from the beginning. Discussions of 
algorithms for modeling three-dimensional objects, 
simulation of light sources (shading and shadows), sur- 
face textures, and display optimization dominated these 
sessions. An emphasis was placed on the creation of 
realistic-looking images. 

Another group of tutorials centered on what might be 
termed human factors in computer graphics. Human fac- 
tors means the interface between human beings and 
machines. It is an area of computing in general that, 
while not being totally overlooked, has certainly been 
slighted. Those of us involved in interactive computing 
(including graphics) realized long ago, by necessity, how 
important a friendly, forgiving, and possibly even 
natural interface is for successful communication be- 
tween people and machines. The frustration of having an 
interactive program bomb or hang before completing its 
task can be overwhelming. 

Our batch-oriented colleagues have discovered this 
recently, primarily because on-line data bases are becom- 
ing more popular, and more batch-oriented computing 
professionals are finding their way into interactive proj- 
ects. Recently, we have begun to discover the importance 
of aesthetically pleasing and more understandable 
graphic output. Many computer-graphics specialists have 
come into this area from the technical side, rather than 
from the artistic side. It should come as no surprise, then, 
that graphic designers can offer much sound advice about 
graphics layout and design. This information can be very 
valuable in businesses where executives are accustomed 
to expecting and demanding professional quality for 
graphics presented at board meetings and in annual 
reports. Two tutorials concentrated on psychological 
aspects, design methodologies, subjective evaluation, 
and design concepts as they relate to computer-graphics 
systems. 

All of the tutorials were well attended. Although we 
were unable to attend all of them (they ran concurrently), 
those sessions we attended were well thought out and 
carefully presented. 



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BYTE November 1980 



173 



The Conference 

In an attempt to emphasize the importance of graphic- 
design concepts and the human-factors side of computer 
graphics, the first session was a special panel presentation 
chaired by Aaron Marcus, research consultant at 
Lawrence Livermore Laboratories. This panel featured 
graphic designers from the United States and Europe. 
They agreed that we have seen far too many examples of 
poorly designed graphics — especially computer- 
generated graphics. Anyone engaging in computer 
graphics would do well to obtain and read some good 
textbooks on graphic design, in addition to their 
computer-graphics texts. While a chart or graph is more 
understandable than a table of numbers, a well-designed 
chart or graph is more readable than one which has had 
no design principles applied to its creation. 

The remainder of Wednesday's sessions were split into 
two concurrent sessions. Papers presented in one group 
of sessions were quite technical in nature: 'The Theory, 
Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Three- 
Dimensional Surface Detection Algorithm" and "Simula- 
tion and Expected Performance Analysis of Multiple Pro- 
cessor Z-Buffer Systems." Papers presented in the other 
group of sessions were more applications-oriented: 
"Geographic and Data Base Systems" and "Computer 
Graphics Moves into the Business World." 

The latter area is of specific interest to one of us (Liv- 
ingston), who is currently involved in the integration of 
computer graphics and market research. According to 
Carl Machover of Machover Associates, who chaired the 
business-graphics panel discussion, there are four com- 
puters used in business applications for every computer 
used in CAD/CAM types of applications. Assuming that 
these figures are accurate, the business-computer 
graphics potential is enormous. This position is sup- 
ported by IBM's recent entry into the low-cost, color, 
business-graphics marketplace with its Model 3279 
display terminal. Recent articles in Harvard Business 
Review (January 1980) and the Wall Street Journal also 
seem to reinforce this position. 

Thursday's sessions embraced a wide variety of topics. 
Sessions dedicated to graphics software and languages, 
surfaces, and applications filled the morning. Papers 
were presented at these sessions ranging from the design 
of a LISP-based graphics language, to three-dimensional 
representation and rendering algorithms, and to 
stereographic displays of atmospheric data. (This latter 
session proved to be very interesting to us for reasons 
having little to do with computer graphics. The materials 
chosen for displays represented conditions existing in the 
Omaha, Nebraska, area — sixty miles away from our 
homes— when the 1975 tornado struck that area.) 

Thursday-afternoon sessions were oriented toward 
rather specialized areas of computer graphics: 

• Computer Graphics and Television 

• Animation 

• CAD/CAM 

• User Views of CAD/CAM 

Recent uses of computer graphics in television were 
discussed, including a presentation by ABC Sports on 
their use during the Winter Olympics. The CAD/CAM 
sessions included reports on graphics used in planning 
electrical-distribution systems, ship-hull design, and 
graphics at the Ford Motor Company. There was also a 
panel discussion addressing productivity gains and expec- 



tations achieved through the use of CAD/CAM systems. 

Friday's sessions included discussions of graphics stan- 
dards, human factors (more), and raster techniques. The 
question of graphics standards is of particular importance 
to those who regularly attempt to transport graphics pro- 
grams or systems from one computing environment to 
another. While other areas of computing developed stan- 
dards long ago (eg: COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal, etc), 
the graphics area had not attempted such a feat until 
quite recently. This has all begun to change, thanks to the 
work of the SIGGRAPH CORE standards committee. 

The human-factors presentations included discussions 
on color and how it is perceived by the human eye, and 
on a prototype voice- and gesture-input interface being 
developed at MIT. An afternoon session on raster- 
graphics techniques completed the conference program. 

Perhaps the only negative criticism we offer concerns 
the famous SIGGRAPH film festival. This has become an 
annual event since its informal inception, at the first SIG- 
GRAPH conference, on the balcony of one participant's 
dormitory room at the University of Colorado in 
Boulder. This year's film festival was held in a hotel 
ballroom designed to hold no more than 1500 people. 
With 1900 people packed into the crowded space, and 
lines waiting to get in, the hotel's management restricted 
access to the ballroom for safety reasons. A greatly ab- 
breviated second showing left many participants 
frustrated. The film festival is a forum for some of the 
best computer graphics and animation produced during 
the preceding year and is always enlightening and well at- 
tended. We sincerely hope next year's conference com- 
mittee takes the film festival's popularity into considera- 
tion during planning. 

The Exhibition 

Although this was the seventh annual SIGGRAPH 
conference, it was only the fifth annual SIGGRAPH ex- 
hibition. There were ninety-nine vendors listed in the ex- 
hibition guide for SIGGRAPH '80. At SIGGRAPH '76 
(the first exhibition), there were only ten. This says much 
about the growth of this part of the industry. Another in- 
dicator of growth, according to Ken Anderson of the 
Anderson Report (a newsletter devoted to computer 
graphics), is the fact that last year the computer-graphics 
industry reached $1 billion in delivered products. The 
computing industry as a whole does approximately $40 
billion in delivered products per year. 

Several vendors at the exhibition were of special in- 
terest to personal-computer users. ABW Corporation 
demonstrated its TEKSIM package. TEKSIM allows the 
Apple II user to access the Tektronix Plot-10 software. 
Although the Apple /TEKSIM combination offers only 
about one-fourth the resolution of a Tektronix terminal, 
advantages such as lower cost, color displays, selective 
erase, and standard video output are claimed by the ven- 
dor. Apple Computer Inc displayed both the Apple II and 
III computers. Calcomp, which most of us think of as a 
vendor for the large-host user, demonstrated its 1051 
drum plotter (among other products). The Model 1051 is 
an RS-232C-compatible, relatively low-cost product, 
which, considering Calcomp 's quality reputation and ser- 
vice organization, makes it a viable product for passive- 
graphics production on small systems. 

Cromemco, with which most personal-computer users 
are familiar, brought its line of high- and medium- 
resolution graphics hardware to the exhibition. Recent 



174 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



emphasis on efficient software designed to increase the 
productivity of the programmer and end user is evident 
in Cromemco's recently announced high-resolution 
graphics-software package. Digital Engineering, Inc, was 
present with its Retro-Graphics printed-circuit board. 
This transforms the Lear-Siegler ADM-3A terminal into a 
graphics terminal compatible with the Tektronix Plot-10 
software package. This company also makes a cross-hair 
graphic-input cursor and a printer for the modified ter- 
minal. Houston Instruments, a division of Bausch & 
Lomb Corporation, displayed much of its pen-plotter line 
and its more recently developed electro-static plotter line. 

An eight-color, eight-pen digital plotter was displayed 
by Soltec Corporation. This is an interesting approach to 
low-cost, multipen, passive graphics. The plotter is 
basically a single-pen plotter with "parking stalls" for ad- 
ditional pens and enough native intelligence to relocate 
each pen for changes in color and line weight, or for an 
optional cross-hair cursor for digitizing. Summagraphics 
exhibited its popular Bit-Pad One, a low-cost approach 
to graphic-data-entry problems. 

Tektronix was present with nearly everything in its line 
of graphics terminals and its stand-alone 4050 series of 
desk-top graphics computers. Hewlett-Packard also 
displayed its line of desk-top graphics computers in- 
cluding the Model 9845C color machine. The space- 
shuttle image on this machine was very impressive. 

Also present were vendors oriented toward heavy 




Photo 1: Megatek's new Wizzard color terminal. It also heralds 
the development of Megatek's device-independent software. 




Photo 2: Overview of exhibition area. The Calcomp booth is in 
the center foreground. Tektronix is in the center mid-way back. 
IBM and Hewlett-Packard are in the center rear and Megatek is 
to the right in the foreground. 




Photo 3: The Hewlett-Packard 9845C color desk-top computer 
is being demonstrated by using an image of the space shuttle. 



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November 1980 © BYTE Public»Hons Inc 175 



graphics users. CAD/CAM applications by Computervi- 
sion, Inc, were shown. IBM showed entries for all levels: 
the 3279 color terminal for low- to mid-level business- 
graphics users, the 3277 graphics-attachment feature for 
the mid-level engineering users, and the 3250 for 
CAD/CAM applications. Vector General and Adage 
featured their high-performance vector-display devices. 
Megatek, with a popular display booth, exhibited its new 
line of Wizzard graphics terminals. 

With nearly 100 vendors displaying recent 
developments, it is not possible to describe all the new 
products. Suffice it to say that there was something for 
everyone at the exhibition. If too little information could 
be gleaned from vendor representatives at their display 
booths, many vendors also conducted forum sessions 
from morning until evening. Technical and management 
people were there to answer more detailed questions 
about their products. 

There are three things we want to reemphasize as being 
significant in the computer-graphics industry: 

• First, the continued development of lower-cost color 
graphics terminals — the user's capital expenditures are 
critical in justifying new approaches in problem solving. 

• Second, an increased emphasis on graphics-software 
standards yielding greater productivity for software 
developers and end users. 

• Finally, the beginning use of computer graphics by and 




Photo 4: A Calcomp representative demonstrates the Model 
1051 digital plotter. 



for management, as opposed to its historically limited use 
as an engineering tool. 

These items are very important to the growth of the 
computer-graphics industry. This exhibition, the con- 
ference, and the tutorials were dedicated to enhancing 
these three areas. 

Harvey Kriloff and Robert Ellis, cochairmen of the 
SIGGRAPH '80 conference, and the SIGGRAPH '80 
committee are to be commended for the quality of this 
year's conference. Next year's conference will be held in 
Dallas, Texas, and is scheduled for August 3 thru 7. 
Somehow we expect it to be hotter than the 75 degrees of 
Seattle. If present trends hold up, however, it will also be 
a fine and interesting conference. ■ 




Photo 5: IBM's Model 3279 color-graphics terminal. This ter- 
minal is oriented toward business and management graphics 
rather than toward engineering applications. 




Photo 6: The Tektronix Model 4054 features a large-screen 
storage display tube and built-in cartridge-tape drive, with disk 
drives optional. 



176 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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keyword system, which simplifies 



BASIC programming. The machine 
has 24 different programs statements 
and commands printed at the top of 
the keyboard. You can enter these 24 
into your program without retyping 
them every time you use them. Instead 
of typing out "PRINT;' for example, you 
just press two keys and the word 
appears on the screen. The system 
helps prevent typing errors and can 
speed up entering programs. 

A third feature is Timed Response 
Monitoring, which automatically 
adjusts the computer's pace and 
level to your own. It makes "tutoring 
programs!' for instance, easier and 
more interesting to follow. 

And then there are The Imagination 
Machine's three graphic display 
modes: 1 Alpha numerics, mixed with 
low-resolution graphics in as many as 
eight colors. 2. High resolution — up 
to eight colors — 128 x 192 display. 
3. High resolution graphics — up to 
four colors — with 256 x 192 display. 

And expandability. 

A personal computer that can't grow 
along with your growing requirements 
soon becomes obsolete. So, we 
designed The Imagination Machine to 
be expandable. By adding APF's 
optional "Expansion Box" and inter- 
face cartridges, you can hook up any 
compatible floppy disk or printer, or an 
additional 8K RAM memory cartridge. 



Full mini-floppy system 



$995. 




system. In that case, order APF's 
System II. It includes The Imagination 
Machine, the "Expansion Box" floppy 
disk interface and 72K-byte, mini- 
floppy disk drive. All for just $995! No 
one can come close to that price. 

You can't beat our prices 
or our guarantee. 

If you can find a better personal 
computer system for the money, let us 
know. In the meantime, we stand by 
our statement: There is no other per- 
sonal computer on the market that 
offers so much for so little. And if you 
order now, we'll even include our 
$19.95 APF Technical Reference 
Manual, with complete schematics, 
absolutely free. 

Order The Imagination Machine 
directly from APF Electronics, with the 
assurance that if you are not com- 
pletely satisfied, you can return it within 
30 days of purchase for a complete 
refund. To order, or to learn the name 
of the dealer nearest you, call TOLL 
FREE 1-800-223-1264. New York 
residents call 212-869-1960. Master- 
Card and VISA accepted. 



Price list: 




System I, 

The Imagination Machine. 


$599. 


System II, Mini-floppy System 
(Includes The Imagination 
Machine, BB-2, and Mini- 
floppy Disk Drive). 


$995. 


BB-1. Expansion Box with 
RS232 cartridge. 


$199.95 


BB-2. Expansion Box with 
floppy disk interface 
cartridge. 


$199.95 


8K RAM memory cartridge. 


$ 99.95 


RS232 cartridge. 


$149.95 


Floppy-disk interface 
cartridge. 


$149.95 


Mini-floppy Disk Drive. 


$399.95 



For small business and professional 
use, you may require a full mini-floppy 



$599. Manufacturer's suggested retail price. 

relectronics inc. 



1501 Broadway New York. NY 10036 



Circle 107 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 179 



A Simplified Theory 
of Video Graphics 



This is an interesting time for 
choosing a personal computer, 
especially if you are looking for one 
with a graphics display. As you can 
see from the summary of specifica- 
tions in table 1, the available graphics 
capabilities of the personal computers 
are all different, and no one model 
has a clear advantage over all the 
others. To make your choice even 
more difficult, some models exhibit 
undocumented quirks that are not ap- 
parent from the specifications. 

Your choice of a video-graphics 
system will depend on what you want 
to do with graphics and on the perfor- 
mance of the different computers. 
While I can't help with the first aspect 
of your decision, I may be able to 
help you understand system perfor- 
mance by explaining the operating 
principles of video displays and 
describing the various combinations 
of features available on popular per- 
sonal computers. 

The Importance of Video 
Graphics 

Many applications of personal 
computers are modeled on conven- 
tional practices that have been 
developed over a period of several 



About the Author 

Allen Watson III began writing FORTRAN 
programs for scientific analysis soon after 
receiving his bachelor's degree in mathematics. 
Later, as a full-time programmer, he wrote 
IBM System/360 assembly-language programs 
for the computer-aided design of calculators 
and has prepared and presented training 
courses about the Fairchild F-8 and Motorola 
6800. Allen is currently writing and editing 
user manuals for Apple computers. 



180 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Parti 



Allen Watson HI 

1261 Robbia Ct 

Sunnyvale CA 94087 



years, while graphics displays have 
been too expensive for general use 
until quite recently. Many existing 
computer programs do not use even 
the simplest graphics, although there 
are several notable exceptions, 
such as chess games that use high- 
resolution graphics to display the 
board and pieces, and music editors 
that display standard musical nota- 
tion. 

Here's the important point: 
computer-graphics displays can pro- 
duce schematic diagrams, music 
scores, flowcharts, architectural 
drawings, and the like that are much 
easier for the person using the com- 
puter to understand than the 
unadorned columns of numbers that 
are usually associated with com- 
puters. Of course, you still might not 
be able to afford video-graphics 
displays as powerful as the one used 
by NASA to simulate the view seen 
by the pilot of the space shuttle dur- 
ing its return from orbit. Even though 
they have their limitations, the cur- 
rent small-computer displays will 
enable you to do a lot of interesting 
things. 

Raster-Scan Video 

While there are several different 
ways of displaying information on a 
video screen, all of the personal com- 
puters presently available use the 
same kind of raster-scan technique 
that ordinary television does. We'll 
take a look at the basic features of 
this technique, since they are shared 
by all inexpensive video displays. 

Television is an imperfect com- 
promise among several factors: 

• resolution, which determines how 



much detail we can display 

• frame rate (to be discussed later), 
which is the number of complete pic- 
tures transmitted in 1 second 

• bandwidth, a measure of the fre- 
quency response, of the equipment 
involved 

An increase either in resolution or 
in frame rate requires an increase in 
bandwidth, which adds to the cost of 
the equipment. If we must keep 
within a limited bandwidth, we can 
obtain better resolution only at the 
expense of jerkier motion and vice 
versa. There is a type of television 
called slow-scan, for example, that 
manages to transmit reasonably 
detailed images over the narrow- 
bandwidth channels used by amateur 
radio operators, but the resulting 
frame rate is so low that the illusion 
of motion is lost. We will see how 
much bandwidth is necessary for 
ordinary television after we look at 
the raster-scan process itself. 

If we display a sequence of images 
that change only slightly from one to 
the next, and do it fast enough, the 
eye will not be able to separate them: 
persistence of vision will cause the 
separate images to fuse into a "mov- 
ing" picture. In order to transmit such 
a sequence of images electronically, 
each image must be dissected into a 
series of dots that may be transmitted 
one at a time. The television camera 
does this by rapidly scanning the im- 
age in a series of horizontal lines 
which form a raster. The lines are 
scanned one after another in the same 
way that a person scans the lines of 
letters on a printed page. Reading is a 
process of converting information, 



Start learning and computing for only $129. 95 witn a Netronics 8085-based 
computer kit. Then expand it in low-cost steps to a business/development system 
with 64k or more RAM, 8" floppy disk drives, hard disks and multi- terminal I/O. 

THE NEW EXPLORER/86 SYSTEM 



Special! Full 8" floppy, 64k system for less than the price of a 

. ,,,„„„„ ., (Also available wired & tested. $1799.95) 

Imagine — tor only $129.95 you can own the starting 
level of Explorer/85, a computer that's expandable into 
full business/development capabilities — a computer 
that can be your beginner system, an OEM controller, 
or an IBM-formatted 8" disk small business system. 
From the first day you own Explorer/85, you begin 
computing on a significant level, and applying princi- 
ples discussed in leading computer magazines. Ex- 
plorer/85 features the advanced Intel 8085 cpu. which 
is 100% compatible with the older 8080A. It offers on- 
board S-100 bus expansion. Microsoft BASIC in ROM. 
plus instant conversion to mass storage disk memory 
with standard IBM-formatted 8" disks. All for only 
$129-95, plus the cost of power supply, keyboard/ 
terminal and RF modulator if you don't have them (see 
our remarkable prices below for these and other, ac- 
cessories). With a Hex Keypad/display front panel. 
Level "A" can be programmed with no need for a ter- 
minal, ideal for a controller, OEM. or a real low-cost 

start. 

■*\k ""<&. Level "A" is a 

complete operating 

system. perfect for 
^beginners, hobbyists, 
P""* Industrial controller 

use. $129.95 



mini 



Only $1499.95! 




Full 8" disk system for less than the price of a mini (shown with 
Nelronics Explorer/85 computer and new terminnl). System features 
floppy drive from Control Data Corp.. world's largest maker of 
memory storage systems ( not a hobby brand.') 







Level "A" 
With Hex 
Keypad/Display. 



nal 256 bytes located in the 815SA). The static RAM 
can be located anywhere from fttSftl to EFFF in 4k 
blocks. 

LEVEL "E" SPECIFICATIONS 
Level "E" adds sockets for 8k of EPROM to use the 
popular Intel 2716 or the TI 2516. It includes all sockets, 
power supply regulator, heat sink, filtering and decou- 
pling components. Sockets may also be used for 2k x 8 
RAM IC's (allowing for up to 12k of onboard RAM). 
DISK DRIVE SPECIFICATIONS 

• 8" CONTROL DATA CORP • Data capacity; 401.016 bytes 
professional drive. (SD). 802.032 bytes (DD). 

• LSI controller unformatted. 

• Write protect. • Access time: 25ms (one 

• Singleordoubledensity. track). 

DISK CONTROLLER/ I/O BOARD 
SPECIFICATIONS 

• Cont.ols up lo four 8" drives. 

• 1771 A LSI (SD) floppy disk 
controller. 

• Onboard data separator 
(IBM compatible). 

• 2 Serial I/O ports 

• Autobool to disk system 
when system reset. 



LEVEL "A" SPECIFICATIONS 

Explorer/85's Level "A" system features the advanced 
Intel 8085 cpu, an 8355 ROM with 2k deluxe monitor/ 
operating system, and an advanced 8155 RAM I/O . . . 
all on a single motherboard with room for RAM/ROM/ 
PROM/EPROM and S-100 expansion, plus generous 
prototyping space. 

PC Board; Glass epoxy, plated through holes with 
solder mask. ■ I/O: Provisions for 25-pin (DB25) con- 
nector for terminal serial I/O, which can also support a 
paper tape reader . . . cassette tape recorder input and 
output . . . cassette tape control output . . . LED output 
indicator on SOD (serial output) line . . . printer inter- 
face (less drivers) . . . total of four 8-bit plus one 6-bit 
I/O ports. • Crystal Frequency: 6.144 MHz. • Control 
Switches: Reset and user (RST 7.5) interrupt . . . addi- 
tional provisions for RST 5.5, 6.5 and TRAP interrupts 
onboard. • Counter/ Timer Programmable. 14-bit bi- 
nary. • System RAM: 256 bytes located at F800. ideal 
for smaller systems and for use as an isolated stack 
area in expanded systems . . . RAM expandable to 64K 
via S-100 bus or 4k on motherboard. 

System Monitor (Terminal Version): 2k bytes of 
deluxe system monitor ROM located at F000. leaving 
(Wife free for user RAM/ROM. Features include tape 
load with labeling . . . examine/change contents of 
memory . . . insert data . . . warm start . . . examine and 
change all registers . . . single step with register display 
at each break point, a debugging/training feature ... go 
lo execution address . . . move blocks or memory from 
one location to another . . . fill blocks of memory with a 
constant . . . display blocks of memory . . . automatic 
baud rate selection lo 9600 baud . . . variable display 
line length control (1-255 characters /line) . . . chan- 
nelized I/O monitor routine with 8-bit parallel output 
for high-speed printer . . . serial console in and console 
OUt channel so that monitor can communicate with I/O 
ports. 

System Monitor (Hex Keypad/Display Version): 
Tape load with labeling . . . lape dump wilh labeling 
. . . examine/change contents of memory . . . insert data 
. . warm start . . examine and change all registers . . . 



single step with register display al each break point . . . 
go to execution address. Level "A" in this version 
makes a perfect controller for industrial applications, 
and is programmed using the Netronics Hex Keypad/ 
Display. It is low cost, perfect for beginners. 
HEX KEYPAD/DISPLAY SPECIFICATIONS 
Calculator type keypad with 24 system-defined and 16 
user-defined keys. Six digil calculator-type display, 
that displays full address plus data as well as register 
and status information. 
LEVEL "B" SPECIFICATIONS 
Level "B" provides the S-100 signals plus buffers/ 
drivers lo support up to six S-100 bus boards, and in- 
cludes: address decoding for onboard 4k RAM expan- 
sion selectable in 4k blocks . . . address decoding for 
onboard 8k EPROM expansion selectable in 8k blocks 
. , . address and data bus drivers for onboard expansion 
. . . wait state generator (jumper selectable), to allow the 
use of slower memories . . . two separate 5 volt regula- 

LEVEL "C" SPECIFICATIONS 

Level "C" expands Explorer/85' s motherboard with a 
card cage, allowing you to plug up to six S-100 cards 
directly into the motherboard. Both cage and card are 
neatly contained inside Explorer's deluxe steel 
cabinet. Level "C" includes a sheet metal superstruc- 
ture, a 5-card. gold plated S-100 extension PC board 
that plugs into the motherboard. |usl add required 
number of S-100 connectors. 




LEVEL "D" SPECIFICATIONS 

Level "D" provides 4k of RAM, power supply regula- 
tion, filtering decoupling components and sockets to 
expand your Explorer/85 memory lo 4k (plus the origi- 



• 2716 PROM socket included 
for use in custom 
applications, 

• Onboard crystal controlled. 

• Onboard I/O baud rate 
generators to 9600 baud. 

• Double-sided PC board 
(glass epoxy.) 

DISK DRIVE CABINET/POWER SUPPLY 

• Deluxe steel cabinet with individual power supply for max- 
imum reliability and stability. 

ORDER A COORDINATED 
EXPLORER/85 APPLICATIONS 
PAR! 

Beginner's Pak (Save $26.00!)— Buy Level "A" (Ter- 
minal Version) wilh Monitor Source Listing and API 
5-amp Power Supply: (regular price $199.95). now at 
SPECIAL PRICE: $169.95 plus post. & insur. 
Experimenter's Pak II (Save $53.40!) — Buy Level 
"A" (Hex Keypad/Display Version) with Hex 
Keypad/Display. Intel 8085 User Manual. Level "A" 
Hex Monitor Source Listing, and AP-1 5-amp Power 
Supply: (regular price $279.35), all al SPECIAL 
PRICE: $219.95 plus post. & insur. 
Special Microsoft BASIC Pak (Save $103.00!) — In- 
cludes Level "A" (Terminal Version). Level "B ", 
Level "□" (4k RAM), Level "E ". 8k Microsoft in 
ROM. Intel 8085 User Manual. Level "A" Monitor 
Source Listing, and AP-1 5-amp Power Supply: (regu- 
lar price $439.70), now yours at SPECIAL PRICE: 
$329.95 plus post. & insur. 

ADD A TERMINAL WITH CABINET, 
GET A FREE RF MODULATOR: Save 
over $114 at this SPECIAL PRICE: $499.95 
plus post. & insur. 
Special 8" Disk Edition Explorer/85 (Save over $104!) 
— Includes disk-version Level "A". Level "B". two 
S-100 connectors and brackets, disk controller. 64k 
RAM, AP-1 5-amp powersupply. Explorer/85 deluxe 
steel cabinet, cabinet fan. 8" SD/DD disk drive from 
famous CONTROL DATA CORP (not a hobby 
brand!), drive cabinet with power supply, and drive 
cable set-up for two drives. This package includes 
everything but terminal and printers (see coupon for 
them). Regular price $1630.30. all yours in kit at 
SPECIAL PRICE: $1499.95 plus post. & insur. Wired 
and tested, only $1799.95. 

Special! Complete Business Software Pak (Save 
$625.00!) — Includes CP/M 2.0. Microsoft BASIC:. 
General Ledger. Accounts Receivable. Accounts 
Payable. Payroll Package: (regular price $1325). vours 
now at SPECIAL PRICE: $699.95. 



Please send the items checked below: 

G Explorer/85 Level "A" kit (Terminal Version). . . $129.95 plus 

$:) post. & insur. 
D Explorer/85 Level "A" kit [ Hex Keypad/Display Version) . . 

$129.95 plus $3 post. & insur. 
: ] 8k Mil result BASIC "i cassette lape. $64.95 postpaid. 
Q Ilk Microsoft BASIC in ROM kit {requires Levels 1)1) anil 

"E") . . $99.95 plus $2 post. S insur. 
n Level "It" IS- IIKII kit $49.95 plus $2 post & insur. 

n Level "C" (S-100 6-card expander | kit $39.95 plus $2 post 

& insur. 
D Level "D" (4k RAM) kit $69.95 plus $2 post. S insur. 
n Level "E" (EPROM/ROM) kit $5.95 plus 50<r p&h 

□ Deluxe Sleel Cabinet fur Kxplorer/85 $40.95 plus $3 post 
K insur. 

□ Fan For Cabinet . . . $15.00 plus $1.50 post- & insur. 

□ ASCII Keyboard/Computer Terminal kit: features a full 128 
character set. u&l case; full cursor control: 75 ohm video 
output: convertible to baudnt output: selectable baud rale. 
RS232-C or 20 ma. I/O. 32 or 64 character by tfi line formats, 
andean be used wilh either a CRT monitor or a TV set (if vou 
have an RF modulator) . . $149.95 plus $3.00 post. S insur. 

□ DeLuxe Steel Cabinet for ASCII keyboard/terminal . 
$19.95 plus $2.50 post. . insur. 

: ; New! Terminal/ Monitor: (See photo) Same features as above 

except 12" monitor with keyboard and terminal is in deluxe 

single cabinet, kit . . . $399.95 plus $7 post. & insur. 

D Ha/.elline terminals: ( )ur prices loo low to quote — CALL US 

G Lear-Slgler terminals/printers: Our prices too low lo quote: 

CALL US 
] Hex Keypad/Display kit $69.95 plus $2 ■ ,v insur. 



□ AP-1 PowerSupply KII±8V ©5 amps) in deluxe steel cabinet 

. $39.95 plus $2 post. & insur. 
a Gold Plated S- 100 Bus Connectors $4.85 each, postpaid 

□ RF Modulator kfl I allows you to use your TV set as a monitor) 
...$8.95 postpaid. 

G 16k RAM klllS too board expands lo 64k) . $199.95 plus $2 

post & insur. 
D 32k RAM kit $299.95 plus $2 post. & insur. 

□ 48k RAM kit $399.95plus $2 posl.it insur. 
[ j 64k RAM kit $499.95 plus $2 post. & insur. 

D 1 6k RAM Expansion kit (to expand anv of the above in 16k 

blocks up to 64k) . . $99.95 plus $2 post. & insur. each 
: : Intel 8085 cpu Users' Manual . $7.50 postpaid. 
a 12" Video Monitor (lOMHz bandwidth) . . $139.95 plus $5 

post. & insur. 
D Beginner's Pak (see above) $169.95 plus $4 post. & insur. 
n Experimenter's Pak (see above] $219.95 plus $6 post. & 

insur. 
G Special Microsoft BASIC Pak Without Terminal i set :ah nve| 

$329.95 plus $7 post. & insur. 
D Same as above, plus ASCII Keyboard Terminal With Cabinet, 

Gel Free RF Modulator (see above) . $499.95 plus $10 pest. 

& insur 

a Special 8" Disk Edition Explorer/85 (see above) $1498.95 

plus S26 posl. & insur 

D Wired &Tesled . , $1799.95 plus $26 post. K insur. 
O Extra 8" CDC Floppy Drives . $499.95 plus $12 post & insur. 
D Cabinet & Power Supply For Drive S69.95 plus $3 post & 

insur. 

□ Drive Cable Set -up For Two Drives $25 plus $1.50 post. & 
insur. 



G Disk Controller Board Wilh I/O Ports $199.95 plus $2 posl 

& insur. 
G Special: Complete Business Software Pak (see above) . . 

$699.96 postpaid. 
SOLD SEPARATF.LY 

GCP/M 1.4. $IOOposlpaid. 

G CP/M 2.0 $150 postpaid. 

G Microsoft BASIC $325 postpaid 

G Intel 8085 cpu User Manual 87.50 postpaid. 
G Level "A" Monitor Source Lisllng I3S postpaid, 
^g* Continental USA Credit (ard Buyers Outside Connecticut gw 

m CALL TOLL FREE: 800-24:1-7428 m 

|H To Order From Connecticut Or For Technical ^V 
™ Assistance, call (203) 354-9375 ~ 

Total Enclosed (Conn res. add sales tax) S 

Paid By: 

D Personal Check D Cashier's Check/Money Order 

□ VISA □ Master Charge (Bank No . ) 

Accl. No. Exp. Date 

Signature 

Print 

Name 

Address 

Citt 



Sly_ 



15b 



.Zip- 



NETRONICS Research & Development Lid. 
333 Litchfield Road, New Milford, CT 06776 



Circle 108 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE November 1980 



181 



Circle 109 on Inquiry card. 



CP/M® 
SOFTWARE 

8080 Emulator 

RAID is a software-based system rivaling 
hardware emulators costing thousands of 
dollars. RAID is absolutely the most ad- 
vanced and sophisticated debugging sys- 
tem ever developed for a computer. Fully 
symbolic, including labels, operands and 
op-code mnemonics, RAID combines 
real-time and emulation modes in a single 
package. Tracing by prime path, indi- 
vidual instructions, subroutines and 
breakpoints is supported. Special feature 
allows emulation and real-time modes to 
function together for high speed emula- 
tions. Other features include memory 
search facilities, disk access by track and 
sector, single-step, multi-step, block 
move, user-selectable radix, etc. Over 70 
commands in all. Requires 24K min. 
CP/M® 2 system. 

Raid $250 

Manual only $ 25 



ISIS 1 Conversion 

ISIS 1 to CP/M® conversion utilities permit 
CP/M® users to read or write files to or 
from an ISIS 1 diskette. The package con- 
sists of three utility programs that read, 
write and display the ISIS 1 directory. 

ISIS' - CP/M® Utilities $250 

Manual only $ 5 



Floating Point Package 

'FPP' is a set of 8080 assembly language 
subroutines that provide 12 digit BCD 
arithmetic functions for add, subtract, 
multiply, and divide. BCD arithmetic 
means no conversion errors and minimal 
conversion time. Source code is supplied 
on standard 8" diskette. 

FPP on CP/M* diskette $200 

FPP on ISIS' diskette $200 

Manual only $ 10 



/ISIS is a trademark o( Intel Corporation. 
"CP/M* is a registered trademark of Digital Re- 
search. 




SOUTHERN 
COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS, 
Inc. 



586 Shades Crest Road 
Birmingham, Al. 

Send check or money order to: 
P.O. Box 3373 A 
Birmingham, Al. 35205 
Phone:205 933-1659 



Computer Model 

Apple II 

Atari 400 and 800 

Commodore PET 
Compucolor II 
Exidy Sorcerer 
Radio Shack TRS-80 



Text: 
Lines by 
Characters 

24 by 40 

24 by 40 

25 by 40 
32 by 64 
30 by 64 
16 by 64 



Texas Instruments TI-99/4 24 by 32 



Graphics: 

Aspect 

Method Resolution Ratio 

Subcell 40 by 48 4:3 

Mapping 280 by 192 4:3 

Subcell 160 by 80 8:5 

Mapping 280 by 192 4:3 

Special 320 by 200 4:3 

Subcell 128 by 128 4:3 

Special 512 by 240 4:3 

Subcell 128 by 48 4:3 

Special 256 by 192 4:3 



No 
of 

16 
6 

16 
4 



Color: 

Method 

NTSC 
NTSC 

NTSC 
NTSC 



8 R-G-B 



16 NTSC 



Table 1: A summary of some of the features available in personal computer 
displays. The graphics capabilities of available personal computers differ, and no 
one model seems to have a clear advantage. NTSC (National Television System 
Committee) indicates that American-standard color-video conventions are used. 
R-G-B indicates that separate red, green, and blue video signals are sent to the 
monitor. 



which is actually all present on the 
page simultaneously, into a sequence 
of words that follow one another in 
time. In a similar fashion, the raster- 
scan process converts a picture into a 
sequence of rapidly changing signal 
levels which represent the brightness 
of successive points on each scanning 
line. 

When this rapidly changing signal 
is picked up by a television-receiving 
set, it is converted back into a visible 
raster on the screen of the picture 
tube. The neck of the picture tube 
contains an electron gun that projects 
a beam of electrons onto a thin layer 
of phosphor on the inside of the 
screen. Wherever the electron beam 
strikes the phosphor it produces a 
spot of light whose brightness 
depends on the intensity of the signal 
being received. 

If the electron beam is swept across 
the screen so that the spot of light is 
always in the same relative position 
as the scanning dot in the camera, the 
picture will be recreated on the 
screen. The circuits in the television 
set controlling the position of the 
beam must be able to keep in step 
with the camera, so the picture infor- 
mation is interrupted for a short time 
at the end of each line (and for a 
longer time at the end of each frame). 
During these intervals the signal is 
changed to an intensity level that is 
never used for picture information, 
thus creating synchronization pukes 
that the television circuits can 
distinguish from the picture signal. 

In this country, the repetition rate 
for the picture-scanning process was 



set at 60 scans per second so that in- 
terference from the 60 Hz AC power 
line will be synchronized; that is, any 
visible interference effect will stand 
still on the screen and be less 
noticeable than it would be if it were 
moving. Scanning the entire picture 
60 times per second amounts to a lot 
of information per unit of time, and 
thus requires a very wide bandwidth. 
The television designers discovered 
that they could cut the bandwidth 
requirement in half by making the 
camera scan every other line during 
alternate scanning cycles called fields. 
Two successive fields cover all the 
lines in the raster 30 times each 
second, to make a frame. (See figure 
1.) Since the lines of the two alternate 
fields mesh between each other, this 
technique is called interlaced scan- 
ning. 

This seems like a rather com- 
plicated way of getting 30 frames per 
second, and you may be wondering 
whether television wouldn't work just 
as well with a straightforward scan of 
the entire raster, 30 times per second. 
This concept is fine as far as the 60 Hz 
power-line interference is concerned, 
but 30 frames per second is too slow 
for the human eye to merge the image 
into a continuous picture without 
noticeable flicker. If you are familiar 
with filmed motion pictures, you 
know that they are projected at only 
24 frames per second, but a shutter 
interrupts each frame so that the ef- 
fective flicker rate is actually 48 
frames per second, fast enough for 
motion to appear continuous. 

There are other factors which also 



182 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 110 on Inquiry card. 



Data Terminals From 

MICROMAIL? YES, 



Because We Offer. . . . 



... A 'Personal Approach' 



Towards the Quick and Efficient 
Handling of Your Individual 
Order. 



. . . Inventory. 



The Equipment You Select is 
Readily Available from Our Stock. 



...Terminals Onlv. 



We Specialize in Data Terminal 
Equipment. 



Z^7lsM E W 




DIABLO 630 

• Uses metalized or plastic print 
wheels. 

• Automatic bi-directional printing. 

• Maximum print speed is 40 
characters/second. 

• Variable column spacing, 120 posi- 
tions/inch. 

• Variable line spacing, 48 posi- 
tions/inch. 

• Forms control; bi-direcitonal paper 
feed; horizontal, and vertical tabs; 
left, right, top and bottom margins. 

$1999.00 

Optional Forms Tractor - $200.00 



DIABLO 1650 

• Prints at 40 cps, using 88, 92, or 96 
char, metalized printwheels. 

• Vertical resolution 1/48". Horizon- 
tal 1/120". Capable of proportional 
spacing, bidirectional printing, and 
graphics under software control. 

• Bidirectional normal and direct 
tabs. Left, right, top and bottom 
margins. _ _ >._-__ __ 

R.O. $2890.00 
KSR $3155.00 



DIABLO 1640 

• Uses plastic printwheel and prints 
at 45 cps. Otherwise, shares iden- 
tical features with 1650 including: 

- Friction or tractor feed, up to 
15" wide. 

— Cartridge ribbon, fabric or 

carbon R.O. $2745.00 
KSR $3050.00 



• Includes upper/lower case option. 

• Bidirectional printing at 150 cps. 

• Tractor-feed forms, 3" to 15" wide. 

$1599.00 

Options: 

— Forms length control -$100.00 

— Vertical Format Control with 
Compressed Print-$125.00 




DECwriter 



LA 34 



(Shown with optional forms tractor and 
numeric keypad). 

• Prints 10, 12, 13.2, or 16.5 
characters per inch, upper/lower 
case. 

• 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 lines per inch. 

• Friction feed, paper width to 15 
inches. AM«M. «« 

Options: $ 96900 

- Numeric keypad — $80.00 

— Adjustable forms tractor — 
$130.00 TVj 

I Model 'AA' $1,099.00 



, More Performance /or Your | 




SOROC 



Displays 80 x 24, upper/lower 
case. 

Separate numeric keypad and 
cursor keys. 

Protected fields displayed at 
reduced intensity. 

$689.00 



MO , re Than f I. 810! 

Dollar Than ••'■ » 




ANADEX DP-9500/9501 

• High Density Graphics 

• Parallel, RS-232C, and Current 
Loop interfaces standard. 

• Double width printing 

• 132/175 or 132/220 columns. 

• 50 to 220+ lines/min., 150/200 
CPS 9x7/7x9 font or 120/200 
CPS with 11x9/7x9 font. 

• 9-wire print head, 650 million 
character life. 

• Bi-Directional printing with 
shortest distance sensing logic. 

• Adjustable width tractor paper 

Call For Low Price 




SOROC 



IQ140 



117-key detachable keyboard 
with numeric cluster and cursor 
control. 

Insert/delete line, insert/delete 
character. 

Underline, blink, reverse, Vi in- 
tensity, protected and blank 
fields. 

Printer port with independent 
baud rate -prints line, partial or 
full screen. 



$1099.00 



eKHCHQKIfHLd 



MICROMAIL • BOX 3297 • SANTA ANA, CA 92703 
(714) 731-4338 



TELEVIDEO 912/920 

• Insert/delete line, insert/delete 
character, line/page erase. 

• Reverse video, blinking, 
underline, Vi intensity, pro- 
tected field, blank security field. 

• Uses 7x10 dot matrix for a 
high quality u/l case display 
with descenders. 

• Standard typewriter or teletype 
keyboard; numeric keypad. 

• Model 920 includes 17 
dedicated keys for function and 
editing. 

• Block or character transmis- 
sion, auxiliary printer port. 

• Cursor up, down, left, right 
return, home, load, read, tab 
and back tab. 

Call For Low Price 




TELETYPE 43 

• Prints 1 32 columns, upper/lower 
case with true descenders. 

• 30 character/second print speed. 
1 10-300 baud. 

• Uses 12" wide by 8.5" pinfeed 
paper. 

• Print position scale, paper guide 
and supply rack. 

$999.00 



Write or Call In for Our 
Free Catalogue! 



TO ORDER: Send check or money order to: MICROMAIL, P.O. 
Box 3297, Santa Ana, CA 92703. Personal or company checks 
require two weeks to clear. All equipment includes factory 
warranty. 



SHIPPING: We ship freight collect by UPS when possible. Larger 
terminals are shipped by motor freight. Air and express delivery 
is available on all products. 



HANDLING: All orders are subject to MICROMAILs handling 
charges. Less than $750.00, add 3%. $750.00 to $2 000 00 
add 2%. Over $2,000.00. add 1%. 



Circle 111 on inquiry card. 

CIRCLE COMPUTER SALES 
Discount computer brokers 
Northern California's Finest! 



THINKERTOYS® 

Discus M26® 26 Megabyte Disk 
The best S100 Winchester disk 
system on the market 
Discus® 2D Dbl Dens 8" Floppy 

600K bytes per drive 
Discus® 2 + 2 Dbl Side 8" Floppy 
1200K bytes per drive 
(All Thinkertoys disk systems 
include CP/M® at no charge) 
Add-on Dbl-Dens 8" Disk Drive 
Add-on Dbl-Side 8" Disk Drive 
Disk Jockey® 2D Controller 
16K SuperRam® Static RAM 
32K SuperRam® Static RAM 
16K MemoryMaster Bank-Select 
24K MemoryMaster Bank-Select 
Switchboard Serial/Parallel I/O 
DECISION IR Computer System 

NORTH STAR COMPUTERS 

HORIZON® 2 Drive 32K D/D 
HORIZON® 2 Drive 32K Quad 
HDS-18 18-Megabyte Hard Disk 
RAM32 32K Dynamic RAM 
RAM 16 16K Dynamic RAM 
NorthStar Application Software 

GODBOUT ELECTRONICS 

Z80 Processor - 4Mhz, POJ, 

EPROM, Interrupts 
Dual Processor - 8085/8088 

Ease into 16-bit processing 
Econoram IIA8K Static RAM 

... OLD RELIABLE 
Econoram XIV 16K Static RAM 
Econoram XX 32K Static RAM 

bank-select or extended addressing 

very low power . . a great buy 
Interfacer I Dual Serial I/O 

A very flexible board 

Full RS232 handshaking 
Interfacer II Serial/Parallel I/O 

PRINTERS 

Diablo 630 - The low-cost DAISY 

These will be hard to get 
NEC 5515 RO Serial Interface 

Diablo-compatible interface 

USED ALPHA MICROS 
TERMINALS 



List 


Our 


Price 


Price 


4995 


4089 


1199 


999 


1545 


1299 


795 


669 


1195 


999 


429 


365 


349 


295 


699 


585 


399 


335 


549 


465 


259 


217 




call 


3095 


2537 


3595 


2947 


4999 


4097 


739 


599 


499 


419 




call 


295 


249 


425 


359 


189 


158 


349 


295 


699 


594 



249 207 



249 207 



2695 



2850 



2395 
2499 

Call 



Hazeltine 1420 995 


895 


Hazeltine 1500 1225 


1049 


Televideo 920C 975 


877 


MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 




DM6400 64K Dynamic RAM 895 


657 


DMB 64K Dynamic Bank-Select RAM 1 195 


857 


Excellent reliability, low cost, 




low power ... a good buy 




ALTOS 




ACS8000-2 64K Dbl-Dens, Sgl-Sided 4500 


3995 


ACS8000-5 64K DEMO . . . 5990 


4795 


can upgrade to 4 users and hard disk 




MICRO PRO 




Word Star 495 


379 


Super Sort 250 


189 


Data Star 350 


269 


Mail Merge (Requires Word Star) 150 


119 



Prices subject to change without notice. Delivery subject to availability. 

Circle Computer Sales 

700 Larkspur Landing Circle 

Larkspur, CA 94939 

415-461-2616 

184 November 1980 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Figure 1: A comparison of the interlaced (la) and noninterlaced (lb) raster-scanning 
schemes. The standard home television receiver displays a picture made up of two alter- 
nating fields, each composed of 262V2 lines. The lines are interlaced to produce a high- 
resolution picture that can be transmitted on a narrow bandwidth signal. 



complicate video-display timing. The 
vertical-retrace interval provides time 
for the television circuits to return the 
scanning dot to the top of the screen 
after each field has been completed. 
Since no picture information should 
be viewed during this time, the elec- 
tron beam must be turned off or 
blanked: so, this time is also called 
the vertical-blanking interval. 

A complete frame consists of two 
field scans and two vertical-retrace 
intervals. Television in the United 
States uses a total of 525 lines per 
frame or 262.5 lines per field. Each 
vertical retrace uses 21 lines, leaving 
241.5 lines per field for the transmis- 
sion of picture information. The odd 
half -line per field is necessary in order 
to make the lines of alternate fields in- 
terlace properly. 

At 30 frames per second, 525 lines 
per frame is equivalent to 15,750 lines 
per second or 63.5 (is per line. Since 
all the lines are scanned in the same 
direction, the scanning dot must be 
returned across the screen between 
the end of one line and the start of the 
next. This is called horizontal retrace 
and takes about 15 fis. 

Video Monitor Versus the 
Standard Receiver 

So that the engineers at the televi- 
sion station can monitor the quality 
of the sign